Transabdominal Fine Needle Biopsy of Lymph Nodes for Urologic Cancer Staging
Accurate staging of malignant urologic tumors related to the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system has become general. It is particularly this procedure that allows best treatment planning. Clinicians often underrate the frequency of lymphogenous dissemination. Patients affected by carcinoma of the prostate show metastasis in a lymph node with 20% in stage B and 64% in stage C (Spellmann et al. 1977), i.e., these patients are to be classified as stage D. For this reason a staging operation should be performed prior to radical operation for both tumor of the bladder and carcinoma of the prostate. These surgical interventions mean discomfort to the patient and call for preoperative diagnosis with the greatest possible accuracy. Lymphography, however, represents a high percentage of false negatives and false positives (Fuchs 1965). In this case, sonography and computed tomography were not sufficient to furnish improvement of major importance. Both methods do not allow detection of metastasis in a lymph node at an early stage of growth, as it is exclusively the increase in tumor masses that can be determined (Feuerbach et al. 1979; Rothenberger et al. 1979).
KeywordsDiazepam Noma Teratoma Seminoma
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