Advertisement

Abstract

Although the physiology and chemistry of the aminosugars have been extensively studied, especially in the past few years, relatively little attention has been paid to chitin. This perhaps, is not very surprising in view of the intractable nature of the polysaccharide and the resultant difficulties associated with its isolation and study. However, the recently stimulated interest in the biological function and biosynthesis of chitin indicates that much more will soon be known in this field.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. Ajello, L.: Cytological and nutritional study of Polychytrium aggregatum. I. Cytology, II. Nutrition. Amer. J. Bot. 35, 1–12, 135–140 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, B. R., and R. E. Schaub: Achromycin. Synthetic studies. III. Synthesis of 3-amino d-ribose, a hydrolytic product. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 3864 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barker, S.A., and E. J. Bourne: Enzymic synthesis of polysaccharides. Quart. Rev. 7, 56–83 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, S. A., E. J. Bourne, M. Stacey and D. H. Whiffen: Infra-red spectra of carbohydrates. Part I. Some derivatives of d-glucopyranose. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 171–176 1954.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, C. E., and H. G. Day: Utilisation of glucosone and the synthesis of glucosamine in the rat. J. of Biol. Chem. 201, 795–801 (1953).Google Scholar
  6. Belcher, R., A. J. Nutten and C.M. Sambrook: The determination of glucosamine. Analyst. 79, 201–208 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benton, A. G.: Chitinovorous bacteria: a preliminary survey. J. Bacter. 29, 449–464 (1935).Google Scholar
  8. Bergmann, M., L. Zervas u. E. Silberkweit: Über Chitin und Chitobiose. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 64, 2436–2440 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blank, F.: The chemical composition of the cell walls of dermatophytes. Biochim. et Biophysica Acta 10, 110–113 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, D. H.: The phosphorylation of d-(+)-glucosamine by crystalline yeast hexokinase. Biochim. et Biophysica. Acta 7, 487–493 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Action of phosphoglucomutase on d-glucosamine-6-phosphate. J. of Biol. Chem. 204, 877–889 (1953).Google Scholar
  12. Brunswik, H.: Über die Mikrochemie der Chitosanverbindungen. Biochem. Z. 113, 11–24 (1921).Google Scholar
  13. Bucherer, H.: Über den mikrobiellen Chitinabbau. Zbl. Bakter. II 93, 12–24 (1935).Google Scholar
  14. Bucherer, H., u. W. Schmidt-Lange: Chemical studies on the tubercle bacillus. Arch. Hyg. u. Bakter. 124, 298–303 (1940).Google Scholar
  15. Cabib, E., L. F. Lelotr and C. E. Cardini: Uridine diphosphate acetylglucosamine. J. of Biol. Chem. 203, 1055–1070 (1953).Google Scholar
  16. Cardini, C. E., and L. F. Leloir: Enzymic phosphorylation of galactosamine and galactose. Arch. of Biochem. 45, 55–65 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Darmon, S. E., and K. M. Rudall: Infra-red and X-ray studies of chitin. Discuss. Faraday Soc. 1950, No 9, 251–260.Google Scholar
  18. Diehl, J. M., u. G. van Iterson: Die Doppelbrechung von Chitinsehnen. Kolloid-Z. 73, 142–146 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Foster, A. B., E. F. Martlew and M. Stacey: Correlation of the rates of deamination of glucosaminides with configuration at the glycosidic centre. Chem. a. Ind. 1953, 825–826.Google Scholar
  20. Foster, A. B., and M. Stacey: Chemistry of the 2-aminosugars. Adv. Carbohydrate Chem. 7, 247–288 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frey, R.: Chitin and cellulose in the cell walls of fungi. Ber. schweiz. bot. Ges. 60, 199–230 (1950).Google Scholar
  22. Frey-Wyssling, A.: Physiology of cell wall growth. Annual Rev. Plant Physiol. 1, 169–230 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gauhe, A., P. György, J. R. E. Hoover, R. Kuhn, C. S. Rose, H. W. Rttelius and F. Zilliken: Bifidus factor. IV. Preparations obtained from human milk. Arch. of Biochem. 48, 214–224 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grassmann, W., L. Zechmeister, R. Bender u. G. Toth: Über die Chitin-Spaltung durch Emulsin-Präparate. III. Mitt. Über enzymatische Spaltung von Polysacchariden. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 67, 1–5 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hackman, R. H.: Studies on chitin. I. Enzymic degradation of chitin and chitin esters. Austral. J. Biol. Sci. 7, 168–178 (1954).Google Scholar
  26. Haworth, W. N., W. H. G. Lake and S. Peat: The configuration of glucosamine (chitosamine). J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1939, 271–274.Google Scholar
  27. Heyn, A. N. J.: Further investigations on the mechanism of cell elongation and the properties of the wall in connection with elongation. IV. Investigations on the molecular structure of chitin cell wall of sporangiophores of Phycomyces and its probable bearing on the phenomenon of spiral growth. Protoplasma 25, 372–396 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Houwink, A. L., and D. R. Kreger: The cell wall of yeasts. Electron microscope and X-ray diffraction study. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J. Microbiol. a. Serol. 19, 1–24 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Iterson, G. van, K. H. Meyer u. W. Lotmar: Über den Feinbau des pflanzlichen Chitins. Rec. Trav. chim. Pays-Pas 55, 61–63 (1936).Google Scholar
  30. Jeanloz, R., and E. Forchielli: Recherches sur l’acid hyaluronique et les substances apparentées. III. La determination de la structure de la chitine par oxydation avec l’ion periodate. Helvet. chim. Acta 33, 1690–1697 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jeuniaux, C.: Une method de dosage des chitinases. Arch. internat. Physiol. 59, 242–244 (1951).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Karrer, P., u. G.V.Francois: Über den enzymatischen Abbau von Chitin. Helvet. chim. Acta 12, 986–988 (1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Karrer, P., u. A. Hofman: Über den enzymatischen Abbau von Chitin und Chitosan. Helvet. chim. Acta 12, 616–637 (1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Keilin, D.: Stability of biological materials and its bearing upon the problem of anabiosis. Science Progress 41, 577–592 (1953).Google Scholar
  35. Khouvine, Y.: Etude aux rayons X de la chitine d’Aspergillus niger, de Psalliota campestris et d’Armillaria mellea. C. r. Acad. Sci. Paris 195, 396–397 (1932).Google Scholar
  36. Leloir, L. F., and C. E. Cardini: The biosynthesis of glucosamine. Biochim. et Biophysica Acta 12, 15–22 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Linker, A., and K. Meyer: Production of unsaturated uronides by bacterial hyaluronidase. Nature (Lond.) 174, 1192–1193 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Locquin, M.: A new technique for the study of amyloid perispores. Application to the development of the spores of Fayodia bisphaerigera (Lange) Kuhner. Bull. mens. Soc. linnéenne Lyon 12, 110–112, 122–128 (1943).Google Scholar
  39. Lowther, D. A., and H. J. Rogers: The relation of glutamine to the synthesis of hyaluronate or hyaluronate-like substances bv Streptococci. Biochemic. J. 53 (1953).Google Scholar
  40. May, O. E., and G. E. Ward: Hydrolysis of the chitinous complex of the lower fungi. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 56, 1597–1599 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Meisenheimer, J.: Die stickstoffhaltigen Bestandteile der Hefe. Z. physiol. Chem. 104, 229–283 (1919).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Meyer, K. H.: Natural and synthetic high polymers, pp. 381–386. New York: Interscience Publishers 1942.Google Scholar
  43. Meyer, K. H., and H. Wehrli: Comparison chimique de la chitine et de la cellulose. Helvet. chim. Acta 20, 353–362 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nabel, K.: The membranes of the lower fungi especially of Rhizidiomyces bivellatus nov. sp. Arch. Mikrobiol. 10, 515–541 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Orr, S. F. D.: Infra-red spectroscopic studies of some polysaccharides. Biochim. et Biophysica Acta 14, 173–181 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Park, J. T.: Uridine-5′-pyrophosphate derivatives. J. of Biol. Chem. 194, 877–904 (1952).Google Scholar
  47. Preston, R. D.: The molecular architecture of plant cell walls, pp. 187–193. London: Chapman & Hall 1952.Google Scholar
  48. Proskuriakow, N. J.: Über die Beteiligung des Chitins am Aufbau der Pilzzellwand. Biochem. Z. 167, 68–76 (1926).Google Scholar
  49. Purchase, E. R., and C. E.Braun: d-glucosamine hydrochloride. Org. Syntheses 26, 36–37 (1946).Google Scholar
  50. Roelefsen, P. A., and I. Hoette: Chitin in the cell wall of yeasts. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J. Microbiol. a. Serol. 17, 297–313 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rose, C. S., R. Kuhn, F. Zilliken and P. György: Bifidus factor. V. The activity of α- and β-methyl-N-acetyl-d-glucosaminides. Arch. of Biochem. 49, 123–129 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roseman, S., F. E. Moses, J. Ludoweig and F. Dorfman: The biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid by group A Streptococcus. I. Utilization of l-C14-glucose. J. of Biol. Chem. 203, 213–225 (1953).Google Scholar
  53. Schmid, L., A. Waschkan u. E. Ludwig: Alkaliverbindungen von mehrwertigen Alkoholen und Kohlenhydraten. Mh. Chem. 49, 107–110 (1928).Google Scholar
  54. Schmidt, M.: Makrochemisiche Untersuchungen über das Vorkommen von Chitin bei Mikroorganismen. Arch. Mikrob xol. 7, 241–260 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sideris, C. P., H. Y. Young and B. H. Krauss: The distribut on of uncombined hexoseamine in pineapple plants supplied either with ammonium sulfate or calcium nitrate salts. J. of Biol. Chem. 126, 233–239 (1938).Google Scholar
  56. Smithies, W. R.: Chemical composition of a sample of mycelium of Penicillium griseofulvum Dierckx. Biochemic. J. 51, 259–264 (1952).Google Scholar
  57. Stacey, M.: The chemistry of mucopolysaccharides and mucoproteins. Adv. Carbohydrate Chem. 2, 161–201 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stair, R., and W. W. Coblenz: Infra-red absorption spectra of plant and animal tissue and of various other substances. J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 15, 295–316 (1935).Google Scholar
  59. Strong, R. E., and J. F. Powell: Hexoseamine-containing peptides in spores of Bacillus subtilis, B. megatherium and B. cereus. Biochemic. J. 58, 80–85 (1954).Google Scholar
  60. Sumi, M.: Über die chemischen Bestandteile der Sporen von Aspergillus oryzae. Biochem. Z. 195, 161–174 (1928).Google Scholar
  61. Tiemann, F.: Über Glucosamin. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 19. 49–53 (1886).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Topper, Y. J., and M. M. Lipton: The biosynthesis of a streptococcal capsular polysaccharide. J. of Biol. Chem. 203, 135–142 (1953).Google Scholar
  63. Tracey, M. V.: Chitin. In: Paech and Tracey, Modern methods of plant analysis, vol. 2, pp. 264–274. Berlin: Springer 1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Veimarn, P. P. V.: Universal method for converting fibroin, chitin, casein and similar substances into the ropy-plastic state and into state of colloidal solution by means of concentrated solutions of readily soluble salts capable of strong hydration. J. Textile Inst. 17, 642–644 (1926).Google Scholar
  65. Wettstein, F. V.: Handbuch der systematischen Botanik. Leipzig u. Wien: Franz Deuticke 1933.Google Scholar
  66. Whistler, R. L., and C. L. Smart: Polysaccharide, chemistry, pp. 395–405. New York: Academic Press 1953.Google Scholar
  67. Wolfrom, M. L., and R. U. Lemieux: Chemistry of streptomycin. Adv. Carbohydrate Chem. 3, 337–384 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wolfrom, M. L., R, U. Lemieux and S. M. Olin: Configurational correlation of l-(—) glyceraldehyde with natural (+)-alanine by a direct chemical method. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 71, 2870–2873 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yonge, C.M.: Recent work on the digestion of cellulose and chitin by invertebrates. Sci. Progr. 32, 638–647 (1938).Google Scholar
  70. Zechmeister, L., u. I. Pinczesi: Octa-acetyl-chitobiose aus Käfern. Z. physiol. Chem. 242, 97–99 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zechmeister, L., u. G. Tóth: Zur Kenntnis der Hydrolyse von Chitin mit Salzsäure. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 65, 161–162 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vergleich von pflanzlichem und tierischem Chitin. Z. physiol. Chem. 223, 53–56 (1934).Google Scholar
  73. Chromatographie der in der Chitinreihe wirksamen Enzyme des Emulsins. Enzymologia (Den Haag) 7, 165–169 (1939).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag oHG. Berlin · Göttingen · Heidelberg 1958

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. B. Foster
  • M. Stacey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations