## Abstract

It is only those basic laws of a theory which hold in every intended application and, similarly, only the general constraints which are included in the *core* of a theory. Formally, a core *K* may be represented either as a quadruple *K* = 〈*M*_{ p }, *M*_{ pp }, *M*, *C*〉 or as a quintuple *K* = 〈*M*_{ p }, *M*_{ pp }, *r*, *M*, *C*〉 Here, *M*_{ p }, *M*_{ pp }, and *M* are the sets mentioned at the end of § 3; *C* is the set of constraints, i.e., a subset *of the power set of M*; and the *restriction function r*: *M*_{ p }→*M*_{ pp } transforms an element of *M*_{ p }, i.e., a potential model, into an element of *M*_{ pp }, i.e., into a partial potential model, by ‘lopping off’ all theoretical functions. It depends on the particular aim and on the kind of analysis whether r is to be included into K or is, like the ‘application function’ *A*, to be introduced separately_{1}.

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