A Method for Local Evaluation of the Volume of Rapidly Exchangeable Water in the Human Brain

  • J. C. Depresseux

Abstract

The quest for optimal accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and spatial and temporal resolution of the measurements, combined with considerations of feasibility and noninvasiveness has led physiologists and biomathematicians to design many different methodological approaches to the determination of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in man by means of externally detected radioactive inert indicators. Those methods are all based upon variants of the model initially designed by Kety and Schmidt (1948) to describe the kinetics of nitrous oxide in the whole brain.

Keywords

Permeability Methane Dioxide Dementia Radionuclide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ackerman RH, Correia JA, Alpert NM, Baron JC, Gouliamos A, Grotta JC, Brownell GL, Taveras JM (1981) Positron imaging in ischemic stroke disease using compounds labeled with 15-oxygen. Arch Neurol 38: 537–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baron JC, Comar D, Bousser MG, Soussaline F, Crouzel C, Plummer D, Kellershohn C (1978) Etude tomographique chez l’homme du débit sanguin et de la consommation d’oxygène du cerveau par inhalation continue d’oxygène-15. Rev Neurol 134: 545–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baron JC, Bousser MG, Comar D, Castaigne P (1981) Crossed cerebellar diaschisis in human supratentorial brain infarction. Trans. Am Neurol Assoc 105: 459–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bousser MG, Baron JC, Iba-Zizen MT, Comar D, Cabanis E, Castaigne P (1980) Migrainous cerebral infarction: a tomographic study of cerebral blood flow and oxygen-15 inhalation technique. Stroke 11: 145–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crone C (1963) The permeability of capillaries in various organs as determined by use of the “indicator diffusion” method. Acta Physiol Scand 58: 292–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eichling JO, Higgins CS, Ter-Pogossian MM (1977) Determination of radionuclide concentrations with positron C. T. scanning (P. E. T. ). J Nucl Med 18: 845–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frackowiack RSG, Lenzi GL, Jones T, Heather JD (1980) Quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in man, using 150 and positron emission tomography: theory, procedure, and normal values. J Comput Assist Tomogr 4: 727–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frackowiak RSJ, Pozzilli C, Legg NJ, Du Bou-lay GH, Marshall J, Lenzi GL, Jones T (1981) Regional cerebral oxygen supply and utilization in dementia. A clinical and physiological study with oxygen-15 and positron tomography. Brain 104: 753–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ginsberg MD, Busto R, Lockwood AH, Finn RD, Campbell JA, BootheTE (1981) 11C-Iodoantipyrine for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by positron emission tomography: synthesis and validation studies. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1 [Supp1.1]: 37–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoffman EJ, Huang SC, Phelps ME (1979) Quantitation in positron emission computed tomography: 1. Effect of object size. J Comput Assist Tomogr 3: 299–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holden JE, Gatlen SJ, Hichwa RD, Ip WR, Shaughnessy WJ, Nickles RJ, Polcyn RE (1981) Regional cerebral blood flow using positron emission tomography measurement of fluoro-methane kinetics. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1 [Suppl 1]: 35–36Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang SC, Hoffman EJ, Phelps ME, Kuhl DE (1979a) Quantitation in positron emission computed tomography: 2. Effects of inaccurate attenuation correction. J Comput Assist Tomogr 3: 804–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang SC, Phelps ME, Hoffman EJ, Kuhl DE (1979b) A theoretical study of quantitative flow measurements with constant infusion of short-lived isotopes. Phys Med Biol 24: 1151–1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huang SC, Phelps ME, Carson R, Hoffman EJ, Plummer D, Mac Donald N, Kuhl D (1981) Tomographic measurements of local cerebral blood flow in man with O-15 water. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1 [Supp11]: 31–32Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang SC, Carson R, Phelps ME (1982) Measurement of local blood flow and distribution volume with short-lived isotopes: a general input technique. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2: 99–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones T, Chesler DA, Ter-Pogossian MM (1976) The continuous inhalation of oxygen-15 for assessing regional oxygen extraction in the brain of man. Br J Radiol 49: 339–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jones SC, Reivich M, Greenberg JH (1979) Error propagation in the determination of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism with inhalation of C15O2 and 15O2. Acta Physiol Scand 60 [Suppl 72]: 228–229Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jones SC, Greenberg JH, Reivich M (1982) Error analysis for the determination of cerebral blood flow with the continuous inhalation of 150-labeled carbon dioxide and positron emission tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6: 116–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kety SS, Schmidt CF (1948) The nitrous oxide method for the quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow in man: theory, procedure and normal values. J Clin Invest 27: 476–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lammertsma AA, Heather JD, Jones T, Frackowiak RSJ, Lenzi GL (1982) A statistical study of the steady state technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization using 15-O. J Comp Assist Tomogr 6: 566–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lenzi GL, Frackowiak RS, Jones T, Heather JD, Lammertsma AA, Rhodes CG, Pozzilli C (1981) CMRO2 and CBF by the oxygen-15 inhalation techniques: results in normal volunteers and cerebrovascular patients. Eur Neurol 20: 285–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phelps ME, Hoffman EJ, Huang SC, Kuhl DE (1978) ECAT: a new computerized tomographic imaging system for positron-emitting radio-pharmaceuticals. J Nucl Med 19: 645–647Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Raichle ME, Eichling JO, Straatman MG, Welch MJ, Larson KB, Ter-Pogossian M (1976) Blood-brain barrier permeability of 11C-labeled alcohols and 150-labeled water. Am J Physiol 230: 543–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raichle ME, Markham J, Larson K, Grubb RL, Welch MJ (1981) Measurement of local cerebral blood flow in man with positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1 [Suppl 1]: 19–20Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Soussaline F, Todd-Pokropek AE, Plummer D, Comar D, Houle S, Kellershohn C (1979) The physical performances of a single slice positron tomographic system and preliminary results in a clinical environment. J Nucl Med 4: 237–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Subramanyam N, Alpert NM, Hoop B, Brownell GL, Taveras JM (1978) A model for regional cerebral oxygen distribution during continuous inhalation of 15 O2, C150 and C1502. J Nucl Med 19: 48–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ter-Pogossian MM, Eichling JO, Davis DO, Welch MJ, Metzger JM (1969) The determination of regional cerebral blood flow by means of water labeled with radioactive oxygen 15. Radiology 93: 31–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Torack RM, Alcala H, Gado M (1976) Water, specific gravity and histology as determinants of diagnostic computerized Cranial Tomography (CCT). In: Pappius HM, Feindel W (eds) Dynamics of brain edema. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 129–137Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Williams CW, Crabtree MC, Burgiss SG (1979) Design and performance characteristics of a positron emission computed axial tomograph–ECAT II. IEEE Trans Nucl Sc NS-26: 619–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yamamoto YL, Thompson C, Meyer E, Nukui H, Matsunaga M, Feindel W (1979) Three-dimensional tomographical regional cerebral blood flow in man measured with high efficiency miniBGO two ring positron device using Krypton-77. Acta Neurol Scand 60 [Supp172]: 186–187Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Depresseux

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations