The Role of RTD Policy and the Adequate Policy Mix — Comprehensive Policy Approaches and Problems of Implementation

  • Erkki Ormala
Conference paper
Part of the Technology, Innovation and Policy (ISI) book series (3217, volume 6)


RTD policies were traditionally oriented towards creating scientific results — strengthening the national (or global) science base. The increasing understanding of the importance of knowledge for economic and social development oriented the focus of the RTD policies more towards the problems of dissemination and utilization of knowledge in the 1980’s. New concepts such as the systems model of innovation, national systems of innovation, the distribution power of innovation systems etc. together with a better understanding of knowledge, i.e. the distinction between tacit and codified knowledge, expanded the scope of RTD policies further in the 1990’s. Networking and absorptive capacity of firms became important issues in the RTD policies. A new concept of innovation policy was developed to complement the traditional RTD policy.


Environmental Policy Innovation Policy Environmental Good Policy Area Public Procurement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Banks R. D. & G. R. Heaton (1995): An Innovation driven environmental policy. Issues in Science and Technology Policy; Environmental Policy, pp. 43-51Google Scholar
  2. Eureka (1993): Evaluation of Eureka Industrial and Economic Effects. Brussels. European Commission (1995): Green Paper on Innovation. Luxemburg.Google Scholar
  3. Hernesniemi H., M. Lammi & P. Yl-Anttila (1996): Advantage Finland — The Future of Finnish Industries. Helsinki.Google Scholar
  4. IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development) (1996): Towards a Sustainable Paper Cycle. London.Google Scholar
  5. Jacobs D., P. Boekholt & W. Zegveld (1990): De economische kracht van Nederland. The Hague.Google Scholar
  6. OECD 1994: Supply side policies to augment government support for promoting cleaner technologies. OECD. Paris.Google Scholar
  7. OECD 1996a: The global environmental goods and services industry. Paris.Google Scholar
  8. OECD 1996b: Technology, productivity and job creation. Paris.Google Scholar
  9. OECD 1996c: Regulatory Reform and Innovation. Paris.Google Scholar
  10. OTA 1994: Industry, Technology and the Environment. Washington.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erkki Ormala

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations