The Role of RTD Policy and the Adequate Policy Mix — Comprehensive Policy Approaches and Problems of Implementation
RTD policies were traditionally oriented towards creating scientific results — strengthening the national (or global) science base. The increasing understanding of the importance of knowledge for economic and social development oriented the focus of the RTD policies more towards the problems of dissemination and utilization of knowledge in the 1980’s. New concepts such as the systems model of innovation, national systems of innovation, the distribution power of innovation systems etc. together with a better understanding of knowledge, i.e. the distinction between tacit and codified knowledge, expanded the scope of RTD policies further in the 1990’s. Networking and absorptive capacity of firms became important issues in the RTD policies. A new concept of innovation policy was developed to complement the traditional RTD policy.
KeywordsEnvironmental Policy Innovation Policy Environmental Good Policy Area Public Procurement
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