Cyprus Heat Flow with Comments on the Thermal Regime of the Eastern Mediterranean

  • P. Morgan
Conference paper

Abstract

Thirty-three heat flow determinations on Cyprus range from 6–46 mWm−2. There is a systematic distribution to the data, with low values in the Kyrenia Range and Morphou Bay area, intermediate values to the west and south of the Troodos Igneous Massif, and high values in the Mesaoria Plain and Troodos Pillow Lavas. Omitting the very low values, the average heat flow from the 18 most reliable determinations is 28±8 (standard deviation) mWm−2. If a climatic correction is applied, the average is increased to 32 mWm−2. Very low heat flow values probably result from the local mass transfer of heat. A bimodal distribution of the higher determinations can be explained either by thermal refraction within the crust, or as the result of heat transfer by regional water movement. The Cyprus heat flow values do not significantly differ from published marine determinations from the eastern Mediterranean. They do, however, impose constraints on models that can be used to explain the low heat flow. Rapid recent sedimentation has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the low observed marine heat flow values: this would not account for the low heat flow on Cyprus where erosion is taking place. Downward transfer of heat by descending mantle material has also been proposed, but it is not thought that this would produce such a uniformly low heat flow. The eastern Mediterranean heat flow data are consistent with values predicted for a thickly sedimented segment of Mesozoic or older mafic crust, with a stable mantle heat flow contribution, and little or no heat generation in the crust.

Keywords

Porosity Depression Europe Uranium Sedimentation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barazangi, M., Dorman, J,: World seismicity map from ESSA, Coast and Geodetic Survey, epicenter data, 1961–1967, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 59, 369–380 (1969)Google Scholar
  2. Bear, L.M.: The mineral resources and mining industry of Cyprus. Bulletin 1, Geol. Surv. Dept., Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Cyprus 1963Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A.E.: Lightweight boreholes temperature measuring equipment for resistance thermometers. J. Sci. Instrum. 40, 452–454 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A.E.: Techniques of measuring heat flow on land. In: Terrestrial heat flow. Lee, W.H.K. (ed.). Geophysical Monograph Series No. 8, pp. 24–57. Washington D.C.: Am. Geophys. Union 1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benfield, A.E.: The effect of uplift and denudation on underground temperatures. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 66–70 (1949)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blackwell, D.D.: The thermal structure of the continental crust. In: The structure and physical properties of the Earth’s crust. Heacock, J.G. (ed.). Geophysical Monograph Series No. 14, pp. 169–184. Washington D.C.: Am. Geophys. Union 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bullard, E.C.: Heat flow in South Africa. Proc, R.Soc. Lond. A173, 474–502 (1939)Google Scholar
  8. Bullard, E.C.: The distrubance of the temperature gradient in Earth’s crust by inequalities of height. Mon. Not, R, Astr. Soc. Geophys, Suppl, 4, 360–362 (1940)Google Scholar
  9. Carslaw, H, S., Jaeger, J.C.: Conduction of heat in Solids. 2nd ed, London: Oxford Univ. Press 1959Google Scholar
  10. Erickson, A.J.: The measurement and interpretation of heat flow in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Ph.D. Thesis, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge, Mass (1970)Google Scholar
  11. Gass, I.G.,: Is the Troodos Massif of Cyprus a fragment of Mesozoic ocean floor? Nature (London) 220, 39–42 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gass, I.G., Masson-Smith, D.: The geology and gravity anomalies of the Troodos Massif, Cyprus. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A255, 417–467 (1963)Google Scholar
  13. Henson, F.R.S., Browne, R.V., McGinty, J,: A synopsis of the stratigraphy and geological history of Cyprus. Q.J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 105, 1–41 (1949)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hji Stavrinou, Y.: Ann. Rep, Geol, Surv, Dept. 1967, pp. 1–40. Nicosia: Cyprus Geol. Surv. Dept. 1968Google Scholar
  15. Jeffreys, H.: The disturbance of the temperature gradient in the Earth’s crust by inequalities of height. Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc. Geophys. (Suppl.) 4, 309–312 (1940)Google Scholar
  16. Lee, W.H.K.: On the global variations of terrestrial heat flow, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 2, 332–341 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lort, J.M.: The tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean: a geophysical review. Rev. Geophys. 9, 189–216 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Levering, T.S., Goode, H.D,: Measuring geothermal gradients in drill holes less than 60 feet deep, East Tintic District, Utah. Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv. 1172 (1963)Google Scholar
  19. McKenzie, D.P.: Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region. Nature (London) 226, 239–243 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McKenzie, D.P,: Active tectonics of the Mediterranean region. Geophys, J.R. Astr. Soc. 30, 109–185 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Miyashiro, A.: The Troodos ophiolitie complex was probably formed in an island are. Earth Planet, Sci. Lett. 25, 213 (1973)Google Scholar
  22. Moores, E.M., Vine, F.J.: The Troodos Massif, Cyprus and other ophiolites as oceanic crust: evaluation and implications. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A268, 443–466 (1971)Google Scholar
  23. Morgan, P.: Porosity determinations and the thermal conductivity of rock fragments with application to heat flow on Cyprus. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 26, 253–262 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ryan, W.B.F.: The floor of the Mediterranean Sea. Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University, Lamont Geol. Obs., Palisades, New York (1969)Google Scholar
  25. Ryan, W.B.F., Stanley, D.J., Hersey, J.B., Fahlquist, D.A., Allan, T.D.: The tectonics and geology of the Mediterranean Sea, Part II. In: The sea. Maxwell A.E. (ed.), Vol. 4, pp. 387–492. New York: Wiley-Inter-science 1970Google Scholar
  26. Sass, J.H., Lachenbruch, A.H., Munroe, R.J.: Thermal conductivity of rocks from measurements on fragments and its application to heat flow determinations. J. Geophys. Res. 76, 3391–3401 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sclater, J.G., Francheteau, J.: The implications of terrestrial heat flow observations on current tectonic and geochemical models of the crust and upper mantle of the Earth. Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc. 20, 509–542 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smewing, J.D., Simonian, K.O., Gass, I.G.: Metabasalts from the Troodos Massif, Cyprus: genetic implication deduced from petrography and trace element geochemistry. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 51, 49–64 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vine, F.J., Moores, E.M.: Paleomagnetic results for the Troodos Igneous Massif, Cyprus, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 50, 131 (1969)Google Scholar
  30. Vogt, P.R., Higgs, R.H.: An aeromagnetic survey of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and its interpretation. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 5, 439–448 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Morgan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyImperial CollegeLondonGreat Britain

Personalised recommendations