Oocytes from Adult Ovaries: First and Second Meiotic Divisions

  • Berta-Margareta Uebele-Kallhardt


The originally large number of germ cells, which reaches a maximum of approximately 6,000,000 during the fifth month postconception, is already being reduced in the fetal ovary because of cell degeneration; this process continues even in the adult ovary. The number of oocytes at the beginning of puberty has been estimated at 100,000, only 300–400 of which ever mature during the reproductive life span.


Zona Pellucida Polar Body Meiotic Division Follicle Cell Germinal Vesicle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Austin, C.R., Short, R.V. (eds.): Reproduction in Mammals. Book 1: Germ Cells and Fertilization. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press 1972.Google Scholar
  2. Biggers, J.D., Schuetz, A.W. (eds.): Oogenesis. Baltimore: University Park Press; London: Butterworths 1972.Google Scholar
  3. Blandau, R.J. (ed.): Aging Gametes, Their Biology and Pathology. Basel-New York: Karger 1975.Google Scholar
  4. Chandley, A.: Culture of mammalian oocytes. J. Reprod. Fert. (Suppl.) 14, 1–6 (1971).Google Scholar
  5. Channing, C.: Steroidogenesis and morphology of human ovarian cell types in tissue culture. J. Endocrinol. 45, 297–308 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donahue, R.P.: Reproductive Genetics. Birth Defects: Orig. Art. Ser., 1974, Vol. X, Nr. 10, pp. 3–13.Google Scholar
  7. Eberle, P.: Die Chromosomenstruktur des Menschen in Mitosis und Meiosis. Fortschritte der Evolutionsforschung. Heberer, G. (ed.), Stuttgart: G. Fischer, 1966, Vol. II.Google Scholar
  8. Edwards, R.G.: Observations on meiosis in normal males and females. In: Human Population Cytogenetics, Jacobs, P.A., Price, W.H., Law, P. (eds.), Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1970, Pfizer Medical Monographs 5, pp. 9–21.Google Scholar
  9. Edwards, R.G., Fowler, R.F.: The genetics of human preimplantation development. In: Modern Trends in Human Genetics, Emery, A.E.H. ( ed.), London: A.E.H. (ed.), 1970, Vol. I, pp. 181–213.Google Scholar
  10. Edwards, R.G.: Maturation in vitro of human ovarian oocytes. Lancet 1965 II, 926–929.Google Scholar
  11. Ferguson-Smith, M.A.: Chromosomal satellite association. Lancet 1967 I/ 7500, 1156–1157.Google Scholar
  12. Ford, E.H.R.: Human Chromosomes. London-New York: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar
  13. Fowler, R.E., Edwards, R.G.: The genetics of early human development. In: Progress in Medical Genetics, Steinberg, A.G., Bearn, A.G. ( eds.), New York-London: A.G. (eds.), 1973, Vol. IX, pp. 49–112.Google Scholar
  14. Gondos, B., Zamboni, L.: Ovarian development: The functional importance of germ cell interconnections. Fertil. Steril. 20, 176–189 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hamerton, J.L.: Human Cytogenetics. New York-London: Academic Press, 1971, Vols. I, I I.Google Scholar
  16. Hoehn, H., Sander, C., Sander, L.Z.: Aneusomie de recombinaison: Rearrangement between paternal chromosomes 4 and 18 yielding offspring with features of the 18q— syndrome. Ann. Genet. 14, 187–192 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hultén, M.: Cytogenetic aspects of human male meiosis. Thesis, Stockholm, 1974.Google Scholar
  18. Jagiello, G., Ducayen, M., Fang, J.-S., Graffeo, J.: Cytogenetic observations in mammalian oocytes. In: Chromosomes Today V, Pearson, P.L., Lewis, K.L. (eds.), New York: Wiley, 1976, pp. 43–63.Google Scholar
  19. John, B., Lewis, K.R.: The Meiotic System. Protoplasmatologia. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer, 1965, Vol. VI.Google Scholar
  20. Kennedy, J.F., Donahue, R.P.: Human oocytes: Maturation in chemically defined media. Science 164, 1292–1293 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Knörr, K., Knörr-Gärtner, H.: Das Abortgeschehen unter genetischen Aspekten. Gynäkologe 10, 3–8 (1977).Google Scholar
  22. Knörr-Gärtner, H., Knörr, K., Haas, B.: Familiäre Translokation t (4q−; 18q +) mit verschiedenartigen unbalancierten Nachkommen. Humangenetik 21, 315–321 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Knörr, K., Uebele-Kallhardt, B.: Meiosestörungen menschlicher Eizellen nach Einwirkung endogener und exogener Noxen. In: Fortschritte der Fertilitätsforschung, Schirren, C. ( ed.), Berlin: C. (ed.), 1971, Vol. 2, pp. 28–33.Google Scholar
  24. Knörr, K., Uebele-Kallhardt, B.: Entwicklung und Reifung der Eizelle und ihre Störungen. In: Funktion und Pathologie des Ovariums, König, P.A., Probst, V. (eds.), Stuttgart: Enke, 1971, pp. 6–12.Google Scholar
  25. Langman, J.: Medical Embryology, 3rd ed., Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  26. Lejeune, J., Berger, R.: Sur deux observations familiales de translocations complexes. Ann. Génét. 8, 21–29 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Nakogome, Y.: G-group chromosomes in satellite associations. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 12, 336 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nakogome, Y.: Participation of D-group chromosomes in satellite associations. Humangenetik 25, 235–236 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nalbandov, A.V.: Interaction between oocytes and follicular cells. In: Oogenesis, Biggers, J.D., Schuetz, A.W. (eds.), Baltimore: University Park Press; London: Butterworths 1972, pp. 513–522.Google Scholar
  30. Paris Conference (1971): Standardization in Human Cytogenetics. Birth Defects Orig. Art. Ser. New York: The National Foundation 1972, Vol. 8, Nr. 7.Google Scholar
  31. Patil, S.R., Lubs, H.A.: Non-random association of human acrocentric chromosomes. Humangenetik 13, 157–159 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pincus, G., Saunders, B.: The comparative behaviour of mammalian eggs in vivo and in vitro. II. The maturation of human ovarian ova. Anat. Rec. 75, 537–545 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pinkerton, H.M., McKay, D.G., Adams, E.C., Hertig, A.T.: Development of the human ovary—a study using histochemical techniques. Obstet. Gynec. 18, 152–181 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Robinson, J.A.: Meiosis I non-disjunction as the main cause of trisomy 21. Hum. Genet. 39, 27–30 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sasaki, M., Makino, S.: The meiotic chromosomes of man. Chromosoma 16, 637–651 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sele, B., Jalbert, P., van Cutsem, B., Lucas, M., Mouriquand, C., Bouchez, R.: Distribution of human chromosomes on the metaphase plate using banding techniques. Hum. Genet. 39, 39–63 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shettles, L.B.: Ovum Humanum. München-Berlin: Urban und Schwarzenberg 1960.Google Scholar
  38. Suzuki, S.: An Atlas of Mammalian Ova. Stuttgart: Thieme 1974.Google Scholar
  39. Tsafiri, A., Pomerantz, S.H., Channing, C.P.: Follicular control of oocyte maturation. In: Ovulation in the Human, Crosignani, P.G., Mishell, D.R. (eds.), London-New York: Academic Press, 1976, pp. 31–39.Google Scholar
  40. Uebele-Kallhardt, B., Knörr, K.: Meiotische Chromosomen der Frau. Humangenetik 12, 182–187 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Uebele-Kallhardt, B.: Mutation frequency in human oocytes. Humangenetik 16, 127–129 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Uebele-Kallhardt, B., Knörr, K.: Meiotic chromosome study in a human female translocation heterozygote. Humangenetik 26, 355–356 (1975a).Google Scholar
  43. Uebele-Kallhardt, B., Knörr, K.: Die Eizellen polycystischer menschlicher Ovarien. Arch. Gynäk. 218, 189–201 (1975b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wieczorek, V.: Chromosomenanomalien als Ursache von Fehlgeburten. München: Goldmann 1971.Google Scholar
  45. Yuncken, C.: Meiosis in the human female. Cytogenetics 7, 234–238 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zamboni, L.: Fine structure of human follicular oocytes maturing in vitro. In: Biology of Reproduction, Biggers, J.D. ( ed.), New York-London: J.D. (ed.), 1971, Vol. 5, p. 90.Google Scholar
  47. Zamboni, L.: Modulations of follicle cell-oocyte association in sequential stages of mammalian follicle development and maturation. In: Ovulation in the Human, Crosignani, P.G., Mishell, D.R. (eds.), London-New York: Academic Press, 1976, pp. 1–30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berta-Margareta Uebele-Kallhardt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Clinical GeneticsUniversity of UlmWest Germany

Personalised recommendations