• K. S. Spiegler


The purpose of this chapter is (a) to express the available energy (exergy) of systems (i.e., the maximum work obtainable, given a specified environment) in terms of famihar parameters, which can often be found in thermodynamic tables, and (b) to relate the loss of exergy in irreversible processes to the concomitant increase of entropy. Also, since the loss of exergy from a given system usually translates into a loss of monetary value of the system, elementary considerations about the relations between exergy and capital costs of processes (thermoeconomics) are introduced.


Heat Flow Control Volume Reservoir Temperature Exergy Destruction Reversible Engine 
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Selected Literature

Texts and Articles Dealing Entirely with Exergetic Analysis

  1. Kaiser V (1981) Exergy — optimizing every kernel of energy in a system. Chem Eng 88: (No 4) 62MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. Moran MJ (1981) Availability analysis; a guide to efficient energy use. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahern AE (1980) The exergy method for energy systems analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Evans RB, Crellin GL, Tribus M (1980) In: Spiegier KS, Laird ADK (eds) Principles of desalination. 2nd edn, Ch 1, Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Gaggioli RA (1980) Thermodynamics: Second law analysis. Am Chem Soc Symp Ser 122: Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Sussman MV (1980) Availability (exergy) analysis (a self-instruction manual). Mulliken House, 1361 Massachusetts Ave, Lexington, Mass 02173Google Scholar

Literature on Basic Aspects of the Exergy function

  1. Soma J, Morris HN (1982) Exergy management. In: Payne FW (ed) Energy, economics, policy and management. (Assoc Energy Eng Atlanta Ga)Google Scholar
  2. Oaki H, Ishida M, Ikawa T (1981) Structured process energy-exergy flow diagram and ideality index for analysis of energy transformation in chemical processes (Part I). J Jap Petrol Inst 24:36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Silver RS (1981) Reflexions sur la puissance chaleurique du feu. Heat Recov Sys 1:205 Despite the title, which was chosen in honor of Carnot’s classical work, this article is in the English language. It defines thermergy, i. e., the heat flow into a building obtainable from a high-temperature source by entirely reversible processes (see Sect. II.E.2.a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Van Lier JJC (1978) Bewertung der Energieumwandlung bei der Strom- und/oder Wärmeerzeugung. Brennst Wärme-Kraft 30:475Google Scholar
  5. Haywood RW (1974) See literature list for Chapter IGoogle Scholar
  6. Baehr HD (1966) See literature list for Chapter IGoogle Scholar
  7. Bosnjakovic F (1965) Technical thermodynamics. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York The last chapter of this text is an elementary introduction to exergetic analysis.Google Scholar
  8. Glansdorff P (1957) Sur la fonction dite d’“exergie” et son emploi en climatisation. Suppl Bull Int Cold Inst, Commiss 3 and 6, Padua, Annexes 1957-2Google Scholar
  9. Rant Z (1956) Exergie, ein neues Wort für technische Arbeitsfähigkeit. Forschg Geb Ingenieurwes 22:36Google Scholar
  10. Van Lerberghe G, Glansdorff P (1932) Le rendement maximum des machines thermiques. Excerpts Puhl Associa Eng Mining School Mons No 42Google Scholar
  11. Stodola A (1910) Dampfturbinen. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Gouy J (1889) J Phys Théor Appl 2nd ser 8:501 An early classical contribution explaining the properties of exergy (énergie utilisable) and predicting its importance in practical energetics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Some Sociological and Environmental Aspects of Thermoeconomics

  1. Verhagen FC (1982) Sociologists and energy engineers. Energy Eng 79:(No 4) 5 (Assoc Energy Eng Atlanta, Ga)Google Scholar
  2. Henderson H (1978) Creating alternative futures. GP Putnam’s Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Odum HT (1978) Energy analysis, energy quality and environment. In: Gilliland MW (ed) Symposium No 9 Energy analysis: a new public-policy tool. Am Assoc Advanc Sci, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  4. Georgescu-Roegen N (1971) The entropy law and the economic process. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MassGoogle Scholar
  5. Hubbert MK (1971) Energy resources of the earth. Sci Am 224:(No 3) 61 SeptGoogle Scholar

Other Relevant Literature

  1. Bejan A (1982) Entropy generation through heat transfer and fluid flow. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Grant EL, Ireson WG, Leavenworth RS (1976) Principles of engineering economy. 6th edn, Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Perry RH, Chilton CH (eds) (1973) Chemical engineer’s handbook. 5th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York. See section on electrodialysis Google Scholar
  4. Prigogine I (1967) See literature list for Chapter IGoogle Scholar
  5. Dugdale I (1965) Direct generation of electricity. Spring KH (ed) Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Silver RS (1962) A review of distillation processes for fresh-water production from the sea. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim/Bergstraße Fed Rep Germany, Dechema Monogr 47:19Google Scholar
  7. Lewis GN, Randall M (1923) See literature list for Chapter I This classical text stresses the application of the Gibbs function, G, which takes the place of exergy, when system and reservoir are at the same temperature and pressure.Google Scholar
  8. Lotka AJ (1922) Contributions to the energetics of evolution. Proc Nad Acad Sci (USA) 8:147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Spiegler
    • 1
  1. 1.College of EngineeringUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

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