Abstract

Changes in carbohydrate content of fruits during growth and maturation depend to a certain extent upon the type of fruit. There are, for example, those fruits which, during ripening, accumulate a so-called “starch reserve.” Examples of this type are the apple (Pyrus malus L.), pear (Pyrus communis L.), and banana (Musa sapientum L.). Another type, represented by the plum (Prunus domestica L.), citrus fruits, and others, shows an increase in total carbohydrate content during growth and ripening, but does not accumulate a reserve of starch.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. Abbott, O. D.: General properties of some tropical and sub-tropical fruits of Florida. Univ. Florida Agricult. Exper. Stat. Bull. 1931., No 237.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, F. W.: Physical and chemical changes in the ripening of deciduous fruits. Hilgardia 6., 381–441 (1932).Google Scholar
  3. Alwood, W. B., B. J. Hartman, J. R. Eoff, M. J. Ingle and S. F. Sherwood: Development of sugar and acid in grapes during ripening. U. S. Dept. Agricult. Bull. 1916., No 335.Google Scholar
  4. Appleman, Ch. O.: Forecasting the date and duration of the best canning stage for sweetcorn. Univ. Maryland Agricult. Exper. Stat. Bull. 1923., No 254.Google Scholar
  5. Arasimovich, V. V.: Biochemical studies of Cucurbita. Bull. Appl. Bot., Genetics Plant Breeding (Leningrad), Ser. III 1933., No 1, 73–99.Google Scholar
  6. Archbold, H. K., and A. M. Barter: Chemical studies in the physiology of apples. XV. The relation of carbon dioxide output to the loss of sugar and acid in Bramley’s seedling apples during storage. Ann. of Bot. 48., 957–966 (1934).Google Scholar
  7. Bailey: Studies on the banana. I. J. of Biol. Chem. 1., 355 (1906).Google Scholar
  8. Bartholomew, E. T., and W. B. Sinclair: Unequal distribution of soluble solids in the pulp of citrus fruits. Plant Physiol. 16., 293–312 (1941).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. — The lemon fruit. Its composition, physiology and products. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1951.Google Scholar
  10. Bigelow, W. D., H. C. Gore and B. J. Howard: Studies on apples. I. Storage, respiration and growth. II. Insoluble carbohydrates of marc. III. Microscopic and macroscopic examinations of apple starch. U. S. Dept. Agricult. Bur. Chem. Bull. 1905., No 94.Google Scholar
  11. Bisson, C. S., and H. A. Jones: Changes accompanying fruit development in the garden pea. Plant Physio]. 7., 91–105 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boswell, V. R.: Chemical changes during growth and ripening of pea seeds. Proc. Amer. Soc. Horticult. Sci. 21., 178–187 (1924).Google Scholar
  13. Carré, M. H.: Changes which occur in the pectic constituents of stored fruits. Biochemic. J. 16., 739–746 (1922).Google Scholar
  14. Church, C. G., and E. M. Chace: Some changes in the composition of California avocados during growth. U. S. Dept. Agricult. Bull. 1922., No 1073.Google Scholar
  15. Crocker, W. and L. V. Barton: Physiology of seeds. An introduction to the experimental study of seed and germination problems. Waltham, Massachusetts: Chronica Botanica Company 1953.Google Scholar
  16. Culpepper, C. W., and C. A. Magoon: Studies upon the relative merits of sweet corn varieties for canning purposes and the relation of maturity of corn to the quality of the canned product, J. Agricult. Res. 28., 403–443 (1924).Google Scholar
  17. Culpepper, Ch. W., J. S. Caldwell and H. H. Moon: A physiological study of development and ripening in the strawberry. J. Agricult. Res. 50., 645–696 (1935).Google Scholar
  18. Curl, A. L., and E. K. Nelson: A water-soluble mannan from the seeds of Daubentonia drummondii. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 66., 1227 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunstan, W. R.: Report on a sample of cocoanut “water” from Ceylon. Trop. Agricult. a. Mag. Ceylon Agricult. Soc. 26., 377–378 (1906).Google Scholar
  20. Gonzalez y Sioco, B. M.: The changes occuring in the ripening coconut. Philippine Agricult. a. Forest. 3., 25–31 (1914).Google Scholar
  21. Gore, H. C.: Changes in composition of peel and pulp of ripening bananas. J. Agricult. Res. 3., 187–203 (1915).Google Scholar
  22. Goessmann, C. A.: Compilation of analyses made at Amherst, Mass., 1868–1889. Mass. Agricult. Exper. Stat. Rep. 1889., 302.Google Scholar
  23. Haas, A. R. C: Chemical composition of avocado fruits. J. Agricult. Res. 54., 669–687 (1937).Google Scholar
  24. Haller, M. H.: Changes in the pectic constituents of apples in relation to softening. J. Agricult. Res. 39., 739–746 (1929).Google Scholar
  25. Harding, P. L., and D. F. Fisher: Seasonal changes in Florida grapefruit, U. S. Dept. Agricult. Techn. Bull. 1945., No 886.Google Scholar
  26. Harding, P. L., J. R. Winston and D. F. Fisher: Seasonal changes in Florida oranges. U. S. Dept. Agricult. Techn. Bull. 1940., No 753.Google Scholar
  27. Hasegawa, M., T. Takayama and T. Shiroya: The carbohydrates contained in seeds. Kagaku (Science) 21., 593–594 (1951).Google Scholar
  28. Hille, A. la: Coconut water, its characteristics, composition and various uses. Bull. Econ. Indochine, N. S. 23., 1–25 (1920).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. James, A. L.: The carbohydrate metabolism of germinating barley. New Phytologist 39., 133–144 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Janes, B. E.: The effects of varying amounts of irrigation on the composition of two varieties of snap beans. Proc. Amer. Soc. Horticult. Sci. 51., 457–462 (1948).Google Scholar
  31. Jodidi, S. L., and V. R. Boswell: Chemical composition and yield of the Alaska pea as influenced by certain fertilizers and by the stage of development. J. Agricult. Res. 48., 703–736 (1934).Google Scholar
  32. Jones, H. A.: Physiological study of maple seeds. Bot. Gaz. 69., 127–152 (1920).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jones, W. W., and L. Shaw: The process of oil formation and accumulation in the Macadamia. Plant Physiol. 18., 1–7 (1943).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kretovich, V.: The distribution of sugar and nitrogen compounds in wheat grain. Sci. Inst. Cereal Res. (Moscow) 13., 70–73 (1934).Google Scholar
  35. Kretovich, V. L., and I. S. Petrova: Transformation of slime (soluble pentosans) during germination and ripening of rye seed. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR. 59., 281–282 (1934).Google Scholar
  36. Kruijff, E. de: Composition of cocoanut water and presence of diastase in cocoanuts. Bull. Dept. Agricult. Indes Néerland 1906., No 4, 1–8.Google Scholar
  37. Leclerc du Sablon, M.: Sur la formation des réserves non azotées de la noix et de l’amande. C. r. Acad. Sci. Paris 123., 1084–1086 (1896).Google Scholar
  38. Loesecke, H. W. v.: Bananas. Chemistry, physiology, technology. New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc. 1949.Google Scholar
  39. Mac Gillivray, J. H.: Soluble solids content of different regions of watermelons. Plant Physiol. 22., 637–640 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mac Leod, A. M.: The free sugars of the barley grain. I. Historical survey. J. Inst. Brewing 58., 270–276 (1952).Google Scholar
  41. — II. Distribution of the individual sugar fractions. J. Inst. Brewing 58., 363–371 (1952).Google Scholar
  42. Magness, J. R.: Investigations in the ripening and storage of Barlett pears. J. Agricult. Res. 19., 473–500 (1920).Google Scholar
  43. Martin, W. E.: Distribution of certain sugars in Bosc pears. Plant Physiol. 11., 139–147 (1936).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Miller, E. C.: A physiological study of germination of Helianthus annuus. Ann. of Bot. 24., 693–726 (1910).Google Scholar
  45. Miller, E. V., and Ch. Brooks: Effect of carbon dioxide content of the storage atmosphere on carbohydrate transformation in certain fruits and vegetables. J. Agricult. Res. 45., 449–459 (1932).Google Scholar
  46. Miller, E. V., and O. Dowd: Effect of carbon dioxide on the carbohydrates and acidity of fruits and vegetables in storage. J. Agricult. Res. 53., 1–17 (1936).Google Scholar
  47. Miller, E. V., and G. D. Hall: Distribution of total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total acid and bromelin activity in the fruit of the natal pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.). Plant Physiol. 28., 532–534 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Plagge, H. H., E. J. Maney and F. Gerhardt: Certain physical and chemical changes of Grimes apples during ripening and storage period. Iowa State Agricult. Exper. Stat. Bull. 1926., No 91Google Scholar
  49. Rosa, J. T.: Changes in composition during ripening and storage of melons. Hilgardia 3., 421–442 (1928).Google Scholar
  50. Rygg, G. L.: Compositional changes in the date fruit during growth and ripening. U. S. Dept. Agricult. Techn. Bull. 1946., No 910.Google Scholar
  51. Sando, Ch. E.: The process of ripening in the tomato, considered especially from the commercial standpoint. U. S. Dept. Agricult. Bull. 1920., No 859.Google Scholar
  52. Schapelle, N. A: A physiological study of the effects of waxing pineapples. Agricult. Exper. Stat. (Rio Piedras) Res. Bull. 1941., No 3.Google Scholar
  53. Scheibe, A., u. U. Staffeld: Der Rohrzuckergehalt der Samen als ein Hinweis für Charakter der Getreidearten und Sorten. Fortschr. Landwirtsch. 6., 364–369 (1931).Google Scholar
  54. Sell, H. M., A. H. Best, W. Reuther and M. Drosdoff: Changes in chemical composition and biological activity of developing tung fruit with reference to oil synthesis. Plant Physiol. 23., 359–369 (1948).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shcherbakov, A. P.: Biochemical changes in seeds of soy beans ripening under the influence of calcium and magnesium. Biochimija 18., 438–447 (1953).Google Scholar
  56. Sideris, C. P., B. H. Krauss and H. Y. Young: Distribution of nitrogen fractions, sugars, and other substances in Ananas grown in darkness versus daylight. Plant Physiol. 14., 647–676 (1939).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smock, R. M., and A. M. Neubert: Apples and apple products. New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc. 1950.Google Scholar
  58. Spitzer, G., R. H. Carr and W. F. Epple: Soft corn —its chemical composition and nitrogen distribution. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 41., 1212–1221 (1919).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stratton, F. C., and H. v. Loesecke: Changes in osmotic pressure of bananas during ripening. Plant Physiol. 6., 361–365 (1931).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tadokoro, T., and M. Abe: Studies on the ripening of rice grains. II. J. Fac. Agricult. Hokkaido Imp. Univ. 27., 349–387 (1930)Google Scholar
  61. Tarr, L. W.: Changes in chemical composition of peaches. Delaware Agricult. Exper. Stat. Bull. 1921., No 129.Google Scholar
  62. Teller, G. L.: The carbohydrates of wheat and wheat products and changes in same during development of the grain. Orig. Com. Eighth Int. Cong. Appl. Chem. 13., 273 (1912).Google Scholar
  63. Thompson, F., and A. C. Whittier: Fruit juices. Delaware Agricult. Exper. Stat. Bull. 1913., No 102, 3–28.Google Scholar
  64. Tucker, L. R., and L. Verner: Prune maturity and storage. Idaho Agricult. Exper. Stat. Bull. 1932., No 196, 3–20.Google Scholar
  65. Vinokurov, S. I.: The reducing substances of germinating beans and the production of dehydroascorbic acid. Ukrain. biochim. Žhur. 18., 181–189 (1946).Google Scholar
  66. Wilcox, E. V.: The effect of manganese on the pineapple plant and the ripening of the fruit, Hawaii Agricult. Exper. Stat. Bull. 1912., No 28.Google Scholar
  67. Winton, A. L., and K. B. Winton: The structure and composition of foods, vols. I and II. New York: John Wiley & Sons 1935.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag oHG. Berlin · Göttingen · Heidelberg 1958

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erston V. Miller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations