Advertisement

References

  • Hans Werner Pia
  • Charles Langmaid
  • Jan Zierski
Conference paper

Keywords

Intracerebral Hemorrhage Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Intracerebral Hematoma Cerebellar Hemorrhage Neurological Surgery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams IF, Yessayan L, Shillito J, Barlow CF (1971) Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage in patients suspected of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 34:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams RD, van der Eecken HM (1953) Vascular diseases of the brain. Ann Rev Med 4:213–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnoli AL, Cristante L, Busse O, Feistner H (1979) Brain herniation by cranial tomography: clinical, radiological correlations. VIII. Congress of the European Society of Neuroradiology, Strasbourg, 7.–8. Sept. 1979Google Scholar
  4. Amano S (1977) Vascular changes in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats: Hyaline and fibrinoid degeneration. J Pathol 121:119–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ambrose J (1973) Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography): Part 2. Clinical application. Br J Radiol 46:1023–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ameli NO (1957) Delayed post-traumatic haemorrhage of the brain. Acta Med Iran 1:267–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ameli NO (1968) Brain angiomata and intracerebral haematoma. Prog Brain Res 30:427–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anders HE, Eicke WJ (1941) Die Gehirngefäße beim Hochdruck. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 112:1–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. The Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan, The Japanese Pathological Society, 1970–1975Google Scholar
  10. Arana-Iniguez R, Wilson E, Basfarrica E, Medici M (1976) Cerebral hematomas. Surg Neurol 6:45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Aring CD, Merrit H (1935) Differential diagnosis between cerebral haemorrhage and cerebral thrombosis. Arch Intern Med 56:438–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Armstrong MC, Warner ED, Connor WE (1970) Regression of coronary atheromatosis in rhesus monkeys. Circ Res 27:59–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arseni C, Oprescu I (1959) Cerebellar hematomas. J Neurosurg 16:503–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Arseni C, Stancin M (1973) Primary haematomas of the brain stem. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 28:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Arseni C, Ionescu S, Maretsis M, Ghitescu M (1967) Primary intraparenchymatous hematomas. J Neurosurg 27:207–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Arseni C, Constantinescu A, Cioloca C (1971) Tumori cerebrale cu debut ictal. Neurol Psihiatr Neurochir 26: 16:193–199Google Scholar
  17. Arsenjo A, Fierro J (1958) Surgical treatment of medical cerebral hemorrhages. Zentralbl Neurochir 18:234–238Google Scholar
  18. Astrup J, Symon L, Branston NM, Lassen NA (1977) Cortical evoked potential and extracellular K+ and H+ at critical levels of brain ischemia. Stroke 8:51–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Auer LM (1978) The pathogenesis of hypertensive encephalopathy. Acta Neurochir [Suppl] 27Google Scholar
  20. Austrarheiv K (1956) Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage: report of one case with necropsy. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 38:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Backlund EO (1978) Controlled sub-total evacuation of intracerebral hematomas by stereotactic technique. Surg Neurol 9:99–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bailey P (1904) Traumatic apoplexy. Med Rec 66:528–529Google Scholar
  23. Baker HL, Campbell JK, Houser DW, Reese DF, Sheedy PF, Holman CB (1974) Computer assisted tomography of the head — An early evaluation. Mayo Clin Proc 49:17–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Baratham G, Dennyson WG (1972) Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 35:698–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Barnes BD, Winestock DP (1977) Dynamic radionuclide scanning in the diagnosis of thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus. Neurology (Minneap) 27:656–661Google Scholar
  26. Becker DH, Silverberg GD (1978) Successful evacuation of an acute pontine hematoma. Surg Neurol 4:263–265Google Scholar
  27. Becks J, Marguth F (1974) Zur Diagnose und operativen Therapie der intrazerebralen Massenblutung. MMW 116:717–722Google Scholar
  28. Bender MB (1960) Resolution of subdural haematoma. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 85:192–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Benes V, Koukolik F, Obrovska D (1972) Two types of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage due to hypertension. J Neurosurg 37:509–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bergman PS (1950) Hemangioma of the pons. J Mt Sinai Hosp NY 17:119–131Google Scholar
  31. Bergström M, Ericson K, Levander B, Svendsen P, Larsson S (1977) Variation with time of the attenuation values of intracranial hematomas. J Comp Assoc Tomogr 1:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bethke CC (1797) Über Schlagflüsse und Lähmungen oder Geschichte der Apoplexie, Paraplegie und Hemiplegie. Fleischer, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  33. Betz E, Schlote W (1977) Development and regression of experimental local carotid atheromatosis in rabbits. In: Zülch KJ, Kaufmann W, Hossmann K-A, Hossmann V (eds) Brain and heart infarct. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Binet EF, Loken MK (1970) Scintiangiography of cerebral arteriovenous malformations and aneuryms. AJR 109:707–713Google Scholar
  35. Blackwood W (1963) The central nervous system in hypertensive vascular disease. In: Greenfield’s neuropathology. William & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 120–127Google Scholar
  36. Böhne C (1931) Über die Bedeutung der Hirnerweichung in der Pathogenese der kompakten apoplektischen Hirnblutung. Z Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 137:610–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bollinger O (1891) Über traumatische Spätapoplexie; ein Beitrag zur Lehre von der Hirnerschütterung. Int Beitr z Wiss Med 2:457–470Google Scholar
  38. Botterell EH (1958) On brain injury. Presidential Address. Canadian Neurological Society, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  39. Boysen G (1973) Cerebral hemodynamics in carotid surgery. Acta Neurol Scand [Suppl 52] 49:43–46Google Scholar
  40. Branston NM, Symon L, Crockard HA, Pasztor E (1974) Relationship between the cortical evoked potential, blood flow and local cortical flow following acute middle cerebral artery occlusion in the baboon. Exp Neurol 45:195–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Brennan RW, Bergland RM (1977) Acute cerebellar hemorrhage: Analysis of clinical findings and outcome in 12 cases. Neurology (Minneap) 27:527–532Google Scholar
  42. Brewer DB, Fawcett F J, Horsfield GI (1968) A necropsy series of non-traumatic cerebral hemorrhages and softenings, with particular reference to heart weight. J Pathol Bacteriol 96:311–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Brihaye J, Frowein RA, Lindgren S, Loew F, Stroobandt G (1978) Report on the meeting of the W.F.N.S. Neuro-Traumatology Committee. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 40:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Browder J (1942) Intracerebral hemorrhage of traumatic origin, its surgical treatment. NY State J Med 42:2230–2235Google Scholar
  45. Brown FD, Mullan S, Duda EE (1978) Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematomas: report of three cases. J Neurosurg 48:1019–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Brown-Séquard CE (1861) Diagnosis of haemorrhage in the cerebellum. Lancet II:391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Brunner HR, Laragh JH, Baer L, Newton MA, Goodwin FT, Krakoff LR, Bard RH, Bühler FR (1972) Essential hypertension: renin and aldosterone, heart attack and stroke. N Engl J Med 286:441–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Budzilovich GN (1976) On pathogenesis of primary lesions in blunt head trauma with special reference to the brain stem injuries. In: McLaurin RL (ed) Head injuries. Grune & Stratton, New York, pp 39–43Google Scholar
  49. Buonanno FS, Moody DM, Ball MR, Laster DW (1978) Computed cranial tomographic findings in cerebral sinovenous occlusion. J Comp Assoc Tomogr 2:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Burger PC, Vogel FS (1977) Hemorrhagic white matter infarction in three critically ill patients. Hum Pathol 8:121–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Butler AB, Partain RA, Netsky MG (1972) Primary intraventricular hemorrhage. Neurology (Minneap) 22: 675–687Google Scholar
  52. Butzer JF, Cancilla PA, Cornell SH (1976) Computerized axial tomography of intracerebral hematoma. Arch Neurol 33:206–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Cervos-Navarro J, Iglesias Rozas J (1976) Untersuchungen der Hirnarteriolen bei normalen und hypertensiven Menschen. Sympos. Neuropath. Praha June 8–10, 1976Google Scholar
  54. Charcot JM, Bouchard C (1868) Nouvelles recherches sur la pathogénie de l’hémorrhagie cérébrale. Arch Physiol (Paris) 1:110–127, 643–675, 725–734Google Scholar
  55. Chodkiewicz JP, Vedrenne C, Radondo A (1973) Brain stem lesions following head injury. Gkc Med Int. Congr Ser 299:69Google Scholar
  56. Cole FM, Yates PO (1967a) Pseudo-aneurysms in relationship to massive cerebral haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 30:61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cole FM, Yates PO (1967b) Intracerebral microaneurysms and small cerebrovascular lesions. Brain 90:759–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cole FM, Yates PO (1967c) The occurrence and significance of intracerebral micro-aneurysms. J Pathol Bacteriol 93:393–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Collomb H, Dumas M, Girard PL, Lemercier G, Tap D (1973) Hémorrhagies primitives du tronc cérébral. Rev Neurol (Paris) 129:185–210Google Scholar
  60. Courville CB (1950) Pathology of the central nervous system, 3rd ed. Mountain ViewGoogle Scholar
  61. Courville S, Blomquist O (1940) Traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage with particular reference to its pathogenesis and its relation to delayed traumatic apoplexy. Arch Surg 41:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Courville CB, Friedman AP (1942) Hemorrhage into the lateral basal ganglia region. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 7:137–149Google Scholar
  63. Craig WM, Adson AW (1936) Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Etiology and surgical treatment, with a report of nine cases. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 35:701–716Google Scholar
  64. Crompton MR (1971) Brainstem lesions due to closed head injury. Lancet I:669–673Google Scholar
  65. Cruveilhier J (1829) Apoplexie. Dictionnaire de médecine et de chirurgie pratiques, tome III. Paris, Gabon, Méquignon-Marvis, Baillière, pp 201–297Google Scholar
  66. Cuatico W, Adib S, Gaston P (1965) Spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. A surgical appraisal. J Neurosurg 22:569–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cushing H (1903) The blood-pressure reaction of acute cerebral compression, illustrated by cases of intracranial hemorrhage. Am J Med Sei 125:1017–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Dandy W (1959) The brain. In: Lewis D (ed) Practice of surgery, vol 12. Hagerstown, Prior, p 613Google Scholar
  69. David M, Hecaen H (1945) Nouvelle contribution à l’étude clinique et thérapeutique des hématomes intracérébraux spontanés. Presse Med 27:371–372Google Scholar
  70. Davidoff LM (1958) Intracerebral hemorrhage associated with hypertension and arteriosclerosis. J Neurosurg 15:322–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Dejong RN (1942) Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 48:257–266Google Scholar
  72. De Vet AC (1965) Middle fossa traumatic intra- and extracerebral lesions, their treatment and prognosis. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Neurological Surgery, pp 236–241Google Scholar
  73. Dietrich H-J (1967) Mikroangiome als Ursache sogenannter “spontaner” intracerebraler Blutungen. Med Dissertation, University of WürzburgGoogle Scholar
  74. Dietz R, Schömig A, Haebara H, Mann JF, Rascher W, Lüth JB, Grünherz N, Gross F (1978) Studies on the pathogenesis of spontaneous hypertension of rats. Circ Res [Suppl I] 43:98–106Google Scholar
  75. Dinsdale HB (1964) Spontaneous hemorrhage in the posterior fossa. Arch Neurol 10:200–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Doe FD, Shuangshoti S, Netsky MG (1972) Cryptic angioma of the choroid plexus. Neurology (Minneap) 22:1232–1239Google Scholar
  77. Dolinskas CA, Bilaniuk LT, Zimmerman RA, Kuhl DE (1977a) Computed tomography of intracerebral hematomas. I. Transmission CT observations on hematoma resolution. AJR 129:681–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Dolinskas CA, Bilaniuk, LT, Zimmerman RA, Kuhl DE, Alavi A (1977b) Computed tomography of intracerebral hematomas. II. Radionuclide and transmission CT studies of the perihematoma region. Am J Roentgenol 129:689–692Google Scholar
  79. Donaghy RMP, Numoto M, Wallman LJ (1965) Reduction of post-traumatic neurological residual on the day of injury. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Neurological Surgery. pp 174–180 (Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  80. Doughty RG (1938) Post-traumatic delayed intracerebral hemorrhage. South Med J 31:254–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Dublin AB, French BN, Rennick JM (1977) Computed tomography in the trauma. Radiology 122:365–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Duffner PK, Klein DM, Cohen ME (1978) Calcification in brainstem gliomas. Neurology (Minneap) 28:832–834Google Scholar
  83. Durand-Fardel M (1854) Traité clinique et pratique des maladies des vieillards. ParisGoogle Scholar
  84. Eicke WJ (1952) Gehirngefäßveränderungen bei Hypertonie. Atti del Primo Congr. Internat, di Istopat. del Sistema Nervoso, RomeGoogle Scholar
  85. Ellis AG (1909) The pathogenesis of spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage. Proc Pathol Soc Philad 12:197Google Scholar
  86. Endo H, Larsen B, Lassen NA (1977) Regional cerebral blood flow alteration remote from the site of intracranial tumors. J Neurosurg 46:271–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Eppinger H (1888) Die miliaren Hirnarterienaneurysmen (Charcot-Bouchard). Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 111:405Google Scholar
  88. Epstein AW (1951) Primary massive pontine hemorrhage. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 10:426–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Evans JP, Scheinker IM (1946) Histological studies of the brain following head trauma, II Post traumatic petechial and massive intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 3:101–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Fahr T (1937) Apoplexie und Erweichung. Vergleichende statistische Untersuchungen. Zentralbl Allg Pathol 66:84–93Google Scholar
  91. Fang HGH, Foly JM (1954) Hypertensive hemorrhages of the pons and cerebellum. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 72:638Google Scholar
  92. Fasano AV, Broggi G (1956) Aspect clinique et chirurgical de l’hémorrhagie cérébrale (à propos de 9 cas, d’hématomes intracérébraux spontanés), Neurochirurgie 2:357–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Fazio C, Sacco G, Bugiani O (1973) The thalamic hemorrhage. Eur Neurol 9:30–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Fieschi C, Agnoli A, Battistini (1968) Derangements of regional cerebral blood flow and of its regulatory mechanisms in acute cerebrovascular lesions. Neurology (Minneap) 18:1166–1179Google Scholar
  95. Fisher CM (1969) The arterial lesions underlying lacunes. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 12:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Fisher GM (1971) Pathological observations in hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 30:536–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Fisher CM (1972) Cerebral miliary aneurysms in hypertension. Am J Pathol 66:313–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Fisher CM, Adams RD (1951) Observations on brain embolism with special reference to the mechanism of hemorrhagic infarction. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 10:92–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Fisher CM, Picard EH, Polak A, Dalai P, Ojemann RG (1965) Acute hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage: Diagnosis and surgical treatment. J Nerv Ment Dis 140:38–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Freeman RE, Onofrio BM, Okazaki H, Dinapoli RP (1973) Spontaneous intracerebellar hemorrhage: Diagnosis and surgical treatment. Neurology (Minneap) 23:84–90Google Scholar
  101. French BN, Dublin AB (1977) The value of computerized tomography in the management of 1000 consecutive head injuries. Surg Neurol 7:171–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Freytag E (1968) Fatal hypertensive intracerebral haematomas: a survey of the pathological anatomy of 393 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 31:616–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Friedman AP, Nielsen JM (1941) Cerebellar hemorrhage. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 6:135Google Scholar
  104. Frowein RA, Steinmann HW, auf der Haar K, Terhaag D, Karimi-Nejad A (1978) Limits to classification and prognosis of severe head injury. Adv Neurosurg 5:16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gänshirt H, Wolfram A, Haak G (1979) Die sogenannten spontanen intrazerebralen Hämatome. Nervenarzt 50:411–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Galbraith S, Smith J (1976) Acute traumatic haematoma with skull fractures. Lancet 1:501–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Garraway M (1976) The size of the problem of stroke in Scotland. In: Gillingham FT, Mawdsley C, Williams AE (eds) Stroke. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, pp 72–82Google Scholar
  108. Globus JH, Epstein JA, Green MA, Marics M (1949) Focal cerebral hemorrhage experimentally induced. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 8:113–116Google Scholar
  109. Globus JH, Epstein JA (1953) Massive cerebral hemorrhage: Spontaneous and experimentally induced. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 12:107–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Gögler E (1968) Chirurgie und Verkehrsmedizin. Klinik, Mechanik und Biomechanik des Unfalls. In: Wagner K, Wagner H-J (eds) Handbuch der Verkehrsmedizin. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  111. Goldberg JD, Kurland LT (1962) Mortality in 33 countries from diseases of the nervous system. World Neurol 3:444–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Goodman SJ, Hayes M (1974) Values of cerebral isotope flow studies in timing of surgery for ruptured aneurysm when there is vasospasm and neurologic deficit. J Nucl Med 15:1113–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Goutelle A, Lapras C, Trillet M (1969) Les hématomes intracérébraux. Revelateurs d’une tumeur cérébrale. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 12:218–227Google Scholar
  114. Gowers WR (1892) Handbuch der Nervenkrankheiten. Cohen, BonnGoogle Scholar
  115. Gowers WR (1893) Diseases of the nervous system. PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  116. Gros C, Giraud G, Lafon H (1948) Hématome spontané de la calotte protuberantielle opéré et guéri. Presse Med 73:890Google Scholar
  117. Grote E, Walther C, Wenker H (1969) Protrahierte Hirnmassenblutung bei hyperfibrinolytischer Hypofibrinogenämie. Nervenarzt 40:285–389Google Scholar
  118. Grote E, Geletneky CL, Rompel K, Zorbas K, Meyer E, Prill A, Heene D (1970) Atypische intracerebrale Massenblutung. Dtsch Z Nervenheilkd 197:66–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Grote E, Geletneky CL, Rompel K, Zorbas K, Meyer E, Prill A, Heene D (1971) Some unusual forms of intracerebral haematoma. In: Pia HW, Grote E, Mundinger F, Gleave JRW (eds) Modern aspects of neurosurgery. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 264–267Google Scholar
  120. Grotts BF (1950) Spontaneous hemorrhage from a haemangioma of the pons. J Pediatr 37:98–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Grumme T, Lanksch W, Wende S (1976) Diagnosis of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage by computerized tomography. In: Lanksch W, Kazner E (eds) Cranial computerized tomography. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 284–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Gudmundson G, Hallgrímsson J, Jónasson TA, Bjarnason O (1972) Hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloidosis. Brain 95:387–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Guillaume J, Joinville R (1945) Les hématomes spontanés intracérébraux. Presse Med 45:606–607Google Scholar
  124. Guillaume J, Mazars G, Roge R, Pansini A (1957) Les accidents circulatoires du cerveau. Traitement chirurgical de l’hémorrhagie et de l’ischémie. Presses Universitaires de France, ParisGoogle Scholar
  125. Gurdjian ES, Thomas LM (1965) Organization of services for the treatment of acute head injury in community and industrial practice. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Neurological Surgery, pp 20–26 (Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  126. Haebara H, Dietz R, Mann JFE, Lüth JB (1977) Gefäßveränderungen beim genetischen Hochdruck der Ratte. Verh Dtsch Ges Kreislaufforsch 43:15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Hamel E, Karimi-Nejad A (1978) Traumatic intracerebral haematomas. Adv Neurosurg 5:56–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Hazama F, Amano S, Ozaki T (1978a) Pathological changes of cerebral vessel endothelial walls in spontaneously hypertensive rats. With special reference to the role of these cells in the development of hypertensive cerebrovascular lesions. Adv Neurol 20:359–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Hazama F, Amano S, Haebara H, Yamori Y, Okamoto Y (1978b) Pathology and pathogenesis of cerebrovascular lesions in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In: Cervos-Navarro J (ed) The cerebral vessel wall. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  130. Heiss W-D, Hayakawa T, Waltz AG (1976) Pattern of changes of blood flow and relationship to infarction in experimental cerebral ischemia. Stroke 7:454–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hemmer R (1965) The time factor in extradural haematoma. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Neurological Surgery, pp 288–290 (Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  132. Hier DB, Davis KR, Richardson EP Jr, Mohr JP (1977) Hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage. Ann Neurol 1:152–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Hillbom E, Anttinent EE (1957) On the apopletic conditions occurring as delayed symptoms after brain injuries. Acta Psychiatr. Neurol Scand 52:103–116Google Scholar
  134. Hiller F (1936) Die Zirkulationsstörungen des Gehirns und Rückenmarks. In: Bunke O, Foerster O: Handbuch Neurologie Vol. 11/3, Springer, Berlin, pp 178–465Google Scholar
  135. Hirayama A, Kowada M, Fukasawa H (1974) Cerebrovascular Moya-moya disease. A case report and review of 12 autopsy cases in Japan. Brain Nerve (Tokyo) 26:1215–1225Google Scholar
  136. Hollin SA, Decker RE, Gross SW (1977) Spontaneous cerebellar hematomas. Mt Sinai J Med (NY) 41:396–406Google Scholar
  137. Hossmann K-A (1977) Total ischemia of the brain. In: Zülch KJ, Kaufmann W, Hossmann K-A, Hossmann V (eds) Brain and heart infarct. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Hossmann V (1977) Coagulation disturbances in cerebrovascular disorders. In: Zülch KJ, Kaufmann W, Hossmann K-A, Hossmann V (eds) Brain and heart infarct. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Housepian EM, Pool JL (1958) A systematic analysis of intracranial aneurysms from the autopsy file of the Presbyterian Hospital 1914–1956. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 17:409–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Huckman MS, Weinberg PK, Kim KS, Davis DO (1970) Angiographic and clinico-pathologic correlations in basal ganglionic hemorrhage. Radiology 95:79–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Huhn A (1965) Die Thrombosen der intrakraniellen Venen und Sinus. Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  142. Huhn A (1972) Die Klinik der venösen Abflußstörungen des Gehirns. In: Gänshirt H (ed) Der Hirnkreislauf. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  143. Huk W, Schiefer W (1976) Computerized tomography (Siretom) of acute cerebrovascular events. In: Lanksch W, Kazner E (eds) Cranial computerized tomography. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 264–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Humphreys RF (1975) Cerebral hemorrhage following heart surgery. J Neurosurg 43:671–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Humphreys RP (1978) Computerized tomographic definition of mesencephalic hematoma with evacuation through pedunculotomy. J Neurosurg 49:749–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Hunt WE, Hess RM (1968) Surgical risk as related to time of intervention in the repair of intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg 28:14–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Hurtig HI, Reivich M (1977) Clinical aspects of cerebrovascular disease. In: Goldensohn ES, Appel SA (eds) Scientific approaches to clinical neurology. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 292–295Google Scholar
  148. Hyland HH, Levy D (1954) Spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage. Can Med Assoc J 71:315–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Ingvar DH (1976) Functional landscapes of the dominant hemisphere. Brain Res 107:181–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Isherwood I, Occleshaw JV (1976) Stroke Proceeding of the 9th Pfizer International Symposium. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, pp 214–229Google Scholar
  151. Istrati C (1975) Hematomul intracerebral primar. Master’s Thesis, University of BucurestiGoogle Scholar
  152. Ito Z, Yamaguchi K, Matsuoka S, Sakurai Y, Kutsuzawa T (1973) Hypertensive intracerebellar hemorrhage with extravasation of contrast material. Report of a case (in Japanese). Brain Nerve 25:1727–1731Google Scholar
  153. Jaffe ME, McHenry LC, Goldberg HI (1970) Regional cerebral blood flow measurement with small probes. II. Neurology (Minneap) 20:225–237Google Scholar
  154. Jamieson KG, Yelland JDN (1972) Traumatic intracerebral haematoma. Report of 63 surgically treated cases. J Neurosurg 37:528–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Janny P, Montrieul B, Tournilhac M, Chabannes J, Jourde J (1966) Les hématomes intra-cérébraux rompus dans le ventricule. Neurochirurgie 12:459–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Janny P, Colnet G, Poppi M (1976) Intracranial pressure in the course of intracerebral hematomas in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. J Neurol Sci 20:224–225Google Scholar
  157. Janny P, Colnet G, Georget A-M, Chazal J (1978) Intracranial pressure with intracerebral haemorrhages. Surg Neurol 10:371–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Jellinger K (1971) Pathologie zentralnervöser Störungen bei internen Erkrankungen. Wien Z Nervenheilkd 29:1–37Google Scholar
  159. Jellinger K (1972) Zur Ätiologie und Pathogenese der spontanen intrazerebralen Blutung. Therapiewoche 22:1440–1448Google Scholar
  160. Jellinger K (1975) The morphology of centrally located angiomas. In: Pia HW, Gleave JRW, Grote E, Zierski J (eds) Cerebral angiomas. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Jellinger K (1977a) Pathology of intracerebral hemorrhage. Zentralbl Neurochir 38:29–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Jellinger K (1977b) Morphologie und Genese traumatischer Hirn- und Rückenmarksschäden. Aktuel Neurol 4:1–21Google Scholar
  163. Jellinger K (1977c) Cerebrovascular amyloidosis with cerebral hemorrhage. J Neurol 214:195–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Jellinger K (1979) Intracranial aneurysms: Pathology and aetiology. In: Pia HW (ed) Intracranial aneurysms. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 5–19Google Scholar
  165. Jennett WB (1975) Epilepsy after non-missile head injuries. Year Book Medical Publishers, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  166. Jochheim KA, Merkel K, Pampus I, Schüle K, Schüle-Hein K, Week-Arnold S (1977) Einrichtungen der medizinischen Rehabilitation. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart Berlin Köln MainzGoogle Scholar
  167. Johansson S, Melin HS (1960) Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage and encephalomalacia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 35:457–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Kamisasa A, Hiratsuka H, Inaba Y (1972) Aneurysm arising from the abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain — case report and etiological study. Brain Nerve (Tokyo) 24:463–468Google Scholar
  169. Kanaya H, Handa H (1974) The surgical treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage on the cooperative study in Japan. Thirty-nineth Annual Meeting of the Japan Neurosurgical SocietyGoogle Scholar
  170. Kanaya H, Yukawa H, Itoh Z, Kagawa M, Kanno T, Kuwabara T, Mizukami M (1978) A neurological grading for patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage and a classification for hematoma location on computed tomography. In: Proceeding of the 7th Conference of Surgical Treatment of Stroke, pp 265–270Google Scholar
  171. Kane WC, Aronon SM (1969) Cerebrovascular disease in an autopsy population. Arch Neurol 20:514–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Kaneko M, Koba T, Yokoyama T (1977) Early surgical treatment for hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 46:579–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Katzman R, Clasen R, Klatzo I, Meyer JS, Pappius HM, Waltz AG (1977) Brain edema in stroke. Stroke 8:509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Kawada M, Ito Z, Matsuoka S, Yamaguchi K (1971) Primary pontine haemorrhage revealed by pneumoencephalo-roulette tomography, and a report on surgically treated cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 25:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Kawakami H, Kutsuzawa T, Uemura K, Sakurai Y, Nakamura T (1974) Regional cerebral blood flow in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 5:207–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Kazner E, Kubicki S, Kunze S, Schiefer W, Wende S (1969) Die Bedeutung der klinischen Zusatzuntersuchungen für die Differentialdiagnose zerebrale Massenblutung Hirninfarkt. Fortsch Neurol Psychiatr 37:511–520Google Scholar
  177. Kazner E, Lanksch W, Steinhoff H, Wilske J (1975) Die axiale Computer-Tomographie des Gehirnschädels — Anwendungsmöglichkeiten und klinische Ergebnisse. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 43:487–574Google Scholar
  178. Kazner E, Klein W, Stochdorph O (1978) Möglichkeiten und Aussagewert der Computertomographie bei nicht tumorbedingten raumfordernden intrakraniellen Prozessen. Roentgenblätter 31:181–198Google Scholar
  179. Kempe LG (1964) Surgical removal of an intramedullary haematoma simulating Wallenberg’s syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 27:78–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. King AB, Chambers JW (1952) Delayed onset of symptoms due to extradural haematomas. Surgery 31:839–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Kinkel WR, Jacobs L (1976) Computerized axial transverse tomography in cerebrovascular disease. Neurology (Minneap) 26:924–930Google Scholar
  182. Klingler M (1966) Intrakranielle Blutungen bei Antikoagulantientherapie. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 98:20–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Kodama N, Suzuki J (1974) Cerebrovascular Moya-moya disease. Third report — The study on the aging of the perforating branches and the possibility of a collateral pathway. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 14:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Kodama N, Suzuki J (1978) Moya-moya disease associated with aneurysm. J Neurosurg 48:565–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Koos WT, Sunder-Plassman M, Salah S (1969) Successful removal of a large intrapontine haematoma. J Neurosurg 31:690–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Kozniewska H, Wronski J, Zderkiewicz E (1965) Results of treatment in 226 cases of acute head injury. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Neurological Surgery, p 247 (Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  187. Krayenbühl HA (1975) The Moya-moya syndrome and the neurosurgeon. Surg Neurol 4:353–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Krayenbühl H, Siegfried J (1964) Der neurochirurgische Beitrag zur Behandlung der intrazerebralen Blutung. Wien Klin Wochenschr 76:401–404Google Scholar
  189. Krayenbühl H, Siebenmann R (1965) Small vascular malformations as a cause of primary intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 22:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Krayenbühl H, Yasargil MG (1972) Angiome and Aneurysmen. In: Gänshirt H (ed) Der Hirnkreislauf. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 465–511Google Scholar
  191. Kreindler A, Voiculescu V (1963) Hemoragia cerebralå. St. şi Cerc. de Neurol 1:15Google Scholar
  192. Krenkel W (1970) Traumatische und nicht-traumatische Hirnblutungen. Langenbecks Arch Chir 327:949–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Krücke W (1971) Pathologie der cerebralen Venen- und Sinusthrombosen. Radiologe 11:370–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Kudo T (1967) A disease with abnormal intracranial vascular networks. Igakushoin, Tokyo, p 66Google Scholar
  195. Kurtzke JF (1976a) The distribution of cerebrovascular disease. In: Gillingham FJ, Mawdsley C, Williams AE (eds) Stroke. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 5–20Google Scholar
  196. Kurtzke JF (1976b) An introduction to the epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease. In: Scheinberg P (ed) Cerebrovascular disease. Raven, New York, pp 239–263Google Scholar
  197. Laine E, Delandtsheer JM, Galibert P, Delandtsheer G (1956) Hématomes intracérébraux spontanés profonds en rapport avec des malformations angiomateuses. Neurochirurgie 2:340–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Laine E, Lopez-Pinto C, Delandtsheer JM, Pruvot P et al. (1962) Considérations, étiologiques, anatomiques, électroencephalographiques, radiologiques et thérapeutiques tirées de l’étude d’une importante série d’hémorragies cérébrales operées. Neurochirurgie 8:208–215Google Scholar
  199. Lampert H, Müller W (1926) Bei welchem Druck kommt es zu einer Ruptur der Gehirngefäße. Z Pathol 33:471–477Google Scholar
  200. Landman S, Ross P (1974) Radionuclides in the diagnosis of arteriovenous malformations. J Nucl Med 15:953–958Google Scholar
  201. Langerhans R (1903) Die traumatische Spätapoplexie. Hirschwald, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  202. Langfitt, TW (1969) Increased intracranial pressure. Clin Neurosurg 16:436–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Lanksch W, Grumme T, Kazner E (1978) Schädelhirnverletzungen im Computertomogramm. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  204. Lassen NA, Ingvar DH (1963) Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in man. Arch Neurol 9:615–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Lassen NA, Ingvar DH (1972) Radioisotopic assessment of regional cerebral blood flow. Prog Nucl Med 1:376–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Laun A (1978) Traumatic aneurysms. Adv Neurosurg 5:124–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Laurent JP, Molinari GF, Oakley JC (1976) Primate model of cerebral hematoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 35:560–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Lavin PJM, Bone I, Lamb JT, Swinburne LM (1978) Intracranial venous thrombosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41:726–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Lazorthes G (1956) L’hémorrhagie cérébrale vue par le neurochirurgien. Rapport présenté à la réunion de la Societé de Neuro-Chirurgie de Langue Française. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  210. Lazorthes G (1959) Surgery of cerebral haemorrhage. Report on the results of 52 surgically treated cases. J Neurosurg 16:355–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Lee J, Berry CL (1978) Cerebral microaneurysm formation in the hypertensive rat. J Pathol 124:7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Lee MLK, Cheung EMT (1973) Moya-moya disease as a cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage in Chinese. Brain 96:623–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Lhermitte J (1949) Les hémorragies de l’encéphale. In: Traité de medecine, tome XV. Masson, Paris, pp 743–760Google Scholar
  214. Lindheimer JH, Barrows HS (1962) Recurrent pontine hemorrhage incidental to venous angioma of the pons. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 27:128–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Litner R (1965) Intracerebral haemorrhage of traumatic origin: a case report. Boston Med Q 12:13–19Google Scholar
  216. Little RJ, Blomquist GA Jr, Ethier R (1977) Intraventricular hemorrhage in adults. Surg Neurol 8:143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Little RJ (1978) Cerebellar hemorrhage in adults. J Neurosurg 48:575–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Luessenhop AJ, Shevlin WA, Ferrero AA, McCullough DC, Barone BM (1967) Surgical management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 27:419–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Luginbühl H (1966) Vascular disease in animals: comparative aspects of cerebrovascular anatomy and pathology in different species. In: Siekert RG, Whisnant JP (eds) Cerebral vascular diseases. Grune & Stratton, New York London, pp 3–27Google Scholar
  220. Luyendijk W (1972) Intracerebral haematoma. In: Vinken FG, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 11. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 660–719Google Scholar
  221. Luyendijk W, Schoen JHR (1964) Intracerebral haematomas. A clinical study of 40 surgical cases. Psychiatr Neurol Neurochir 67:445–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Lyager T (1955) Dødsarsager ved apoplexia cerebri. Nord Med 54:1315–1317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Mandybur TI, Bates SRD (1978) Fatal massive intracerebral hemorrhage complicating cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Arch Neurol 35:245–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Mandybur TI (1977) Intracranial hemorrhage caused by metastatic tumors. Neurology (Minneap) 27:650–655Google Scholar
  225. Margolis G, Odom GL, Woodhall B, Bloor BM (1951) The role of small angiomatous malformations in the production of intracerebral hematomas. J Neurosurg 8:564–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Margolis G, Abraham J, Erbengl A, O’Loughlin J, MacCarty WC (1968) Pathogenesis of hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage: a hypothesis with supporting data. Prog Brain Res 30:453–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Marin PH, Noterman L (1971) L’hematome bulbo protuberantiel opérable. Acta Neurol Belg 71:261–268Google Scholar
  228. Marks JS (1960) Apoplectic death due to intracerebral hemorrhage. An anatomic study. Neurology (Minneap) 10:278–280Google Scholar
  229. Mastaglia FL, Edis B, Kakulas BA (1969) Medullary haemorrhage. Report of two cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 32:221–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Matsuoka S (1952) Histopathological studies on the blood vessels in apoplexia cerebri. Atti del primo congresso internazionale di istopatologia del sistema nervosos, vol III. Rom, pp 221–231Google Scholar
  231. Mauersberger W (1976) Intracerebrale Massenblutung bei M. Nishimoto-Takeuchi-Kudo (Moyamoya-Krankheit). J Neurol 212:46–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Mauersberger W, Fuchs EC, Ebhardt G (1977) Spontane intrazerebellare Hämatome im Kindesalter. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 36:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. McCormick WF, Rosenfield DB (1973) Massive brain hemorrhage: a review of 144 cases and an examination of their causes. Stroke 4:946–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. McDowell FH, Millikan CH (1978) Summary of 11th Princeton conference on cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 9:429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. McKissock W, Richardson A, Walsh R (1960) Spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage. A study of 34 consecutive cases treated surgically. Brain 83:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. McKissock W, Richardson A, Taylor J (1961) Primary intracerebral haemorrhage. A controlled trial of surgical and conservative treatments in 180 unselected cases. Lancet II:221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. McLaurin RL, McBride BH (1956) Traumatic intracerebral haematoma, review of 16 surgically treated cases. Ann Surg 143:294–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Meienberg O, Regli F, Wurster K (1972) Spontane Kleinhirnblutungen. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 102:166–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Melicher LJ (1840) Die Apoplexia. Med. Dissertation, Universität WienGoogle Scholar
  240. Merino de Villasante J, Taveras JM (1976) Computerized tomography (CT) in acute head trauma. Am J Roentgenol 126:765–778Google Scholar
  241. Meriwether RP, Barnett HG, Echols DH (1976) Moya-moya disease as a cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage in a negro patient. J Neurosurg 44:620–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Messina AV, Chernik NL (1975) Computed tomography: the “resolving” intracerebral hemorrhage. Radiology 118:609–613Google Scholar
  243. Meyer JS (1975) Medical and surgical treatment of cerebrovascular disease. In: Meyer JS (ed) Modern concepts of cerebrovascular disease. Spectrum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  244. Meynert T (1867) Der Bau der Großhirnrinde und seine örtlichen Verschiedenheiten, nebst einem pathologisch-anatomischen Corollarium. Vierteljahresschr Psychiatr 1:77–93Google Scholar
  245. Michael JC (1932) Cerebellar apoplexy. Am J Med Sci 183:687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Miller JD, Adams H (1972) Physiopathology and management of increased intracranial pressure. In: Critchley M, O’Leary JL, Jennett B (eds) Scientific foundations of neurology. Heinemann, London, pp 308–326Google Scholar
  247. Mitchell DE, Adams JH (1973) Primary focal impact damage to the brainstem in blunt head injuries. Does it exist? Lancet II:215–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Mitsuno T (1971) Surgical mangement of apoplexy. The 18th General Assembly of the Japanese Medical Congress. TokyoGoogle Scholar
  249. Mitsuno T, Kanaya H, Shirakata S, Ohsawa K, Ishikawa Y (1966) Surgical treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 24:70–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Molinari GF, Smith L, Goldstein MN, Satran R (1973) Pathogenesis of cerebral mycotic aneurysm. Neurology (Minneap) 23:325–332Google Scholar
  251. Monakow C von (1905) Gehirnpathologie. In: Nothnagels Specielle Pathologie und Therapie, 1897, 2nd ed. WienGoogle Scholar
  252. Montgomery OOB, Muirhead EE (1954) A characterization of hyaline arteriolar sclerosis by histochemical procedures. Am J Pathol 30:521–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Moossy J (1966) Cerebral infarcts and the lesions of intracranial and extracranial atherosclerosis. Arch Neurol 14:124–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Moossy J (1971) Cerebral atherosclerosis: intracranial and extracranial lesions. In: Minckler J (ed) Pathology of the nervous system, vol II. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 1423–1432Google Scholar
  255. Morawetz RB, Crowell RH, DeGirolami U, Marcoux FW, Jones TH, Halsey JH (1979) Regional cerebral blood flow thresholds during cerebral ischemia. Fed Proc 38:2493–2494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Morgagni JB (1960) The seats and causes of diseases investigated by anatomy. London, 1769. Reprint: Hafner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  257. Morin MA, Pitts FW (1970) Delayed apoplexy following head injury. J Neurosurg 33:542–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Müke R, Heienbrock W, Kühne D (1978) Spontane intrazerebrale Hämatome. Neue Gesichtspunkte seit Einführung der Computertomographie. Zentralbl Neurochir 39:135–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Müller H, Wiggli V (1977) Cerebral, cerebellar and pontine haemorrhages. In: du Boulay G, Moseley IF (eds) Computerized axial tomography in clinical practice. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Müller HR, Wüthrich R, Hünig R, Elke M, von Hochstetter A (1974) A graphical reporting system for computerized axial x-ray tomography (EMI scanning). Eur Neurol 11:197–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Muirhead EE, Turner LB, Grollman A (1951) Hypertensive cardiovascular disease. Nature and pathogenesis of the arteriolar sclerosis included by bilateral nephrectomy as revealed by a study of its tinctorial characteristics. Arch Pathol 52:266–279Google Scholar
  262. Murphy MG (1972) Successful evacuation of acute pontine hematoma. Case report. J Neurosurg 37:224–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Mutlu N, Berry RG, Alpers BJ (1963) Massive cerebral hemorrhage, clinical and pathological correlations. Arch Neurol 8:644–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Myers J, Scott M, Silverstein A (1961) Cystic hemangioblastoma of pons. J Neurosurg 18:694–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Naffziger HC, Jones OW (1928) Late traumatic apoplexy; report of 3 cases with operative recovery. Calif West Med 29:361–364Google Scholar
  266. Nag S, Robertson DM, Dinsdale HB (1977) Cerebral cortical changes in acute experimental hypertension. Lab Invest 36:150–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Nakajima K, Ito Z, Hen R, Suzuki A, Fukasawa H (1977a) Clinicopathological study of pontile hemorrhage. I Clinical aspects (in Japanese). Brain Nerve 29:1047–1058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Nakajima K, Ito Z, Hen R, Suzuki A, Fukasawa H (1977b) Clinicopathological aspects of pontile hemorrhage. II Pathological aspects (in Japanese). Brain Nerve 29:1157–1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Nayrac P, Laine E, Delandtsheer JM, Delandtsheer G (1953) Quelques remarques étiologiques à propos d’une série de vingt hématomes spontanés du cerveau ou du cervelet. Rev Neurol (Paris) 89:591Google Scholar
  270. Nelson JS, Case MES, Gold J (1973) Extensive intracerebral hemorrhage during open heart surgery. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 25:163–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Neubürger K (1930a) Beiträge zur Histologie, Pathogenese und Einteilung der arteriosklerotischen Hirnerkrankung. Veroeff Kriegs- und Konstit Path 6Google Scholar
  272. New PFJ, Aronow SPD (1976) Attenuation measurements of whole blood and blood fractions in computed tomography. Radiology 121:635–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. New PFJ, Scott WR, Schnur JA, Davis KR, Taveras JM (1974) Computerized axial tomography with the EMI scanner. Radiology 110:109–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Nishimoto A, Takeuchi S (1968) Abnormal cerebrovascular network related to the internal carotid arteries. J Neurosurg 29:255–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Noetzel H, Jerusalem F (1965) Die Hirnvenen- und Sinusthrombosen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  276. Nornes H, Hauge T (1972) Spontaneous intracerebellar hemorrhage. Acta Neurol Scand [Suppl] 48:253–255Google Scholar
  277. Norris JW, Eisen AA, Branch CL (1969) Problems in cerebellar hemorrhage and infarction. Neurology (Minneap) 19:1043–1050Google Scholar
  278. Nothnagel H (1879) Topische Diagnostik der Gehirnkrankheiten. Hirschwald, Berlin (1928)Google Scholar
  279. Obrador S, Dierssen G, Odoriz BJ (1970) Surgical evacuation of a pontine-medullary haematoma. J Neurosurg 33:82–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Odom GL, Bloor BM, Woodhall B (1952) Intracerebral hematomas. South Med J 45:936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Odom GL, Tindall GT, Dukes HT (1961) Cerebellar hematoma caused by angiomatous malformations. Report of four cases. J Neurosurg 18:777–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Odom GL, Tindall GT, Cupp HB Jr, Woodhall B (1966) Neurosurgical approach to intracerebral hemorrhage. Res Publ Assoc Nerv Ment Dis 41:145–168Google Scholar
  283. Ojemann RG, Mohr JP (1975) Hypertensive brain hemorrhage. CNS 21:220–244Google Scholar
  284. Ojemann RG, New PFJ (1963) Spontaneous resolution of an intraventricular hematoma. J Neurosurg 20:899–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Okamoto K, Yamori Y, Nagaoka A (1974) Establishment of the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).Circ Res [Suppl I] 34/35:143–153Google Scholar
  286. Olesen J (1971) Contralateral focal increase of cerebral blood flow in man during arm work. Brain 94:635–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Ooneda G (1970) Pathology of cerebral hemorrhage (in Japanese). Trans Soc Pathol Jpn 59:27–56Google Scholar
  288. Ooneda G, Yoshida Y, Suzuki K, Sekiguchi T (1973) Morphogenesis of plasmatic arterionecrosis as the cause of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 361:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Ooneda G, Yoshida Y, Suzuki K, Shinkai H (1976) Plasmatic arterionecrosis and its thrombotic occlusion. Thrombos Res [Suppl II] 8:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Opitz E, Schneider M (1950) Über die Sauerstoffversorgung des Gehirns und den Mechanismus von Mangelwirkungen. Ergeb Physiol 46:126–260Google Scholar
  291. Ott KH, Kase CS, Ojemann RG, Mohr JP (1974) Cerebellar hemorrhage: Diagnosis and treatment: A review of 56 cases. Arch Neurol 31:160–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Overgaard J (1978) Chroma-memo-flow technique for rapid sequential analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) responses. Can J Neurol Sci 5:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Pabelick W-H (1967) Die Veränderungen der Hirnarterien bei den Massenblutungen im Striatum. Klinische und pathologisch-anatomische Untersuchungen an 70 Fällen. Med Dissertation, Universität KölnGoogle Scholar
  294. Padt JP, de Reuck J, van der Eecken H (1973) Intracerebral hemorrhage as initial symptom of a brain tumor. Acta Neurol Belg 73:241–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Pagni CA, Bernasconi V, Bollati A, de Santis S (1969) Risultati del trattamento chirurgico di 71 casi di emorragia cerebrale. Minerva Neurochir 13:47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Paillas J (1968) Traitement chirurgical de l’hémorrhagic cérébrale. Evol Med 12:469–480Google Scholar
  297. Paillas JE, Alliez B (1973) Surgical treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Immediate and long-term results in 250 cases. J Neurosurg 39:145–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Paillas JE, Bonnal J, Vigouroux R, Gastaut Y (1952) Les hématomes intracérébraux spontanés. Marseille Med 89:323–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Paillas JE, Lesbros A, Bonnal J, Lavielle J, Jaffre M (1963) Syndrome alterné par hématome de la protuberance. Rev Otoneuroophtalmol 35:100–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Papo I, Pasquini U, Salvolini U (1976) Subependymal brain stem hematomas: A report of two cases. Neuroradiology 11:279–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Parkinson D, Chochinov H (1960) Subdural haematomas — some observations on their post-operative course. J Neurosurg 17:901–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Parkinson D, Hunt B, Shields C (1971) Double lucid interval in patients with extradural haematoma of the posterior fossa. J Neurosurg 34:534–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Paulson OB (1971) Cerebral apoplexy (stroke). Pathogenesis, pathophysiology and therapy as illustrated by regional blood flow measurements in the brain. Stroke 2:327–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Paxton R, Ambrose J (1974) The EMI scanner. A brief review of the first 650 patients. Br J Radiol 47:530–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Penfield W (1933) The operative treatment of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage. Can Med Assoc J 28:369–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Perret G, Nishioka H (1966) Cerebral angiography. J Neurosurg 25:98–114, 467–490Google Scholar
  307. Pestalozzi R (1849) Über Aneurysmata spuria der kleinen Gehirnarterien und ihren Zusammenhang mit der Apoplexie. Med Dissertation, Universität WürzburgGoogle Scholar
  308. Peters G (1969) Morphologie der traumatischen Veränderungen des Gehirns und seiner Häute. In: Kessel FK (ed) Neurotraumatologie, vol 1. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin München Wien, pp 37–91Google Scholar
  309. Petrovici I (1960) Hematomul cerebral intraparenchimatos spontan, Culegere de studii şi monografii de neurologic Ed A Acad R.P.R., BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  310. Pia HW (1956) Die Einwirkungen der Hirndrucksteigerung auf den Hirnstamm, ihre Klinik und Behandlung. Munch Med Wochenschr 47:1609–1613Google Scholar
  311. Pia HW (1959a) Ursachen und chirurgische Behandlung der nichttraumatischen Hirnblutungen. Ther Ggw 98:49–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Pia HW (1959b) Diagnose und Behandlung der spontanen intracerebralen Massenblutungen. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 7:425–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Pia HW (1961) Die neurochirurgische Behandlung der spontanen Hirnblutungen. Z Aerztl Fortbild (Jena) 50:329–337Google Scholar
  314. Pia HW (1964) Die traumatischen Hirnblutungen des Kindesalters. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 11:583–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Pia HW (1966) Diagnose und Therapie intraventriculärer Blutungen. In: Klinische Erfahrungen bei Hirnstammprozessen. Acta 25, Conventus Neuropsych. et EEG Hungarici, Budapest 1966Google Scholar
  316. Pia HW (1968a) Diagnose und Therapie der Hirnblutungen im Kindesalter. Beitr Neurochir 15:245–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Pia HW (1968b) Diagnose und Therapie der Hirnblutungen im Kindesalter. Tijdschr Geneesk 24:765–770Google Scholar
  318. Pia HW (1968c) The diagnosis and treatment of intraventricular haemorrhages. Prog Brain Res 30:463–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Pia HW (1969) Vasculäre Mißbildungen und Erkrankungen der hinteren Schädelgrube und ihre Behandlung. HNO 17:165–171Google Scholar
  320. Pia HW (1970) Therapie der Subarachnoidalblutungen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 95:700–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Pia HW (1972) The surgical treatment of intracerebral and intraventricular haematomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 27:149–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Pia HW (1972) The surgical treatment of intracerebral hematomas. In: Fusek J, Kunc Z (eds) Present limits of neurosurgery. Avicenum, Prague, pp 323–328Google Scholar
  323. Pia HW (1975) The acute treatment of cerebral arteriovenous angiomas associated with hematomas. In: Pia HW, Gleave JRW, Grote E, Ziersky J (eds) Cerebral angiomas — Advances in diagnosis and therapy. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 155–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Pia HW (1979) Die operative Behandlung der spontanen intrazerebralen Blutungen. Neurol Psychiatr 5:356–364Google Scholar
  325. Pia HW (1977) Operative treatment of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhages. Proc 10th Conf Pol Soc Neurosurg, Gdánsk, pp 267–283Google Scholar
  326. Pia HW, Müller W (1953) Klinik und Ätiologie der Massenblutungen in Hypophysenadenomen. Dtsch Z Nervenheilkd 170:326–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Pick L (1910) Über die sogenannten miliären Aneurysmen der Hirngefäße. Berl Klin Wochenschr 47:325–329Google Scholar
  328. Pilcher C (1941) Subcortical hematoma. Surgical treatment with report of eight cases. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 46:416–430Google Scholar
  329. Pineda A (1977) Computed tomography in intracerebral haemorrhage. Surg Neurol 8:55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Pitner SE, Mance CJ (1973) An evaluation of stroke intensive care: Results in a municipal hospital. Stroke 4:737–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Pouyanne H, Got M, Julien G, Riemens V, Paoli M (1967) Deux cas d’hématomes infraprotubérantiels opérés. Étude critique. Neurochirurgie 13:738–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Ramey IG, Coles AB, Gifford AJ, Hicks DJ, Jarcho LW, Keilhofer GT, Madden BW, Marshall AM, Martin N, Peabody SR, Regan P, Rothberg JS (1972) Guidelines for the nursing care of stroke patients. Stroke 3:633Google Scholar
  333. Ransohoff J, Randt CT (1965) Profiles of fatal and non-fatal closed head injury. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Neurological Surgery, pp 137–142 (Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  334. Ransohoff J, Derby B, Kircheff I (1970) Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. Clin Neurosurg 18:247–266Google Scholar
  335. Rapoport SI (1976) Opening of the blood-brain barrier by acute hypertension. Exp Neurol 52:467–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Reisner H (1954) Die Klinik und Therapie der cerebralen Gefäßerkrankungen des höheren Lebensalters. Wien Z Nervenheilkd 9:92–108Google Scholar
  337. Reisner H (1972) Differentialdiagnose Hirninfarkt — Hirnblutung. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 78:461–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Reisner H (1975) Die zerebrale Blutung. Kassenarzt 8:1087–1096Google Scholar
  339. Reisner T, Dal-Bianco P (to be published) Computed tomography in intracerebral haemorrhage. Cerebral vascular disease. 9th International Conference Salzburg 1978. Excerpta Medica, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  340. Reisner H, Felger GP, Scherzer E (1961) Das weitere Schicksal von 1000 zerebralen Insulten. Wien Klin Wochenschr 73:397–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Rey-Bellet J (1960) Cerebellar hemorrhage: A clinicopathologic study. Neurology (Minneap) 10:217–222Google Scholar
  342. Reynolds AF Jr (1978) Aphasia and left thalamic hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 48:570–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Richardson AE (1969) Surgical therapy of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. Progress Neurol Surg 3:397–418Google Scholar
  344. Richardson AE (1972) Spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 12. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 54–67Google Scholar
  345. Richardson AE (1976) Spontaneous intracerebral and cerebellar haemorrhage. In: Ross Russell RZ (ed) Cerebral arterial disease. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, pp 210–230Google Scholar
  346. Riishede J (1967) Cerebral apoplexy: statistical and diagnostic considerations. Can Med Assoc J 97:151–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Robertson WF (1900) A text-book of pathology in relation to mental diseases. Clay, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  348. Robson GS, Anderson RM (1973) Central nervous system lesions in childhood leukaemia. Med J Aust 23:1134–1137Google Scholar
  349. Rockett JF, Moinnuddin MA (1976) Dynamic cerebral imaging. Clin Nucl Med 1:166–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Rokitanski C (1844) Handbuch der pathologischen Anatomic Bd II. Braunmüller & Seidel, WienGoogle Scholar
  351. Roland PE, Larsen B (1976) Focal increase of cerebral blood flow during stereognostic testing in man. Arch Neurol (Wien) 33:551–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Rosenberg GA, Kaufman DM (1976) Cerebellar hemorrhage: Reliability of clinical evaluation. Stroke 7:332–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Rosenblath L (1918) Über die Entstehung der Hirnblutung bei dem Schlaganfall. Dtsch Z Nervenheilkd 61:10–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Rosenblum WI (1977) Miliary aneurysms and “fibrinoid” degeneration of cerebral blood vessels. Hum Pathol 8:133–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Rosenthal LA (1971) Intravenous and intracarotid radionuclide cerebral angiography. Semin Nucl Med 1:70–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Rothemund E, Frische M (1973) Klinisch-pathologische Studie zur Entstehung der intracerebralen Gefäßhyalinose bei Hypertonie. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 217:195–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Rouchoux JA (1814) Recherches sur l’apoplexie, 1st ed. Béchet, ParisGoogle Scholar
  358. Rouchoux JA (1842) Du ramollissement de cerveau et de sa curabilité. Gaz Med 10:376Google Scholar
  359. Russell DS (1954) The pathology of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage. Proc R Soc Med 47:689–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Russell RW (1963) Observations on intracerebral aneurysms. Brain 86:425–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Russo RH, Dicks RE (1977) Arteriovenous malformations of the brain stem in childhood. Surg Neurol 8:167–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Sahs AL (1975) Medical management of vascular diseases. In: Tower DB (ed) The nervous system, vol 2. Raven, New York, pp 167–172Google Scholar
  363. Sanders E (1881) A study of primary, immediate or direct hemorrhage into the ventricles of the brain. Ann J Med Sci 82:85–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Sano K (1965) Survey of the organization of services for the treatment of acute head injury in Japan. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Neurological Surgery, pp 39–46 (Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  365. Sano K, Yoshioka M, Masuzawa H (1964) Spontaneous intracerebellar hemorrhage. Clin Neurol (Tokyo) 4:511–512Google Scholar
  366. Santos-Buch CA, Goodhue WW, Ewald BH (1976) Concurrence of iris aneurysms and cerebral hemorrhage in hypertensive rabbits. Arch Neurol 33:96–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Schaafsma S (1968) On the differential diagnosis between cerebral hemorrhage and infarction. J Neurol Sci 7:83–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Schiefer W (1972a) Symptomatologie und Klinik der infratentoriellen Blutungen. In: Gänshirt H (ed) Der Hirnkreislauf. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  369. Schiefer W (1972b) Klinik der intrazerebralen Massenblutungen und spontanen Haematome. In: Gänshirt H (ed) Der Hirnkreislauf. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 680–714Google Scholar
  370. Scholz W, Nieto D (1938) Studien zur Pathologie der Hirngefäße. I. Fibrose und Hyalinose. Z Neurol 162:675–693Google Scholar
  371. Schuier FJ, Vise WM, Hossmann K-A, Zülch KJ (1978) Cerebral microembolization. II. Morphological studies. Arch Neurol 35:264–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Schwartz P (1972) Apoplectic lesions of the brain in adults. In: Vinken JP, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 11. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 578–659Google Scholar
  373. Scott BB, Seeger JF, Schneider RC (1973) Successful evacuation of a pontine hematoma secondary to rupture of a pathologically diagnosed “cryptic” vascular malformation: Case report. J Neurosurg 39:104–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Scott M (1975) Spontaneous intracerebral hematoma caused by cerebral neoplasms. Report of eight verified cases. J Neurosurg 42:338–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Scott WR, New PFJ, Davis KR, Schnur JA (1974) Computerized axial tomography of intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. Radiology 112:73–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Scoville WB, Poppen JL (1949) Intrapeduncular hemorrhage of the brain. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 61:688–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. Seeler RA, Imana RB (1973) Intracranial hemorrhage in patients with hemophilia. J Neurosurg 39:181–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Severingshaus JW (ed) (1975) Coupling mechanisms, flow to function and metabolism in brain, a general discussion. In: Ingvar DH, Lassen NA (eds) Alfred Benzon Symposium VIII, Brain York. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 503–517Google Scholar
  379. Shinkai H, Yoshida Y, Ooneda G (1976) An electron microscopic study of plasmatic arterioneerosis in the human cerebral arteries. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 369:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Silverstein A (1972) Primary pontine hemorrhage. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds): Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 12. North Holland, Amsterdam, p 37Google Scholar
  381. Skinhøj E (1965) Bilateral depression of CBF in unilateral cerebral diseases. Acta Neurol Scand [Suppl] 14:161–163Google Scholar
  382. Skinhøj E, Strandgaard S (1973) Pathogenesis of hypertensive encephalopathy. Lancet I:461–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Slater R, Reichvich M, Goldberg H, Banka R, Greenberg J (1977) Diaschisis with cerebral infarction. Stroke 8:684–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Smith KR Jr, Bardenheider JA (1968) Aneurysm of the pericallosal artery caused by closed cranial trauma. Case report. J Neurosurg 29:551–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Sostre S (1976) Vein of Galen malformation. Clin Nucl Med 1:211–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Spatz H (1939) Pathologische Anatomie der Kreislaufstörungen des Gehirns. Z Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 167:301–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Sreerama K (1973) Neurosurgical complication of anticoagulant therapy. Can Med Assoc J 108:305–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Staemmler M (1958) Kreislaufstörungen und Gefäßerkrankungen des Zentralnervensystems. In: Kaufmann’s Lehrbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie, vol III/l. De Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  389. Stebbens WE (1972) Pathology of the cerebral blood vessels. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  390. Stein MA, Winter J (1974) Delayed appearance of anterior cerebral arteries on isotopic cerebral flow study: A sign of bleeding anterior communicating artery aneurysm. J Nucl Med 15:1217–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Steiner L, Bergvall U, Zwetnow N (1975) Quantitative estimation of intracerebral and intraventricular hematoma by computer tomography. Acta Radiol [Suppl] (Stockh) 346:143–154Google Scholar
  392. Stender A (1958) Die chirurgische Behandlung der spontanen intracerebralen Haematome. Zentralbl Neurochir 18:243–253Google Scholar
  393. Stender A, Schulze A (1965) The surgical treatment of space-occupying contusions and intracerebral haematoma after blunt cerebral trauma. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Neurological Surgery, pp 231–235 (Amsterdam)Google Scholar
  394. Steudel WI, Schneider E, Becker H (1980) Management and prognosis of intraventricular haemorrhage. Adv Neurosurg 7Google Scholar
  395. Stochdorph O, Meessen H (1957) Die arteriosklerotische und die hypertonische Hirnerkrankung. In: Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, vol XIII, IB. Springer, Berlin Göttingen Heidelberg, pp 1465–1510Google Scholar
  396. Sundt TM Jr, Waltz AG (1971) Cerebral ischemia and reactive hyperemia: Studies of cortical blood flow and microcirculation before, during and after temporary occlusion of middle cerebral artery of squirrel monkeys. Circ Res 28:426–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. Sussmann BJ, Barber JB, Goald H (1974) Experimental intracerebral hematoma. Reduction of oxygen tension in brain and cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurosurg 41:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Suzuki J, Kodama N (1971) Cerebrovascular “Moya-moya” disease. Second report: Collateral routes to forebrain via ethmoid sinus and superior nasal meatus. Angiology 22:223–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. Suzuki K, Ooneda G (1972) Cerebral arterial lesions in experimental hypertensive rats. Exp Mol Pathol 16:341–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Suzuki J, Sato T (1972) The new transinsular approach to the hypertensive intracerebral hematoma. Jpn J Surg 2:47–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Suzuki J, Sato T (1976) Surgery for the hypertensive intracerebral hematoma — Trans-Sylvian approach. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 16:115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Suzuki J, Takaku A (1969) Cerebrovascular “Moya-moya” disease; a disease showing abnormal net-like vessels in base of brain. Arch Neurol 20:288–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Swank RL, Bartsch W (1971) Influence of aggregated blood cells on cerebrovascular disease. In: Zülch KJ (ed) Cerebral circulation and stroke. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 164–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Symon L (1978) Disordered cerebro-vascular physiology in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir 41:1–3, 7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Symon L, Pasztor E, Branston NM (1974) The distribution and density of reduced cerebral blood flow following acute middle cerebral artery occlusion: An experimental study by the technique of hydrogen clearance in baboons. Stroke 5:355–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Symonds CP (1940) Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage. Br Med J 1:1048–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Tandon PN, Kristensen K (1965) Clinical pathological observations on brain stem dysfunction in craniocerebral injuries. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Neurological Surgery (Amsterdam) pp 126–129Google Scholar
  408. Tedeschi G, Bernini FP, Cerillo A (1975) Indication for surgical treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 43:590–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Teilmann K (1953) Hemangiomas of the pons. Arch Neurol 69:208–223Google Scholar
  410. Tenuto RA, Cruz OR (1958) Hematoma intraprotuberantial. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 16:201–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Terao H, Hori T, Matsutani M, Okeda R (1979) Detection of cryptic vascular malformations by computerized tomography. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg 51:546–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Toole JF, Truscott BL, Anderson WW, Aronson PR, Blaisdell RW, Dustan HP, Dyken ML, Folex AR, Halsey JH, Langfitt TW, Lowrence MS, Mullan JF (1973) Medical and surgical management of stroke. Stroke 4:273Google Scholar
  413. Torack RM (1975) Congophilic angiopathy complicated by surgery and massive hemorrhage. Am J Pathol 81:349–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. Tovi D (1972) Studies on fibrinolysis in the central nervous system with special reference to intracranial haemorrhages and to the effect of antifibrinolytic drugs. Med Dissertations No 8, Umea UniversityGoogle Scholar
  415. Tyson JW, Witherspoon LR, Wilkison RH, Goodrich JK (1974) Accuracy of radionuclide cerebral angiograms in the detection of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Nucl Med 15:953–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. Ule G, Kolkmann FW (1972) Pathologische Anatomie In: Gänshirt H (ed) Der Hirnkreislauf. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 47–190Google Scholar
  417. Van der Ark GD, Kahn EA (1968) Spontaneous intracerebral hematoma. J Neurosurg 28:252–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. Vedrenne C, Chodkiewicz JP (1975) Les lésions du tronc cérébral chez les traumatisés crâniens (étude anatomique). IIIe Symposium international de posturographie. Paris 23.–26. septembre 1975 (1 – 8)Google Scholar
  419. Verjaal A (1958) Het spontane intracerebrale haematoom. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 102:1935–1936Google Scholar
  420. Virchow R (1856) Phlogose und Thrombose im Gefäßsystem. Thrombose und Embolic In: Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur wissenschaftlichen Medizin. Meidinger, Frankfurt, pp 219–380Google Scholar
  421. Voris HC (1945) Factors influencing mortality in head injury. Radiology 44:166–170Google Scholar
  422. Vuia O, Alexianu M, Gabor S (1970) Hypoplasia and obstruction of the circle of Willis in a case of atypical cerebral hemorrhage and its relationship to Nishimoto’s disease. Neurology (Minneap) 20:361–367Google Scholar
  423. Vital Statistics, 1951–1976, Division of Health and Welfare. Statistics, Welfare Minister Secretariat, JapanGoogle Scholar
  424. Walker AE (1957) Prognosis in post-traumatic epilepsy. A 10 year follow-up on craniocerebral injuries in world war II. JAMA 164:1636–1641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Walker AE, Black P (1960) The heroic treatment of acute head injuries; a critical analysis of the results. Am Surg 26:184–188Google Scholar
  426. Walshe T, Hier D, Davis K (1977) The diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage: the contribution of computed tomography. Comput Tomogr 1:63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Walter W, Schütte W (1965) Zur Klinik und Pathogenese des spontanen intrazerebralen Hämatoms. Dtsch Z Nervenheilkd 187:660–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. Watanabe R (1963) Clinicopathological study of primary massive pontine hemorrhage. Clin Neurol 3:94–112Google Scholar
  429. Weber J (1963) Das intrazerebrale Hämatom. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 91:510–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Weigel K, Ostertag CB, Mundinger F (1978) CT follow-up control of traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Adv Neurosurg 5:62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. Wepfer JT (1658) Observationes anatomicae ex cadaveribus eorum, quos sustulit apoplexia, cum exerzitatione de ejus loco affecto. Suter, SchaffhusiiGoogle Scholar
  432. Westphal K, Bär R (1926) Über die Entstehung des Schlaganfalles: I. Pathologisch-anatomische Untersuchungen zur Frage der Entstehung des Schlaganfalles. Dtsch Arch Klin Med 151:1–30Google Scholar
  433. The White House Conference on Handicapped Individuals (1978) Summary final report. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Office for Handicapped Individuals, Washington, D.C. 20201Google Scholar
  434. Wiedersberg H (1970) Die zentralen Todesursachen bei der essentiellen Hypertension. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 95:1271–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Wilson JL, Moseley IF (1977) A diagnostic approach to cerebellar lesions. In: Du Boulay GH, Moseley IF (eds) Computerized axial tomography in clinical practice. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Wissler RW (1977) Coronary atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. In: Zülch KJ, Kaufmann W, Hossman K-A, Hossmann V (eds) Brain and heart infarct. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 206–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. Wissler RW, Vesselinovitch D (1975) Regression of atherosclerosis in experimental animals and man. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 81:857–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. World Health Organisation Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation Programme (1976) World Health Statistics Annual (1970, 1971)Google Scholar
  439. Wüllenweber R, zum Winkel K, Gramme T, Lange S, Meese W (1976) Differentialdiagnose des Schlaganfalles im Computer-Tomogramm. Neurochirurgia 19:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. Wylie CM (1972) Epidemiology of stroke. In: Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 11. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 183–207Google Scholar
  441. Yamori J, Horie R, Handa L, Sato M, Fukase M (1976) Pathogenetic similarity of strokes in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans. Stroke 7:46–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Yates PO (1976) Vascular disease of the central nervous system. In: Blackwood W, Corsellis JAN (eds) Greenfield’s neuropathology, 3rd ed. Arnold, London, pp 86–147Google Scholar
  443. Yoshida S, Sasaki M, Oka H, Gotoh O, Yamada R, Sano K (1978) Acute hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage with signs of lower brain stem compression. Surg Neurol 10:79–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Zenker FAZ (1872) Über die Pathogenese der spontanen Hirnhämorrhagien. Verh Naturforsch Ges Zimmerman HM (1949) Cerebral apoplexy: mechanism and differential diagnosis. NY State J Med 49:2153–2157Google Scholar
  445. Zimmermann RD, Leeds NE, Naidich TP (1977) Ring blush associated with intracerebral hematoma. Radiology 122:707–711Google Scholar
  446. Zülch KJ (1961a) Die Pathogenese von Massenblutung und Erweichung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung klinischer Gesichtspunkte. Acta Neurochir (Wien) [Suppl VII] 51–117Google Scholar
  447. Zülch KJ (1961b) Zur Operation der intracerebralen Massenblutungen. Zentralbl Chir 86:350–395Google Scholar
  448. Zülch KJ (1963) Zur Pathogenese des cerebrovaskulären Insultes. Internist (Berlin) 4:64–70Google Scholar
  449. Zülch KJ (1966) Über die Möglichkeiten chirurgischer Therapie bei Erkrankungen der Hirngefäße. Krüger-Gedenk-Symposion, Bad IschlGoogle Scholar
  450. Zülch KJ (1968) Neuropathology of intracranial hemorrhage. Progr Brain Res 30:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. Zülch KJ (1971a) Pathological aspects of cerebral accidents in arterial hypertension. Acta Neurol Belg 71:196–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. Zülch KJ (1971b) Hemorrhage, thrombosis, embolism. In: Minckler J (ed) Pathology of the nervous system, vol 2. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1499–1536Google Scholar
  453. Zülch KJ (1972) Does a neurology department need its own intensive care unit? Z Neurol 201:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Zülch KJ (1977a) Clinical ischemia: In: Brain and heart infarct. Zülch KJ, Kaufmann W, Hossmann KA, Hossmann V (eds) Brain Infarcts. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 288–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Zülch KJ (1977b) Transient ischemic attacks (TIA). In: III. Symp. Internacional de EEG, Practica sobre Accidentes Vasculares Transitorios (TAIT) y Epilepsias Tardias Vasculares (ETV), Valencia, pp 177–189Google Scholar
  456. Zülch KJ, Gehlen W (1971) Die Intensiv-Überwachungs- und Behandlungsstation der neurologischen Klinik. Fortschr Med 89:1247–1251Google Scholar
  457. Zülch KJ, Gessaga E (1972) Infarcts in the carotid system. Vasc Surg 6:114–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Zülch KJ, Tzonos T (1964) Transsudationsphänomene an den tiefen Hirnvenen nach Blockade von Arteriolen oder Kapillaren der Rinde durch Mikroembolien. Naturwissenschaften 51:539–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. Zülch KJ, Tzonos T (1965) Transudation phenomena in the deep veins after blockage of arterioles and capillaries by micro-emboli. Bibl Anat 7:279–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. Zülch KJ, Einsiedel-Lechtape H, Hartmann W (1973) Der Mediahauptstamm-Verschluß. Klinischangiographische Korrelation. In: Fisiopatologia clinica e terapia del circolo. Atti delle gionate mediche Triestine. Tipografia Gaetano Coana, Trieste, pp 117–124Google Scholar
  461. Zülch KJ, Pakula H, Schuier F (1976) Distant perivenous demyelination after microembolization of the brain. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2:163Google Scholar
  462. Zülch KJ, Hossmann KA, Rackl A, Pawlik G (1978) Multimethodological study of cerebral ischemic lesions with particular reference to regional EEG Fourier analysis. In: XX. Alpines EEG-meeting, CourchevelGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Werner Pia
    • 1
  • Charles Langmaid
    • 2
  • Jan Zierski
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurochirurgischen Universitäts-KlinikGiessenGermany
  2. 2.CardiffEngland

Personalised recommendations