Advertisement

Origin and Development of the Indian Ocean

  • Ganpat Singh Roonwal

Abstract

The history of science is full of bold hypotheses, many of which have proved to be true. This was so with the concept of continental drift, which holds that all the continents were once joined in a single great landmass, named Pangaea, “all land,” the name proposed by A. Wegener in the 1920’s. This universal continent was somehow broken apart and its fragments — the continents of today — eventually drifted to their present location. The notion that continents can drift thousands of kilometers in a few hundred million years is now generally accepted, based on data from geology and geophysics. The large landmass of Pangaea became the two supercontinents of Laurasia and Gondwanaland; the landmasses were juxtaposed before the opening of either the Atlantic or the Indian Ocean. Based on studies of the relative motion of the landmasses involved, Fig. 2.1 presents a reconstruction of the dismemberment of the southern supercontinent of Gondwanaland, with diagrams showing the break up and subsequent dispersion of the continents over the past 180 million years: the Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Cenozoic periods.

Keywords

Indian Ocean Fracture Zone Abyssal Plain Continental Rise Kerguelen Plateau 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barazangi M, Dorman J (1969) World seismicity maps compiled from ESS A Coast and Geodetic Survey epicentre data. Bull Seism Soc Am 59:369Google Scholar
  2. Bunce ET, Langseth MG, Chase RL, Ewing M (1967) Structure of the Western Somali Basin. J Geophys Res 72:2547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bungenstock H, Closs H, Hinz K (1977) Seismische Untersuchungen im nördlichen Teil des Arabischen Meers (Golf von Oman). Erdöl, Kohle, Erdgas, Petrochem 19(4):237–243Google Scholar
  4. Davies D, Francis JG (1964) The crusted structure of the Seychelles Bank. Deep-Sea Res 11:921 –927Google Scholar
  5. Dietz RS, Holden JC (1970) The breakup of Pangaea. Sci Am 223(4):30–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ewing J, Ewing M (1967) Sediment distribution on the mid-ocean ridges with respect to spreading of the sea floor. Science 156:1590–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ewing M, Heezen BC (1960) Continuity of mid-oceanic ridge and rift valley in the south western Indian Ocean confirmed. Science 131:1677–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ewing M, Eittreim S, Truchan M, Ewing JE (1969) Sediment distribution in the Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res 16:231–248Google Scholar
  9. Fisher RL, Johnson GL, Heezen BC (1967) Mascarene Plateau, Western Indian Ocean. Geol Soc Am Bull 78:1247–1266Google Scholar
  10. Fisher RL, Sclater JG, McKenzie DP (1971) The evolution of the Central Indian Ridge, Western Indian Ocean. Bull Geol Soc Am 82:553Google Scholar
  11. Francis TJG, Shor GG (1966) Seismic refraction measurements in the Northwest Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res 71:427–449Google Scholar
  12. Francis TJG, Davies D, Hill MN (1966) Crustal structure between Kenya and the Seychelles. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 259:240–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glass B (1968) Correlation of Pliocene and Pleistocene events in deep-sea sediments by geomagnetic reversals. Ph D Thesis, Columbia Univ (unpubl)Google Scholar
  14. Heezen BC, Tharp M (1965) Tectonic fabric of Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Continental Drift. In: Blackett PMS, Bullard EC, Runcorn SK (eds) Symposium on continental drift. Philos Trans R Soc London A 258:90–108Google Scholar
  15. Heezen BC, Tharp M (1966) Physiography of the Indian Ocean. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 259:137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kolla V, Kidd RB (1982) Sedimentation and sedimentary processes in the Indian Ocean. In: Narin AEM, Stehli FG (eds) The Ocean Basins and Margins, vol 6. The Indian Ocean. Plenum, New York, pp 1–50Google Scholar
  17. Ku TL, Broecker WS, Opdyke ND (1968) Comparison of sedimentation rates measured by palaeomagnetic and ionium methods of age determination. Earth Planet Sci Lett 47:1–17Google Scholar
  18. La Pichon X (1968) Sea floor spreading and continental drift. J Geophys Res 73:3661–3697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. La Pichon X, Heirtzler JR (1968) Magnetic anomalies in the Indian Ocean sea floor spreading. J Geophys Res 73:2101–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Langseth MG, Taylor PT (1967) Recent heat flow measurement in the Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res 72:6249–6260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Laughton AS (1966) The Gulf of Aden. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 259:150–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Laughton AS, Matthews DH, Fischer RL (1970) The structure of the Indian Ocean. In: Maxwell AE (ed) The sea, vol 4. Wiley Interscience, New York, pp 543–586Google Scholar
  23. Lisitzin AP (1960) Bottom sediment of the eastern Antarctic and Southern Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res 7:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matthews DH (1963) A major fault scarp under the Arabian Sea displacing the Carlsberg ridge near Socotra. Nature 198:950–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matthews DH, Vine FC, Cann JR (1965) Geology of an area of the Carlsberg ridge, Indian Ocean. Bull Geol Soc Am 76:675–682Google Scholar
  26. McElhinney MW (1970) The formation of the Indian Ocean. Nature 228:977–979 (Dec. issue)Google Scholar
  27. McKenzie DP, Sclater JG (1971) The evolution of the Indian Ocean since the late Cretaceous. Geophys JR Astro Soc 24:437–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McKenzie DP, Sclater JC (1973) The evolution of the Indian Ocean. Sci Am 228(5):62–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Opdyke ND, Glass BP (1969) The paleomagnetism of the sediment cores from the Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res 16:249–261Google Scholar
  30. Pitman WC, Heirtzler JR (1966) Magnetic anomalies over the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Science 154:1164–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Saito R, Fray C (1964) Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments from the southwestern Indian Ocean. Spec Pub Geol Soc Am 82:171–172Google Scholar
  32. Shor GC, Pollard DD (1963) Scientific investigations of Seychelles and Saya de Malhe bank, northwest Indian Ocean. Science 142:48–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Udintsev GB (1975) (ed) Geological-geophysical atlas of the Indian Ocean. Acad Sci USSR, Moscow, 152 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Vine FJ (1966) Spreading of the sea floor: new evidence. Science 154:1405–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vine FJ, Matthews DH (1963) Magnetic anomalies over oceanic ridges. Nature 199:947–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ganpat Singh Roonwal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations