Abstract

Geotropic responses of lower plants are occasionally mentioned in the classical text books of Vines (1886), Sachs (1887), Pfeffer (1903), and Jost (1907) and more recently have been briefly considered by Rawitscher (1937), Stiles (1950) and Bünntng (1953).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. Albaum, H. G.: Inhibitions due to growth hormones in fern prothallia and sporophytes. Amer. J. Bot. 25, 124–133 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allsop, A.: Morphogenetic effects of 3-indolylacetonitrile on sporeling of Marsilea in aseptic culture. J. exp. Bot. 7, 1–14 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asprey, G. F., K. Benson-Evans and A. G. Lyon: Effect of gibberellin and indoleacetic acid on seta elongation in Pellia epiphylla. Nature (Load.) 181, 1351 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Audus, L. J.: Personal communication 1961.Google Scholar
  5. Banbury, G. H.: Physiological studies in the Mucorales. I. The phototropism of sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. J. exp. Bot.. 3, 77–85 (1952a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banbury, G. H.: Physiological studies in the Mucorales. II. Some observations on growth regulation in the sporangiophore of Phycomyces. J. exp. Bot. 3, 86–94 (1952b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banbury, G. H., and M. J. Carllle: Phototropism of Phycomyces sporangiophores. Nature (Lond.) 181, 358–359 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benson-Evans, K.: The effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the female heads of Conocephalum conicum. Trans. brit. bryol. Soc. 2, 289–290 (1955a).Google Scholar
  9. Benson-Evans, K.: Some notes on spore germination in Mnium hornum Hedw. Trans. brit. bryol. Soc. 2, 291 (1955b).Google Scholar
  10. Bischoff, H.: Untersuchungen über den Geotropismus der Rhizoiden. Beih. bot. Zbl. 28 (1), 94–133 (1912).Google Scholar
  11. Bismarck, R. v.: Über den Geotropismus der Sphagnen. Flora (Jena) 148, 23–83 (1959).Google Scholar
  12. Bonner, J. T., K. K. Kane and R. H. Levey: Studies on the mechanics of growth in the common mushroom, Agaricus campestris. Mycologia 48, 13–19 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bopp, M.: Die Wirkung von Heteroauxin auf Protonemawachstum und Knospenbildung von Funaria hygrometrica. Z. Bot. 41, 1 (1953).Google Scholar
  14. Bopp, M.: Die Wirkung von Maleinhydrazid und Kalyptraextrakt auf die Verdickung von Laubmoossporogonen. Naturwissenschaften 41, 234–235 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borriss, H.: Beiträge zur Wachstums-und Entwicklungsphysiologie der Fruchtkörper von Coprinus lagopus. Planta (Berl.) 22, 28–69 (1934a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borriss, H.: Über den Einfluß äußerer Faktoren auf Wachstum und Entwicklung der Fruchtkörper von Coprinus lagopus. Planta (Berl.) 22, 644–684 (1934b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bose, S. R.: Effect of inversion of a small piece from the fruit-body of Ganoderma lucides (Leyss.) Karst. growing in situ on the trunk of Casuarina equisetifolia. Nature (Lond.) 145, 899–900 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brannon, M. A., and A. F. Bartsch: Influence of growth substances on growth and cell division in green algae. Amer. J. Bot. 26, 271–279 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brauner, L.: Tropisms and nastic movements. Ann Rev. Plant Physiol. 5, 163–182 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brian, P. W.: The effects of some microbial metabolic products on plant growth, p. 166–182. In: The Biological Action of Growth Substances, edit. H. K. Porter. Cambridge: University Press 1957.Google Scholar
  21. Briggs, W. R., T. A. Steeves, I. M. Sussex and R. H. Wetmore: A comparison of auxin destruction by tissue extracts and intact tissues of the fern Osmunda cinnamomea L. Plant Physiol. 30, 148–155 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bünning, E.: Entwicklungs-und Bewegungsphysiologie der Pflanzen. Berlin: Springer 1953.Google Scholar
  23. Buller, A. H. R.: The reaction of the fruit-bodies of Lentinus to external stimuli. Ann. Botany 19, 427–438 (1905).Google Scholar
  24. Buller, A. H. R.: Researches on Fungi, vol. I, London 1909; vol. 2, London 1922; vol. 4, London 1931; vol. 6, London 1934.Google Scholar
  25. Burrows, E. M.: Growth control in the Fucaceae. In Second Internat. Seaweed Symposium. Edit. T. Braarud and N. A. Sørensen. London and New York: Pergamon Press 1956.Google Scholar
  26. Bussmann, K.: Untersuchungen über die Induktion der Dorsiventralität bei den Farnprothallien. Jb. wiss. Bot. 87, 565–624 (1939).Google Scholar
  27. Bussmann, K.: Untersuchungen über the Induktion der Dorsiventralität bei apogamen Farnprothallien. Jb. wiss. Bot. 89, 615–636 (1941).Google Scholar
  28. Castle, E. S.: Spiral growth and reversal of spiraling in Phycomyces and their bearing on primary wall structure. Amer J Bot. 29, 664–672 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Castle, E. S.: Problems of oriented growth and structure in Phycomyces. Quart. Rev. Biol. 28, 364–372 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Castle, E. S.: The distribution of velocities of elongation and twist in the growth zone of Phycomyces. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 9, 477–489 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Castle, E. S.: The topography of tip growth in a plant cell. J. gen. Physiol. 41, 913–926 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Castle, E. S.: Growth distribution in the light-growth response of Phycomyces. J. gen. Physiol. 42, 697–702 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Castle, E. S.: Phototropic inversion in Phycomyces. Science 133, 1424–1425 (1961a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Castle, E. S.: Phototropism, adaption, and the light-growth response of Phycomyces. J. gen. Physiol. 45, 39–46 (1961b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cohen, R., and M. Delbrück: Distribution of stretch and twist along the growing zone of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 52, 361–388 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cohen, R., and M. Delbrück: Photoreaction in Phycomyces. Growth and tropic responses to the stimulation of narrow test areas. J. gen. Physiol. 42, 677–695 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Colla, S.: Sulle correnti di ripso e di lesione dei Basidiomiceti. Arch. Soi. biol. (Napoli) 10, 333–348 (1927).Google Scholar
  38. Cotton, A. D.: On the structure and systematic position of Sparassis. Trans. brit. mycol. Soc. 3, 333–339 (1912).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Czapek, F.: Untersuchungen über Geotropismus Jb. wiss. Bot. 27, 243–339 (1895).Google Scholar
  40. Czapek, F.: Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der geotropischen Reizbewegungen. Jb. wiss. Bot. 32, 175–308 (1898).Google Scholar
  41. Darsie, M. L.: Certain aspects of phototropism, growth and polarity in the single celled marine alga, Bryopsis. Thesis, Stanley University 1939. Cited by L. R. Blinks in Chapt. 14, Manual of Phycology, edit. G. M. Smith. Waltham: Chron. bot. 1951.Google Scholar
  42. Darwin, F.: Lectures on the physiology of movement in plants. V. The sense-organs for gravity and light. New Phytologist 6, 69–76 (1907).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Davidson, F. F.: The effects of auxin on the growth of marine algae. Amer. J. Bot. 37, 502–510 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Delbrück, M., and W. Reiohardt: System analysis for the light growth reactions of Phycomyces. In: Cellular Mechanisms in Differentiation and Growth, edit. D. Rudnick. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1956.Google Scholar
  45. Delbrück, M., and D. Varju: Photoreactions in Phycomyces. Responses to the stimulation of narrow test areas with ultraviolet light. J. gen. Physiol. 44, 1177–1188 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dennison, D. S.: Studies on phototropic equilibrium and phototropic-geotropic equilibrium in Phycomyces. Thesis, California Institute of Technology. 1958.Google Scholar
  47. Dennison, D. S.: Tropic responses of Phycomyces sporangiophores to gravitational and centrifugal stimuli. J. gen. Physiol. 45, 23–38 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Douirr, R.: Sur la sensibilité photo-géotropique du sporogone des hépatiqués. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 206, 764–766 (1938).Google Scholar
  49. Douirr, R.: Sur les reactions photo-tropiques et géotropiques des appareils reproducteur des hépatiques. Rev. gén. Bot. 60, 321–337 (1953).Google Scholar
  50. Dubuy, H. G., and R. A. Olson: The presence of growth regulators during the early development of Fucus. Amer. J. Bot. 24, 609–611 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dubuy, H. G., R. A. Olson and E. L. Nuernbergk: In: Manual of Pteridology, edit. by Fr. Verdoorn, Chapt. 10, Growth, Tropisms and Other Movements, p. 303–346. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff 1938.Google Scholar
  52. Fitting, H.: Untersuchungen über die Induktion der Dorsiventralität bei den keimenden Brutkörpern von Marchantia und Lunularia. I. Die Induktoren und ihre Wirkungen. Jb. wiss. Bot. 82, 333–376 (1935).Google Scholar
  53. Fitting, H.: V. Die Umkehrbarkeit der durch Außenfaktoren induzierten Dorsiventralität. Jb. wiss. Bot. 86, 107–227 (1938).Google Scholar
  54. Fitting, H.: Über die Umkehrung der Polarität in den Sporenkeimlingen einiger Laubmoose. Planta (Berl.) 37, 635–696 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Giesenhagen, K.: Über innere Vorgänge bei der geotropischen Krümmung der Wurzeln von Chara. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 19, 277–285 (1901).Google Scholar
  56. Gillespie, B., and W. R. Briggs: Mediation of geotropic response by lateral transport of auxin Plant Physiol. 36, 364–368 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Goebel, K.: Morphologische und biologische Bemerkungen. 24. Die Abhängigkeit der Dorsiventralität vom Lichte bei einer Selaginella-Art. Flora (Jena) 108, 315–318 (1915).Google Scholar
  58. Gruen, H. E.: Growth and curvature of Phycomyces sporangiophores. Doctoral thesis, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass., 1956.Google Scholar
  59. Gruen, H. E.: Growth and development of isolated Phycomyces sporangiophores. Plant Physiol. 34, 158–168 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gruen, H. E.: Auxins and fungi. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 10, 405–440 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gruen, H. E.: Growth regulation in mushrooms. Plant Physiol. Suppl. (Proceedings) 36, xxii (1961).Google Scholar
  62. Haberlandt, G.: Über das Längenwachstum und den Geotropismus der Rhizoiden von Marchantia und Lunularia. Ost. bot. Z. 39, 93–98 (1889).Google Scholar
  63. Hagrmoto, H., and M. Konishi: Studies on the growth of fruit body of fungi. I. Existence of a hormone active to the growth of fruit body in Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 72, 359–366 (1959).Google Scholar
  64. Hagrmoto, H., and M. Konishi: II. Activity and stability of the growth hormone in the fruit body of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 73, 283–287 (1960).Google Scholar
  65. Halbsguth, W.: Über die Entwicklung der Dorsiventralität bei Marchantia polymorpha L. Ein Wuchsstoffproblem. J Biol. Zbl. 72, 52–104 (1953).Google Scholar
  66. Halbsguth, W., u. H. Kohlenbach: Einige Versuche über die Wirkung von Heteroauxin auf die Symmetrieentwicklung der Brutkörperkeimlinge von Marchantia polymorpha L. Planta (Berl.) 42, 349–366 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harvey, R.: Sporophore development and proliferation in Hydnum auriscalpium Fr. Trans. brit. mycol. Soc. 41, 325–334 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Haupt, W.: Bewegungen. Fortschr. Bot. 22, 372–393 (1960).Google Scholar
  69. Hawker, L. E.: A quantitative study of the geotropism of seedlings with special reference to the nature and development of their statolith apparatus. Ann. Botany 46, 121–157 (1932).Google Scholar
  70. Hawker, L. E.: Experiments on the perception of gravity by roots. New Phytologist 31, 321–328 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hawker, L. E.: Physiology of Fungi. London: University of London Press 1950.Google Scholar
  72. Heuckel, A.: Le phototropisme des Mucorini. Bull. Inst. Recherches biol. St. Biol. Univ. Perm 5, 307–310 (1927).Google Scholar
  73. Ingold, C. T.: Dispersal in Fungi. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1953.Google Scholar
  74. Jaczewski, A. de: Note sur le geotropisme et le phototropisme chez les champignons. Bull. Soc. mycol. France 26, 404–408 (1910).Google Scholar
  75. Jaffe, L. F.: Morphogenesis in lower plants. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 9, 359–384 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jeffreys, D. B., and V. A. Greulach: The nature of tropisms of Coprinus sterquilinus. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 72, 153–158 (1956).Google Scholar
  77. Jöisson, B.: Der richtende Einfluß strömenden Wassers auf wachsende Pflanzen und Pflanzentheile (Rheotropismus). Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 1, 512–521 (1883).Google Scholar
  78. Jost, L.: Lectures on Plant Physiology. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1907.Google Scholar
  79. Klingmüller, W.: Zur Entwieklungsphysiologie der Ricciaceen. Flora (Jena) 147, 76–122 (1959).Google Scholar
  80. Knoll, F.: Untersuchungen über Längenwachstum und Geotropismus der Fruchtkörperstiele von Coprinus stiriacus. S.-B. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-nat. Kl. I 118, 575–633 (1909).Google Scholar
  81. Kohl, F. G.: Mechanik der Reizkrümmungen Marburg, Eiwert 8, 94 (1894).Google Scholar
  82. Kohl, F. G.: Mechanik der Reizkrümmungen Marburg, Zit. Beih. bot. Zbl. 65, 264 (1896).Google Scholar
  83. Kohlenbach, H. W.: Die Bedeutung des Heteroauxins für the Entwicklung der Dorsiventralität der Brutkörperkeimlinge von Marchantia polymorpha L. Biol. ZM. 76, 70–125 (1957).Google Scholar
  84. Kum, W.: Über den Einfluß der Schwerkraft auf die Entstehung der Dorsiventralität bei den Pilzhüten. Z. Pilzk. 4, 48–50 (1925).Google Scholar
  85. Langeron, M., et R. van Breuseghem: Précis de Mycologie. Paris: Masson & Cie. 1952.Google Scholar
  86. La Rue, C. D., and S. Narayanaswami: Auxin inhibition in the liverwort Lunularia. New Phytologist 56, 61–70 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lomvag, K.: Wachstumsversuche mit Lenzites betulina (L.) Fr. Ost. bot. Z. 102, 524–528 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Maass, W.: Zur Frage einer Beteiligung von Indolylessigsäure beim Wachstum und beim Phototropismus von Phycomyces. Arch. Mikrobiol. 30, 73–90 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Macdonald, J. A., and M. A. Cartter: The rhizomorphs of Marasmius androsaceus Fries. Trans. brit. mycol. Soc. 44, 72–78 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Magnus, W.: Über die Formbildung der Hutpilze. Arch. Biontologie 1, 85–104 (1906).Google Scholar
  91. Maltzahn, K. E. v., and I. G. MacQcarrie: Effect of gibberellic acid on growth of protonemata in Splachnum ampullaceum (L.) Hedw. Nature (Lond.) 181, 1139–1140 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Massart, J.: Recherches sur les organismes inferieurs. VII. Les reflexes chez les Polyporees. Bull. Acad. Belg., Cl. Sci., 5me ser. 6, 82–90 (1920).Google Scholar
  93. Némec, B.: Die Perception des Schwerkraftreizes bei den Pflanzen. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 20, 339–354 (1902).Google Scholar
  94. Némec, B.: Die Symmetrieverhältnisse und Wachstumsrichtungen einiger Laubmoose. Jb. wiss. Bot. 43, 501–579 (1906).Google Scholar
  95. Noll, F.: Über Geotropismus. Jb. wiss. Bot. 34, 457–506 (1900).Google Scholar
  96. Olson, R. A., and H. G. Du Buy: The role of growth substance in the polarity and morphogenesis of Fucus. Amer. J. Bot. 24, 611–615 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Oort, A. J. P.: The spiral growth of Phycomyces. Proc. Acad. Sci. Amst 34, 564–575 (1931).Google Scholar
  98. Oort, A. J. P., and P. A. Roelofsen: Spiraíwachstum, Wandbau und Plasmaströmung bei Phycomyces. Proc. Acad. Sci. Amst 35, 898–908 (1932).Google Scholar
  99. Overbeek, J. van: Auxin in marine algae. Plant Physiol. 15, 291–299 (1940a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Overbeek, J. van: Auxin in marine algae. II. Bot. Gaz. 101, 940–947 (1940b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Petschow, F.: Geotropismus und Statolithenstärke bei Bryophyten. Beih. bot. Zbl. 51 (I), 287–310 (1933).Google Scholar
  102. Pfeffer, W.: The Physiology of Plants, part III, edit. A. J. Ewart. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1903.Google Scholar
  103. Pilet, P. E.: Sur l’apogéotropisme du Phycomyces. Experientia (Basel) 12, 148–149 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Plunkett, B. E.: The change of tropism in Polyporus brumalis stipes and the effect of directional stimuli on pileus differentiation. Ann. Botany 25, 206–223 (1961).Google Scholar
  105. Pop, L. J. J.: Protoplasmic streaming in relation to spiral growth of Phycomyces. Proc. kon. ned. Akad. Wet. 41, 661 (1938).Google Scholar
  106. Prankerd, T. L.: On the irritability of the fronds of Asplenium bulbiferum with special references to graviperception. Proc. roy. Soc. B 93, 143–152 (1922).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Prankerd, T. L.: The ontogeny of graviperception in Osmunda regalis. Ann Botany 34, 709–720 (1925).Google Scholar
  108. Prankerd, T. L.: Studies in geotropism of Pteridophyta. Proc. Linnean Soc. London 141, 3–4 (1928/29).Google Scholar
  109. Prankerd, T. L.: IV. On specifity in gravi-perception. J. Linnean Soc. Bot. 48, 317–336 (1929).Google Scholar
  110. Prankerd, T. L.: V. Some effects of temperature on growth and geotropism in Asplenium bulbiferum. Proc. roy. Soc. B 116, 479–493 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Prankerd, T. L.: VI. On rhythm in graviperception and reaction to gravity. Proc. roy. Soc. B 120, 126–141 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Prankerd, T. L., and F. M. O. Waight: On the presentation time and latent time for reaction to gravity in Pteridophytes. Rep. Brit. Ass. Adv. Sci. 1922. 1923, S. 397.Google Scholar
  113. Prevost-Monnot, F.: Evolution de l’ultra structure des gametanges d’Allomyces macrogynus. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 250, 3214–3216 (1960).Google Scholar
  114. Provasoli, L.: Effect of plant hormones on seaweeds. Biol. Bull. Mar. biol. Labor. Wood’s Hole 113, 321 (1957).Google Scholar
  115. Rawstscher, F.: Geotropism in plants. Bot. Rev. 3, 175–194 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Reichardt, W., u. D. Varjú: Eine Inversionsphase der phototropischen Reaktion. (Experimente an dem Pilz Phycomyces blakesleeanus.) Z. physik. Chem. 15, 297–320 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Reichardt, W., u. D. Varjú: Der Einfluß von Eigen-und Fremdrotation des Sporangienträgers von Phycomyces auf die phototropische Reaktion. Z. Naturforsch. 14b, 210–211 (1959).Google Scholar
  118. Roelofsen, P. A.: The plant cell wall. Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy. Berlin: Borntraeger 1959.Google Scholar
  119. Rosenvrnge, M. L. K.: Influence des agents extérieurs sur l’organisation polaire et dorsiventrale des plantes. Rev. gén. Bot. 1, 53–62, 123–135 (1889).Google Scholar
  120. Rousseau, J.: Action de l’acid a-naphthalineacetique sur les spores de Marchantia polymorpha L. Bull. Soc. bot. Fr. 99, 308–310 (1952).Google Scholar
  121. Rousseau, J.: Action des heteroauxines sur quelques Marchantiales. Huitième Congr. Internat. de Botanique, Paris. Rapports et Communications aux Sections 14, 15 et 16, p. 126–127. 1954.Google Scholar
  122. Rufelt, H.: Geotropism in roots and shoots. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 12, 409–430 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sachs, J. v.: Lectures on the Physiology of Plants. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1887.Google Scholar
  124. Schechter, V.: The effect of centrifuging on the polarity of an alga, Gri f f ithsia bornetiana. Biol. Bull. Mar. biol. Labor. Wood’s Hole 68, 172–179 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Schley, E. O.: Geo-presentation and geo-reaction. Bot. Gaz. 70, 69–81 (1920).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Schneider, R.: Untersuchung über die Lichtreizbarkeit von Pilobolus. Diss. Breslau 1942.Google Scholar
  127. Stadler, D. R.: Chemotropism in Rhizopus nigricans: The staling reaction. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 39, 449–474 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Steles, W.: An introduction to the principles of plant physiology. London: Methuen & Co. 1950.Google Scholar
  129. Streeter, S. G.: The influence of gravity on the direction of growth of Amanita. Bot. Gaz. 48, 415–426 (1909).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Taruci. A. P.: Personal communication 1960.Google Scholar
  131. Urayama, T.: Das Wuchshormon des Fruchtkörpers von Agaricus campestris L. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 69, 298–299 (1956).Google Scholar
  132. Varjú, D., Lois Edgar and M. Delbrück: Interplay between the reactions to light and to gravity in Phycomyces. J. gen. Physiol. 45, 47–58 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vines, S. H.: Lectures on the Physiology of Plants. Cambridge: University Press 1886.Google Scholar
  134. Waight, F. M. O.: On the presentation time and latent time for reaction to gravity in fronds of Asplenium bulbif cram. Ann. Botany 37, 55–61 (1923).Google Scholar
  135. Wardlaw, C. W., and G. C. Iviitra: Responses of a fern apex to gibberellic acid, kinetin and a-naphthaleneacetic acid. Nature (Lond.) 181, 1744–1745 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Whittamer, D. M.: Determination of polarity by centrifuging eggs of Fucus furcatus. Biol. Bull. Mar. biol. Labor. Wood’s Hole 73, 249–260 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Williams, L G: Effects of indoleacetic acid on growth in Codium. Amer. J. Bot. 39, 107–109 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ziegler, H.: Über die Bildung und Lokalisierung des Formazans in der Pflanzenzelle. Naturwissenschaften 40, 144 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Appendix

  1. Ruder, J.: Geotropisms der Characeenrhizoide. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 74, 14–23 (1961).Google Scholar
  2. Castle, E. S.: Phototropic curvature in Phycomyces. J. gen. Physiol. 45, 743–756 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag OHG / Berlin · Göttingen · Heidelberg 1962

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Banbury

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations