Advertisement

Abstract

In general the methods which have been used to elucidate the structures of the gums and mucilages are similar to those which have been employed to determine the detailed architecture of the glucose polymers cellulose and starch (for general reviews see the books by Heuser 1944, and by Radley 1953). The composition of the gums and mucilages is however much more complicated than is that of cellulose and more complex than that of starch in that several neutral sugars may be present in the molecule. These sugars are often joined to one another in the most diverse manner and frequently have attached to them acetyl or methoxyl groups. An added complication is caused by the presence in some cases of d-glucuronic acid or its 4-O-methyl ether or of d-galacturonic acid. Up to the present basic sugars such as d-glucosamine or d-galactosamine have not been encountered in plant gums and mucilages. For the purpose of the present article no special separation will be made between the gums and mucilages in so far as their chemistry is concerned. It suffices to say that in general gums are exuded materials which can be collected as such in a relatively pure state whereas mucilages are components of seeds, bark, roots, etc., and must be isolated by some physical process, such as extraction with water, before they can be obtained in a relatively pure form (for a general review see the book by Mantel 1947). The vexed problem of the homogeneity of the gums and mucilages has yet to be solved.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. Ahmed, Z. F., and R. L. Whistler: The structure of guaran. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 2524–2525 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, E.: The preparation of l-galactose from flax seed mucilage J. of Biol. Chem. 100, 249–253 (1933).Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, E., and M. Fireman: The mucilage from psyllium seed, Plantago Psyllium L. J. of Biol. Chem. 109, 437–442 (1935).Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, E., Lila Sands and N. Sturgis: Some plant gums of the Southwestern United States. Amer. J. Pharmacy 97, 589–592 (1925).Google Scholar
  5. Andrews, P.: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Bristol, England, 1953.Google Scholar
  6. Andrews, P., D. H. Ball and J. K. N. Jones: The isolation of oligosaccharides from gums and mucilages. I. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1953, 4090–4095.Google Scholar
  7. Andrews, P., L. Hough and J.K.N. Jones: Mannose-containing polysaccharides. I. The galactomannans of lucerne and clover seeds. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 4029–4032 (1952a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mannose-containing polysaccharides. II. The galactomannan of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum). J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1952b, 2744–2750.Google Scholar
  9. Mannose-containing polysaccharides. III. The polysaccharides in the seed of Iris ochroleuca and I. sibirica. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1953, 1186–1192.Google Scholar
  10. Andrews, P., and J. K. N. Jones: The isolation of oligosaccharides from gums and mucilages. III. Golden apple gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1954, 4134–4138.Google Scholar
  11. The isolation of oligosaccharides from gums and mucilages. IV. The isolation of 3-0-β-l-arabopyranosyl-l-arabinose from lemon gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1955, 583–584.Google Scholar
  12. Araki, C.: Chemical studies on agar-agar. XIII. 1. Separation of agarobiose from the agar-agar-like substance of Gelidium amansii by partial hydrolysis. J. Chem. Soc. Japan 65, 533–538 (1944).Google Scholar
  13. 2. Chemical constitution of agarobiose. J. Chem. Soc. Japan 65, 627–632 (1944).Google Scholar
  14. Araki, C., and S. Hirase: Chemical constitution of agar-agar. XV. Exhaustive mercaptolysis of agar-agar. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 26, 463–467 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. XVI. Isolation of crystalline agarobiose diethyl mercaptal by mercaptolysis of agar-agar. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 27, 105–109 (1954).Google Scholar
  16. XVII. Isolation of crystalline agarobiose dimethylacetal by partial methanolysis of agar-agar. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 27, 109–112 (1954).Google Scholar
  17. Aspinall, G. O., E. L. Hirst and N. K. Matheson: Plant gums of the genus Khaya. The structure of K. grandifolia gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1956.Google Scholar
  18. Aspinall, G. O., E. L. Hirst, E. G. V. Percival and I. R. Williamson: The mannans of ivory nut (Phytelephas macrocarpa). I. The methylation of mannan A and mannan B. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1953, 3184–3188.Google Scholar
  19. Aspinall, G. O., E. L. Hirst and A. Wickstrøm: Gum ghatti (Indian gum). The composition of the gum and the structure of two aldobiouronic acids derived from it. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1955, 1160–1165.Google Scholar
  20. Bailey, K.: Cress seed mucilage. Biochemic. J. 29, 2477–2485 (1935).Google Scholar
  21. Bailey, K., and F. W. Norris: Nature and composition of the mucilage of the seed of white mustard (Brassica alba). Biochemic. J. 26, 1609–1623 (1932).Google Scholar
  22. Ball, D. H., J. K. N. Jones and W. H. Nicholson: The acid reversion products of xylose and arabinose. Abstracts, Amer. Chem. Soc. Meeting, Minneapolis, Sept. 1955.Google Scholar
  23. Barnett, W. L.: A new method for the production of cellulose acetate. J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 40, 8 T to 10 T (1921).Google Scholar
  24. Barry, V. C.: Regulated degradation of 1,3 polysaccharides. Nature (Lond.) 152, 537–538 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Barry, V. C., and T. Dillon: A galactan sulfuric ester from Dilsea edulis. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. B 50, 349–358 (1945).Google Scholar
  26. Barry, V. C., T. Dillon and W. Mc Gettrick: Periodic acid as a test for the constitution of polysaccharides. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1942, 183–185.Google Scholar
  27. Barry, V. C., Joan E. Mc Cormick and P. W. D. Mitchell: Properties of periodate-oxidised polysaccharides. III. Estimation of α-glycol groupings in a polysaccharide. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1954, 3692–3696.Google Scholar
  28. Bauer, R.W.: Über den aus Agar-agar entstehenden Zucker, über eine neue Säure aus der Arabinose nebst dem Versuch einer Classification der gallertbildenden Kohlenhydrate nach den aus ihnen entstehenden Zuckerarten. J. prakt. Chem. (2) 30, 367–388 (1884).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Baum, H.A., and G. A. Gilbert: The anaerobic dispersion of potato starch. Oxygen-sensitive bonds in starch. Chem. a. Ind. 1954, 489–490.Google Scholar
  30. The anaerobic fractionation of potato starch. Chem. a. Ind. 1954, 490.Google Scholar
  31. Benjamin, H. B., H. K. Ihrig and D. A. Roth: The use of okra as a plasma replacement. Rev. Canad. de Biol. 10, 215–221 (1951).Google Scholar
  32. Brown, F., S. Dunstan, T. G. Halsall, E. L. Hirst and J.K.N. Jones: Application of new methods of end-group determination to structural problems in the polysaccharides. Nature (Lond.) 156, 785–786 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brown, F., E. L. Hirst and J. K. N. Jones: Cholla gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1949, 1761–1766.Google Scholar
  34. Buchanan, J., E. G. V. Percival and Elizabeth E. Percival: The polysaccharides of Carragheen moss (Chondrus crispus). I. The linkage of the d-galactose residues and the ethereal sulphate. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1943, 51–54.Google Scholar
  35. Challinor, S. W., W. N. Haworth and E. L. Hirst: The compound uronic acids. Structure of the aldobionic acid from gum arabic. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1931, 258–265.Google Scholar
  36. Charlson, A. J., J. R. Nunn and A. M. Stephen: The composition of Acacia cyanophylla gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1955, 269–273.Google Scholar
  37. Acacia karroo gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1955, 1428–1431.Google Scholar
  38. Conchie, J., and E. G. V. Percival: Fucoidin. II. The hydrolysis of a methylated fucoidin prepared from Fucus vesiculosus. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1950, 827–832.Google Scholar
  39. Connell, J. J., Ruth M. Hainsworth, E. L. Hirst and J. K. N. Jones: Grapefruit and lemon gums. I. The ratio of sugars present in the gums and the structure of the aldobionic acid (4-d-glucuronoside-d-galactose) isolated by graded hydrolysis of the polysaccharides. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1950, 1696–1700.Google Scholar
  40. Deuel, H., R. Leuenberger u. G. Huber: Übder en enzymatischen Abbau von Carubin, dem Galaktomannan aus Ceratonia siliqua L. Helvet. chim. Acta 33, 942–946 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dewar, E. T., and E. G. V. Percival: The polysaccharides of Carragheen. II. The Gigartina stellata polysaccharide. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1947, 1622–1626.Google Scholar
  42. Dillon, T.: Constitution of gum arabic. XIIIth Internat. Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Stockholm, Sweden, Abstracts, p. 217, 1953.Google Scholar
  43. Dillon, T., and J. Mc Kenna: Mucilage of Dilsea edulis. II. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. B 53, 45–54 (1950).Google Scholar
  44. Dunstan, Sonia, and E. L. Hirst: The structure of Karaya gum (Cochlospermum gossypium). J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1953, 2332–2337.Google Scholar
  45. Easterby, D. G.: Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol, England, 1951.Google Scholar
  46. Erskine, A. J.: M. A. thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada 1954.Google Scholar
  47. Gill, R. E., E. L. Hirst and J. K. N. Jones: Constitution of the mucilage from the bark of Ulmus fulva (slippery elm mucilage). I. The aldobionic acid obtained by hydrolysis of the mucilage. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1939, 1469–1471.Google Scholar
  48. Constitution of the mucilage from the bark of Ulmus fulva (slippery elm mucilage). II. The sugars formed in the hydrolysis of the methylated mucilage. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1946, 1025–1029.Google Scholar
  49. Goring, D. A. I., and E. G. Young: Studies on Carrageenin: Comparisons of fractions obtained with potassium chloride and by successive extraction at elevated temperatures. Canad. J. Chem. 33, 480 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Halsall, T. G., E. L. Hirst and J.K.N. Jones: The structure of glycogen. Ratio of non-terminal to terminal glucose residues. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1947, 1399–1400.Google Scholar
  51. Oxidation of carbohydrates by the periodate ion. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1947, 1427–1432.Google Scholar
  52. Hands, S., and S. Peat: Isolation of an anhydro-l-galactose derivative from agar. Nature (Lond.) 142, 797 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heuser, E.: The chemistry of cellulose. New York: John Wiley & Sons 1944.Google Scholar
  54. Hirst, E. L.: The chemistry of plant gums and mucilages. Endeavour 10, 106–111 (1951).Google Scholar
  55. Hirst, E. L., L. Hough and J. K. N. Jones: The structure of Sterculia setigera gum. I. An investigation by the method of paper partition chromatography of the products of hydrolysis of the gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1949, 3145–3151.Google Scholar
  56. Hirst, E. L., and J. K. N. Jones: The constitution of Damson gum. I. Composition of Damson gum and structure of an aldobionic acid (glycuronosido-2-mannose) derived from it. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1938, 1174–1180.Google Scholar
  57. The constitution of Damson gum. II. Hydrolysis products from methylated degraded (arabinose-free) Damson gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1939, 1482–1490.Google Scholar
  58. The constitution of Damson gum. III. Hydrolysis products from methylated Damson gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1946, 506–512.Google Scholar
  59. The constitution of egg-plum gum. I. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1947, 1064–1068.Google Scholar
  60. The galactomannan of carob-seed gum (gum gatto). J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1948, 1278–1282.Google Scholar
  61. Moderne Methoden der Pflanzenanalyse, edited by K. Paech and M. V. Tracey, vol. II, p. 275–294. Berlin: Springer 1954.Google Scholar
  62. Hirst, E. L., E. G. V. Percival and Clare B. Wylam: Studies on seed mucilages. VI. The seed mucilage of Plantago arenaria. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1954, 189–198.Google Scholar
  63. Hirst, E. L., and A. S. Perlin: The gum of Acacia pycnantha. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1954, 2622–2627.Google Scholar
  64. Hotchkiss, R. D., and W. F. Goebel: Derivatives of glucuronic acid. VII. Synthesis of aldobionic acids. J. of Biol. Chem. 115, 285–292 (1936).Google Scholar
  65. Hough, L., and J. K. N. Jones: The structure of Sterculia setigera gum. II. An investigation by the method of paper partition chromatography of the products of hydrolysis of the methylated gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1950, 1199–1203.Google Scholar
  66. Hough, L., J. K. N. Jones and W. H. Wadman: Some observations on the constitution of gum myrrh. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1952, 796–800.Google Scholar
  67. Jackson, J., and F. Smith: The constitution of arabic acid. III. The isolation of methyl heptamethyl aldobionate from methylated degraded arabic acid. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1940, 74–78.Google Scholar
  68. The constitution of arabic acid. IV. The formation of 3-galactosidogalactose by hydrolysis of degraded arabic acid. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1940, 79–82.Google Scholar
  69. James, Sybil p., and F. Smith: The chemistry of gum Tragacanth. I. Tragacanthic acid. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1945, 739–746.Google Scholar
  70. The chemistry of gum tragacanth. II. Derivatives of d- and L-fucose. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1945, 746–748.Google Scholar
  71. The chemistry of gum tragacanth. III. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1945, 749–751.Google Scholar
  72. Johnston, R., and E. G. V. Percival: The polysaccharides of carragheen. III. Confirmation of the l:3-linkage in carragheenin and the isolation of l-galactose derivatives from a resistant fragment. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1950, 1994–1998.Google Scholar
  73. Jones, J. K. N.: The structure of the mannan present in Porphyra umbilicalis. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1950, 3292–3295.Google Scholar
  74. Larch ε-galactan. II. The isolation of 3-β-l-arabopyranosyl l-arabinose. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1953, 1672–1675.Google Scholar
  75. Jones, J. K. N., and J. R. Nunn: The constitution of gum myrrh. II. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1955, 3001–3004.Google Scholar
  76. Jones, J. K. N., and F. Smith: Plant gums and mucilages. Adv. Carbohydrate Chem. 4, 243–291 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jones, W. G. M., and S. Peat: The constitution of agar. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1942, 225–231.Google Scholar
  78. Kylin, H.: Biochemistry of sea algae. Z. physiol. Chem. 83, 171–197 (1913).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Larson, E. B., and F. Smith: The constitution of the galactomannan of the seeds of the Kentucky coffee bean (Gymnocladus dioica). J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 429–432 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mantel, C. L.: The water-soluble gums. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp. 1947.Google Scholar
  81. Masson, C. R., and G. W. Caines: Viscosity and molecular weight of degraded carrageenin. Canad. J. Chem. 32, 51–58 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mathur, G. P., and S. N. Mukherjee: Aldobiouronic acid, 3-(glycuronopyranosyl)-d-galactopyranose from ketha gum. J. Sci. Industr. Res. (India) B 13, 452–453 (1954).Google Scholar
  83. Mori, T.: Seaweed polysaccharides. Adv. Carbohydrate Chem. 8, 317–350 (1953).Google Scholar
  84. Mukherjee, S. N.: Gum jeol. VIII. Interaction of jeolic acid with acids and bases. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 30, 201–204 (1953).Google Scholar
  85. Mukherjee, S. N., and G. Banarjee: Gum jeol. I. Solution and purification. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 25, 59–63 (1948).Google Scholar
  86. Mukherjee, S. N., and S. C. Chakravarti: Studies on gum jeol (Odina wodier). III. The aldobionic acid. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 1948, 113–118.Google Scholar
  87. Mukherjee, S. N., and R. N. R. Choudhury: Gum jeol (Lannea grandis). VIL Properties of jeolic acid in aqueous solution. I. Indian Chem. Soc. 30, 198–200 (1953).Google Scholar
  88. Mukherjee, S. N., and S. K. Sinha: Gum jeol. IX. Interaction of jeolic acid with nonelectrolytes. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 30, 647–651 (1953).Google Scholar
  89. Mukherjee, S. N., and H. C. Srivastava: The structure of neem gum. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 422–423 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Neuberg, C., and H. Ohle: The sulfur content of agar. Biochem. Z. 125, 311–313 (1921).Google Scholar
  91. Nishida, K., and H. Hashima: Chemical examination of the glucomannan obtained from “Konjak”. J. Dept. Agricult. Kyushu Imp. Univ. 2, 277–360 (1930).Google Scholar
  92. O’Neill, A. N.: Degradative studies on fucoidin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 5074–5076 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 3,6-Anhydro-d-galactose as a constituent of ϰ-carrageenin. Amer. Chem. Soc. Meeting, New York, Sept. 1954. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 2837–2839 (1955).Google Scholar
  94. O’Sullivan, C.: Researches on the gums of the arabin group. II. Geddic acids, gedda gums; the dextrorotatory varieties. J. Chem. Soc. 59, 1029–1075 (1891).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Palmer, K. J., and M. Ballantyne: The structure of (I) some pectin esters and (II) guar galactomannan. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 736–741 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Percival, Elizabeth E.: The mercaptolysis of the polysaccharide from Chondrus crispus. Chem. a. Ind. 1954, 1487.Google Scholar
  97. Percival, E. G. V.: Carbohydrate sulphate s. Quart. Rev. Chem. Soc. 3, 369–384 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Percival, E. G. V., and A. G. Ross: Fucoidin. I. The isolation and purification of fucoidin from brown seaweeds. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1950, 717–720.Google Scholar
  99. Percival, E. G. V., J. C. Somerville and I. A. Forbes: Isolation of an anhydro-l-galactose derivative from agar. Nature (Lond.) 142, 797–798 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Percival, E. G. V., and T. G. H. Thomson: Studies on agar-agar. IV. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1942, 750–755.Google Scholar
  101. Perlin, A. S.: Isolation and composition of the soluble pentosans of wheat flours. Cereal Chem. 28, 370–381 (1951).Google Scholar
  102. Radley, J. A.: Starch and its derivatives, vols. I and II. London: Chapman & Hall 1953.Google Scholar
  103. Rafiqtte, C. M., and F. Smith: The constitution of guar gums. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 4634–4637 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rebers, P. A., and F. Smith: The constitution of iles mannan. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 6097–6102 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Renfrew, Alice G., and L. H. Cretcher: Quince-seed mucilage. J. of Biol. Chem. 97, 503–510 (1932).Google Scholar
  106. Selby, K.: The methoxyl content of gum tragacanth. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1953, 2504.Google Scholar
  107. Smith, D. B., A. N. O’Neill and A. S. Perlin: Studies on the heterogenity of carrageenin. Canad. J. Chem. 33, 1352–1360 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Smith, F.: The constitution of arabic acid. I. The isolation of 3-d-galactosido-l-arabinose. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1939, 744–753.Google Scholar
  109. The constitution of arabic acid. V. Methylated arabic acid. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1940, 1035–1051.Google Scholar
  110. The constitution of carob gum. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 70, 3249–3253 (1948).Google Scholar
  111. The constitution of mesquite gum. III. The structure of the monomethyl glucuronic acid component. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1951, 2646–2652.Google Scholar
  112. Smith, F., and D. Spriestersbach: Reduction of the products of periodate oxidation of carbohydrates. IV. The constitution of gum arabic. Amer. Chem. Soc. Meeting, Minneapolis, Sept., 1955. Abstracts of Papers, 15 D.Google Scholar
  113. Stephen, A. M.: Acacia mollissima Willd. I. The component sugars and aldobiouronic acid of black wattle gum. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1951, 646–649.Google Scholar
  114. Tipson, R. S., C. C. Ciiristman and P. A. Levene: Structure of the aldobionic acid from flaxseed mucilage. J. of Biol. Chem. 128, 609–620 (1939).Google Scholar
  115. Wadman, W. H.: Some reactions of sugars catalysed by a cation-exchange resin. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) 1952, 3051–3055.Google Scholar
  116. Whistler, R. L., and H. E. Conrad: A crystalline galactobiose from acid hydrolysis of okra mucilage. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 1673–1674 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 2-O-(d-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-l-rhamnose from okra mucilage. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 3544–3546 (1954).Google Scholar
  118. Whistler, R. L., and D. F. Durso: The isolation and characterization of two crystalline disaccharides from partial acid hydrolysis of guaran. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73, 4189–4190 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. A new crystalline trisaccharide from partial acid hydrolysis of guaran and the structure of guaran. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 5140–5141 (1952).Google Scholar
  120. Whistler, R. L., and C. L. Smart: Polysaccharide chemistry. New York: Academic Press 1953.Google Scholar
  121. Whistler, R. L., and C. G. Smith: A crystalline mannotriose from the enzymatic hydrolysis of guaran. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 3795–3796 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Whistler, R. L., and Joan Z. Stein: A crystalline mannobiose from the enzymatic hydrolysis of guaran. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73, 4187–4188 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. White, E. V.: The constitution of mesquite gum. IV. 4-Methoxy-d-glucuronic acid. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 70, 367–369 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Occurrence of the l-arabinose unit in sapote gum. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 3966 (1952).Google Scholar
  125. The constitution of sapote gum. I. Methanolysis of sapote gum methyl ether. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 257–259 (1953).Google Scholar
  126. The constitution of sapote gum. III. A structural evaluation. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 4906–4909 (1954).Google Scholar
  127. White, E. V., and P. S. Rao: Constitution of the polysaccharide from tamarind seed. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 2617–2619 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wise, L. E.: The polysaccharides from iles mannan. Arch. of Biochem. 23, 127–130 (1949).Google Scholar
  129. Wolfrom, M. L., and W. B. Neely: The uronic acid component of chondroitinsulfuric acid. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 2778–2781 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag oHG. Berlin · Göttingen · Heidelberg 1958

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. L. Hirst
  • J. K. N. Jones

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations