Advertisement

Transducers and Actuators

  • Edward B. Magrab
Part of the Environmental and Energetics Series book series (ENERGETICS SER.)

Abstract

Sensors are devices that convert physical quantities such as displacement, temperature, strain, etc., to an electrical change (voltage, resistance, capacitance, inductance or current) that can be measured. Transducers are considered the combination of the sensor plus any mechanical element plus any signal conditioning circuitry such that the output voltage is related to the physical quantity. Sensors are either self-generating (active) or passive. Self-generating sensors convert mechanical, thermal, chemical, or optical energy into electrical energy. Passive sensors on the other hand require electrical energy to be supplied in order for them to convert the physical energy into electrical energy. In addition sensors that convert the physical quantity directly into electrical energy are called direct converters. Examples of self-generating direct converters are thermocouples and piezoelectric materials. When another physical process intervenes prior to the electrical conversion the sensor is referred to as an indirect converter. Examples of passive direct converters are potentiometers, strain gages and differential transformers (LVDTs). Examples of passive indirect converters are capacitor microphones and load cells.

Keywords

Heat Exchanger Output Voltage Strain Gage Heat Pump Ring Seal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Benedict, R. P., Fundamentals of Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Measurements, 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bentley, J. P., Principles of Measurement Systems, 2nd Ed., Longman Scientific and Technical, England (Co-published with John Wiley and Sons, New York ), 1988.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beranek, L. L., Acoustics, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1954.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boldea, I., and Nasar, S. A., Linear Motion Electromagnetic Systems, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bouche, R. R., Calibration of Shock and Vibration Measuring Transducers, The Shock and Vibration Information Center, Washington, DC, 1979.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bouche, R. R., “Accelerometers for Shock and Vibration Measurements,” in Vibration Testing-Instrumentation and Data Analysis, E. B. Magrab and O. A. Shinaishin, Eds., ASME Publication AMD Vol. 12, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buzdugan, G., Mihailescu, E., and Rades, M., Vibration Measurement, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, Holland, 1986.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dally, J. W., and Riley, W. F., Experimental Stress Analysis, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dally, J. W., Riley, W. F., and McConnell, K. G., Instrumentation for Engineering Measurements, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dereniak, E. L., and Crowe, D. G., Optical Radiation Detectors, John Wiley and Sons New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Doebelin, E. O., Measurement Systems: Applications and Design, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Estler, W. T, and Magrab, E. B., “Validation Metrology of the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine”, National Bureau of Standards Report NBSIR 85-3182(R), Gaithersburg, Maryland, June, 1985.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fingerson, L. M., and Freymuth, P., “Thermal Anemometers”, in Fluid Mechanics Measurements, R. J. Goldstein, Ed., Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, DC, 1983.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Herceg, E. E., Handbook of Measurement and Control, Shaevitz Engineering, Pennsauken, New Jersey, 1983.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holman, J. P., Experimental Methods for Engineers, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1989.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hordeski, M. E., Transducers for Automation, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Johnson, C. D., Process Control Instrumentation Technology; 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karditsas, P., “Blow Down Tests for the Calibration of Nozzles, Orifices and Short Pipes”, MS Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Mary-land, 1982.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kenjo, T., Stepping Motors and Their Microprocessor Controls, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Keyes, R. J., Ed., Optical Infrared Detectors, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 1977.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krause, P. C., and Wasynczrik, O., Electromechanical Motion Devices, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1989.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Krohn, D. A., Fiber Optic Sensors: Fundamentals and Applications, Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 1988.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Loxton, R., and Pope, P., Eds., Instrumentation: A Reader, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, England, 1986.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Luxmoore, A. R., Optical Transducers and Techniques in Engineering Measurement, Applied Science Publishers, London, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lyons, J. L., The Designer’s Handbook of Pressure Sensing Devices, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Magrab, E. B., Environmental Noise Control, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Malmstadt, H. V., and Enke, C. G., Digital Electronics for Scientists, W. A. Benjamin, Inc., New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    McGee, T. D., Principles and Methods of Temperature Measurement, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mylroi, M. G., and Calvert, G., Measurement and Instrument for Control, Peter Peregrines Ltd., London, 1984.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Neubert, H. K. P., Instrument Transducers, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Norton, H. N., Handbook of Transducers for Electric Measuring Systems, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nunley, W., and Bechtel, J. S., Infrared Optoelectronics, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Oliver, F. J., Practical Instrumentation Transducers, Hayden Book Co., New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ozisik, M. N., Heat Conduction, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Penzias, G. J., “Spectroscopic Measurements of Flame Radiation for Improved Combustion Control”, 9th National Power Instrumentation Symposium, Detroit, Michigan, May 16–18, 1966.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ratz, A. G., and Bartlett, F. R., Vibration Simulation Using Electrodynamic Exciters”, in Vibration Testing-Instrumentation and Data Analysis, E. B. Magrab and O. A. Shinaishin, Eds., ASME Publication AMD Vol. 12, 1975.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Robinson, D. C., Serbyn, M. R., and Payne, B. F., “A Description of NBS Calibration Services in Mechanical Vibration and Shock”, NBS TN1232, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, February, 1987.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schmidt, V. A., Edelman, S., Smith, E. R., and Jones, E., “Optical Calibration of Vibration Pickups at Small Amplitude,” Journal Acoustical Society of America, 33, 6, pp. 748–751, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schmidt, V. A., Edelman, S., Smith, E. R., and Pierce, E. T., “Modulated Photoelectric Measurement of Vibration,” Journal Acoustical Society of America, 34, 4, pp. 455–458, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schooley, J. F., Thermometry, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1986.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Seippel, R. G., Transducers, Sensors and Detectors, Reston Publishing Co., Reston, Virginia, 1983.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Seippel, R. G., Transducer Interfacing: Signal Conditioning for Process Control, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1988.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sheingold, D. H., Ed., Transducer Interfacing Handbook, Analog Devices Inc., Norwood, Massachusetts, 1980.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Trietley, H. L., Transducers in Mechanical and Electronic Design, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Usher, M. J., Sensors and Transducers, Macmillan, London, 1985.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wobschall, D., Circuit Design for Electronic Instrumentation, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book co., New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Woolvet, G. A., Transducers in Digital Systems, Peter Pereguinus Ltd, Southgate House, Stevenage, Herts., England, 1977.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Catalog #8000, “Programmable Motion Control”, Compumotor Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Petaluma, California, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward B. Magrab
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Mechanical EngineeringCollege of Engineering University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations