On the ocean floor lie vast quantities of mineral reserves. Among the primary mineral resources presently known are rich deposits of metalliferous mud and manganese nodules comprising zinc, copper, silica, lead, nickel, and cobalt and others such as phosphates. Common salt, magnesium, and bromine have long been extracted from sea water; sand and gravel, tin-bearing sands, magnetite sands and calcium carbonate are already being mined.


Indian Ocean Oceanic Crust Ocean Basin Ocean Floor Abyssal Plain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bäcker H, Schoell M (1972) New deeps with brines and metalliferous sediments in the Red Sea. Nature 240, 103:153–158Google Scholar
  2. Blissenbach E, Feilerer R (1973) Continental drift and the origin of certain mineral deposits. Geol Rundsch 62:812–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bramwell M (ed) (1977) The Mitchell Beazley atlas of the oceans. Mitchel Beazley, London, 208 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Domros M (1984) India: the population explosion and demographic ehange. Applied Geogr Dev 24:74–90Google Scholar
  5. Drake CL, Ewing JI, Stockard H (1968) The continental margins of the eastern United States. Can J Earth Sci 5:993–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Emery KO (1969) Continental rises and oil potential. Oil Gas J 67:231–243Google Scholar
  7. Heezen BC, Tharp M (1965) Tectonic fabric of the Atlantic and Indian Ocean and continental drift. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 258:90–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heselton LR Jr (1968) The Continental Shelf. Institute of Naval Studies, CAN research contribution No 106, Dec. 1968, p 8Google Scholar
  9. Menard HW (1964) The marine geology of the Pacific. McGraw Hill, New York, 271 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Mero JL (1965) The mineral resources of the sea. Elsevier, Amsterdam 312 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Qasim SZ (1983) A technological forecast of ocean research in India. Impact UNESCO 3/4:463–477Google Scholar
  12. Seibold E (1973) Rezente submarinen Metallogenese. Geol Rundsch 62:641–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Skinner BJ (1969) Earth resources. Prentice Hall, New York, 150 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Weeks LG (1971) Marine geology and petroleum resources. Proc 8th World Petrol Congr, vol 2. Moscow, pp 99–106Google Scholar
  15. Wenk E Jr (1969) The physical resources of the ocean. Sci Am 221 (3): 166–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ganpat Singh Roonwal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations