Heat Flow Map of Europe

  • V. Čermák

Abstract

The heat flow map of Europe was derived from 3076 existing observations, which for this purpose were supplemented by numerous results of deep borehole temperatures, gradients, and local heat flow patterns. In areas without data the heat flow field was estimated on the basis of the regional tectonic structure and the observed correlation of heat flow with the age of the last tectono-thermal event. The heat flow pattern as shown on the map may be described by two components: (1) the regional part and (2) the local part of the measured surface geothermal activity. The regional part of the heat flow field in Europe is dominated on the whole by a general “north-east to south-west” increase of the geothermal activity, which is an obvious consequence of the tectonic evolution. The major heat flow provinces correspond thus to the principal tectonic units. The geothermal fine structure (local part) superimposing the former is mainly controlled by local tectonics, especially by the distribution of the deep-reaching fracture zones and by the hydrogeological parameters. The paper gives a brief introductory description of the map, together with some remarks to the problem of preparing the map, corrections to the measured heat flow values and data obtained by numerous authors in all individual European countries. The correlation between the heat flow pattern and the crustal structure allows some preliminary geophysical implications: (1) areas of the increased seismicity may be connected with the zones of high horizontal temperature gradient, (2) increased surface heat flow may be generally observed in the areas of weakened crustal thickness, (3) there are considerable regional variations in the calculated temperature on the Mohorovičić discontinuity, as well as in the upper mantle heat flow contribution, (4) upper mantle heat flow must be of fundamental importance for the understanding of large-scale and long-term crustal evolution.

Keywords

Convection Depression Europe Steam Sedimentation 

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Čermák
    • 1
  1. 1.Geophysical InstituteCzechoslovak Academy of SciencesPraha-SpořilovCzechoslovakia

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