Medikamentöse Beeinflussung der Harnsäureausscheidung

  • W. Löffler


Das Ziel der Behandlung der chronischen Hyperurikämie ist die dauerhafte Senkung der Serumharnsäurekonzentration in den Normalbereich, d. h. auf Werte unter 6,5 mg/dl. Diätetische Maßnahmen stellen die Basistherapie dar, die durch Medikamente ergänzt wird. Zur medikamentösen Therapie stehen zwei Substanzklassen zur Verfügung, die entweder die Harnsäurebildung hemmen (Xanthinoxidasehemmer) oder die renale Harnsäureausscheidung verbessern (Urikosurika).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arntz HR, Dreykluft HR, Leonbhardt H (1979) Wirkung Harnsäure-senkender Medikamente in niedriger Dosierung. Fortschr Med 97: 1212–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey RR, Reddy J (1980) Potentiation of warfarin action by sulphinpyrazone. Lancet 1: 254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becher H (1977) Einfluß von Benzbromaron auf den Purinnukleotidstoffwechsel. Therapiewoche 27: 1126–1143.Google Scholar
  4. Beyer KH, Wiebelhaus VD, Tillson EK, Russo HF, Wilhoyte KM (1950) „Benemid“ p-(di-n-propylsulfamyl-)benzoic acid: inhibition of glycine conjugate reactions. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 74: 772–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishop Ch, Rand R, Talbott JH (1951) The effect of Benemid (p-di-n-prophylsulfamylbenzoic acid) on uric acid metabolism in one normal and one gouty subject. J Clin Invest 30: 889–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanchard KC, Maroske D, May DG, Weiner IM (1972) Uricosuric potency of 2-substituted analogs of probenecid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 180: 397–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bode Ch, Schuhmacher H, Goebell H, Zelder O, Pelzel H (1971) Fructose induced depletion of liver adenine nucleotides in man. Horm Metab Res 3: 289–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boger WP, Beatty JO, Pitts FW, Flippin HF (1950) The influence of a new benzoic acid derivative on the metabolism of paraamino-salicylic acid (PAS) and penicillin. Ann Intern Med 33: 18–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Boner G, Steele TH (1973) Relationship of urate and p-aminohippurate secretion in man. Am J Physiol 225: 100–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowering J, Calloway DH, Margen S, Kaufmann NA (1969) Dietary protein level and uric acid metabolism in normal man. J Nutr 100: 249–261.Google Scholar
  11. Brater DC (1986) Drug — drug and drug — disease interactions with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Am J Med 80(Suppl 1A): 62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Broekhuysen J, Pacco M, Sion R, Demenlenaese L, van Hee M (1972) Metabolism of benzbromarone in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 4: 125–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burns JJ, Yü TF, Ritterband A, Perel JM, Gutman AB, Brodie BB (1957) A potent new uricosuric agent, the sulfoxide metabolite of the phenylbutazone analogue, G-25671. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 119: 418–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Burns JJ, Yü TF, Berger L, Gutmann AB (1958) Zoxazolamine. Physiological disposition, uricosuric properties. Am J Med 25: 401–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cartier P, Hamet M, Masbernard A. In vivo action of a hypouricemic derivate of benzofuran on purine metabolism. Unveröffentlicht, zitiert nach Heel et al. (1977).Google Scholar
  16. Clive DM, Stoff JS (1984) Renal syndromes associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. N Engl J Med 310: 563–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dantzler WH (1973) Characteristics of urate transport by isolated perfused snake proximal renal tubules. Am J Physiol 224: 445–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Davies-Jones GAB (1988) Anticonvulsants. In: Dukes MNG (ed) Meyler’s side effects of drugs, 11th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 120–136.Google Scholar
  19. Dayton PG, Sicam LE, Landrau M, Burns JJ (1961) Metabolism of sulfinpyrazone (anturane) and other thio analogues of phenylbutazone in man. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 132: 287–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dayton PG, Yü TF, Chen W, Berger L, West LA, Gutman AB (1963) The physiological disposition of probenecid, including renal clearance in man, studied by an improved method for its estimation in biological material. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 140: 278–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Delbarre F, Auscher C, Olivier JL, Rose A (1967) Traitement des hyperuricemies et de la goutte par des derives du benzofuranne. Semin Hop Paris 43: 1127–1133.Google Scholar
  22. Deltour G, Broekhuysen J, Ghislain M, Bourgeois F, Binon F (1967) Recherches dans la serie des benzofurannes. XXI. Effet inhibiteur de derives benzofuranniques phenoliques et de quelques analogues sur la xanthine oxidase hepatique du rat in vitro. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 161: 25–30.Google Scholar
  23. Diamond HS (1978) Uricosuric drugs. In: Kelley WN, Weiner JM (eds) Uric acid. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 459–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dieterle W, Faigle JW, Moppert J (1980) New metabolites of sulfinpyrazone in man. Arzneimittelforschung Drug Res 30: 989–995.Google Scholar
  25. Duggan DE, Hooke KF, White SD, Noll RM, Stevenson CR (1977) The effects of probenecid upon the individual components of indomethacin elimination. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 201: 463–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dukes MNG (ed) (1988) Meyler’s side effects of drugs, 11th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford.Google Scholar
  27. Durham DS, Ibels LS (1981) Sulphinpyrazone-induced acute renal failure. Br Med J 282: 609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elion GB, Yü TF, Gutman AB, Hitchings GH (1968) Renal clearance of oxipurinol, the chief metabolite of allopurinol. Am J Med 45: 69–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Emmerson BT (1963) A comparison of uricosuric agents in gout, with special reference to sulphinpyrazone. Med J Aust 1: 839–844.Google Scholar
  30. Fanelli GM, Weiner IM (1979) Urate excretion: Drug interactions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 210: 186–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fanelli GM, Bohn DL, Reilly SS (1971) Renal urate transport in the chimpanzee. Am J Physiol 220: 613–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fanelli GM, Bohn DL, Reilly SS, Weiner IM (1973) Effects of mercurial diuretics on renal transport of urate in the chimpanzee. Am J Physiol 224: 985–992.Google Scholar
  33. Friend DG (1968) Uricosuric drugs. Practitioner 200: 153–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Garcia DA, Yendt ER (1970) The effects of probenecid and thiazides and their combination on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and on acid-base equilibrium. Can Med Assoc J 103: 473–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Greger R (1989) Purine excretion. In: Wolfram G (ed) Genetic and therapeutic aspects of lipid and purine metabolism. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Greiling H (1969) Zur klinischen Biochemie der Gicht. Dtsch Med J 10: 336.Google Scholar
  37. Gross A, Girard V (1972) Über die Wirkung von Benzbromaron auf Urikämie und Urikosurie. Med Welt 23: 133–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gröbner W, Zöllner N (1976) Uricosurica. In: Zöllner N, Gröbner W (Hrsg) Gicht. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbuch der Inneren Medizin, Bd 7/3, S 491-535)Google Scholar
  39. Gutman AB (1950) Uric acid metabolism and gout. Am J Med 9: 799–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gutman AB (1965) Treatment of primary gout: The present status. Arthritis Rheum 8: 911–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gutman AB (1966) Uricosuric drugs, with special reference to probenecid and sulfinpyrazone. Adv Pharmacol Chemother 4: 91–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gutman AB, Yü TF (1951) Benemid (p-(Di-n-propylsulfamyl)-benzoic acid) as uricosuric agent in chronic gouty arthritis. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 64: 279–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gutman AB, Yü TF (1957) Protracted uricosuric therapy in tophaceous gout. Lancet II: 1258–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gutman AB, Yü TF, Sirota JH (1955) A study by simultaneous clearance techniques, of salicylate excretion in man. Effect of alkalinization of the urine by bicarbonate administration; effect of probenecid. J Clin Invest 34: 711–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gutman AB, Dayton PG, Yü TF, Berger L, Chen W, Sicam IE, Burns JJ (1960) A study of the inverse relationship between pKa and rate of renal excretion of phenylbutazone analogs in man and dog. Am J Med 29: 1017–1033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Häuselmann HJ, Studer H (1981) Antinatriuretische Wirkung von Sulphinpyrazon. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 111: 1030–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Heel RC, Brogden RN, Speight TM, Avery GS (1977) Benzbromarone: A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in gout and hyperuricaemia. Drugs 14: 349–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hertz Ph, Jager H, Richardson J (1972) Probenecid-induced nephrotic syndrome. Arch Pathol 94: 241–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hoigné R, Malinverni R, Schopfer K (1988) Sulfonamides and miscellaneous antibacterial and antiviral drugs. In: Dukes MNG (ed) Meyler’s side effects of drugs, 11th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 603–632.Google Scholar
  50. Kersley GD, Cook ER, Tovey DCJ (1958) Value of uricosuric agents and in particular of G-28315 in gout. Ann Rheum Dis 17: 326–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kippen I, Nakata N, Honda S, Klinenberg JR (1977) Uptake of uric acid by separated renal tubules of the rabbit. II. Effects of drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 201: 226–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Koch-Weser J, Sellers EM (1976) Binding of drugs to serum albumin. N Engl J Med 294: 311–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kolb FO, Rukes JM (1954) Effects of benemid (probenecid) in the treatment of hypoparathyreoidism and pseudohypoparathyreoidism. J Clin Endocrinol 14: 785.Google Scholar
  54. Kramp RA, Lenoir R (1975) Distal permeability to urate and effects of benzofuran derivatives in the rat kidney. Am J Physiol 228: 875–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Krans HMJ (1988) Insulin, glycagon and oral hypoglycemic drugs. In: Dukes MNG (ed) Meyler’s side effects of drugs, 1st edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 889–902.Google Scholar
  56. Kuzell WC, Glover R, Gibbs J, Blau R (1964) Effect of anturane on serum uric acid and cholesterol in gout. A long-term study. Acta Rheum Scand (Suppl) 8: 31–40.Google Scholar
  57. Lee IK (1977) zitiert nach Heel et al. (1977).Google Scholar
  58. Löffler E, Gröbner W, Zöllner N (1983) Harnsäuresenkende Wirkung einer Kombination von Benzbromaron und Allopurinol — Untersuchungen unter standardisierten Ernährungsbedingungen. Arzneimittelforschung/Drug Res 33: 1687–1691.Google Scholar
  59. Masbernard A, Giudicelli CP (1981) Ten years experience with benzbromarone in the management of gout and hyperuricemia. S Afr Med J 59: 701–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. May DC, Jarboe CH (1981) Inhibition of clearance of dyphylline by probenecid. N Engl J Med 304: 791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. May P, Lux B (1977) Gichtbehandlung und Prophylaxe mit Urikosurika. Dtsch Ärzteblatt 74: 1593–1599.Google Scholar
  62. McKinney SE, Peck HM, Bochey JM, Byhan BB, Schuchardt GS, Beyer KH (1951) Benemid (p-di-n-propylsulfamyl)-benzoic acid: Toxicologic properties. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 102: 208–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Meisel AD, Diamond HS (1977) Inhibition of probenecid uricosuria by pyrazinamide and para-aminohippurate. Am J Physiol 232: F222–F226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mertz DP (1969) Veränderungen der Serumkonzentration von Harnsäure unter der Wirkung von Benzbromaron. Münch Med Wochenschr 111: 491–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Meyboom RHB (1988) Metal antagonists. In: Dukes MNG (ed) Meyler’s side effects of drugs, 11th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 461–473.Google Scholar
  66. Michot F, Holt NF, Fontanilles F (1981) Über die Beeinflussung der gerinnungshemmenden Wirkung von Acenocoumarol durch Sulfinpyrazon. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 111: 255–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mousanabe-Puyanne A (1977) zitiert nach Heel et al. (1977).Google Scholar
  68. Mudge GH (1980) Inhibitors of tubular transport of organic compounds. In: Gilman A, Goodman LS, Gilman A (eds) The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Macmillan, New York, pp 929–934.Google Scholar
  69. Müller MM, Fuchs H, Pischek G, Bresnik W (1975) Purinstoffwechsel und Harnsäurepool bei Gichtpatienten unter Benzbromarontherapie. Therapiewoche 25: 514–520.Google Scholar
  70. Naftalin RJ (1970) The effects of probenecid and salicylate on uric acid flux across red cell membranes. J Physiol 211: 47P–48P.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nenci GG, Agnelli G, Berrettini M (1981) Biphasic sulphinpyrazone-warfarin interaction. Br Med J 282: 1361–1362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nivet M, Marcovici J, Lauruelle P, Farah M (1965) Note preliminaire sur l’action d’un benzofuranne sur l’uricemie. Soc Med Hop Paris 116: 1187–1192.Google Scholar
  73. Nolan RP, Foulkes EC (1971) Studies on renal urate secretion in the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 179: 429–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ogryzlo MA, Harrison J (1957) Evalution of uricosuric agents in chronic gout. Ann Rheum Dis 16: 425–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. O’Reilly RA (1982) Phenylbutazone and sulfinpyrazone interaction with oral anticoagulant phenprocoumon. Arch Intern Med 142: 1634–1637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pascale LR, Dubin A, Hoffman WS (1954) Influence of benemid on urinary excretion of phosphate in hypoparathyreoidism. Metabolism 3: 462–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Perel JM, Dayton PG, Snell MM, Yü TF, Gutman AB (1969) Studies of interactions among drugs in man at the renal level: Probenecid and sulfinpyrazone. Clin Pharmacol Ther 10: 834–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Persellin RH, Schmid FR (1961) The use of sulfinpyrazone in the treatment of gout. JAMA 175: 971–975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Postlethwaite AE, Gutman RA, Kelley WN (1974) Salicylate — mediated increase in urate removal during hemodialysis: evidence of urate binding to protein in vivo. Metabolism 23: 771–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pyörälä K, Ikkala E, Siltanen P (1963) Benziodarone (Amplivix) and anticoagulant therapy. Acta Med Scand 173: 385–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reynolds ES, Schlant RC, Gomick HC, Dammin GJ (1957) Fatal massive necrosis of the liver as a manifestation of hypersensitivity to probenecid. N Engl J Med 256: 592–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rizzuto VJ, Inglesby ThV, Grace WJ (1965) Probenecid (benemid) intoxication with status epilepticus. Am J Med 38: 646–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Roch-Ramel F, Weiner IM (1980) Renal excretion of urate: Factors determining the actions of drugs. Kidney Int 18: 665–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Runkel R, Mroszczak E, Chaplin M, Sevelius H, Segre E (1978) Naproxen — probenecid interaction. Clin Pharmacol Ther 24: 706–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Schachter D, Manis JG (1958) Salicylate and salicyl conjugates: Fluorimetric estimation, biosynthesis and renal excretion in man. J Clin Invest 37: 800–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Scott JT, O’Brien PK (1968) Probenecid, nephrotic syndrome and renal failure. Ann Rheum Dis 27: 249–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Setaishi Ch, Horiuchi Y, Mashimo K (1970) Increase of urinary insulin excretion following probenecid administration in man. Endocrinol Jpn 17: 421–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sherry S and The Anturane Reinfarction Trial Research Group (1980) Sulfinpyrazone in the prevention of sudden death after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 302: 250–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shore PA, Brodie BB, Hogben CAM (1957) The gastric secretion of drugs: A pH partition hypothesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 119: 361–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sinclair DS, Fox IH (1975) The pharmacology of the hypouricemic effect of benzbromarone. J Rheumatol 2: 437–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Singhvi SM, Duchin KL, Willard DA, McKinstry DN, Migdalof BH (1982) Renal handling of captopril: effect of probenecid. Clin Pharmacol Ther 32: 182–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sirota JH, Yü TH, Gutman AB (1952) Effect of benemid (p-(di-n-propylsulfamyl)-benzoic acid) on urate clearance and other discrete renal functions in gouty subjects. J Clin Invest 31: 692–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smythe HA, Ogryzlo MA, Murphy EA, Mustard JF (1965) The effect of sulfinpyrazone (Anturan) on platelet economy and blood coagulation in man. Can Med Assoc J 92: 818–821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sorensen LB, Levinson DJ (1976) Clinical evalution of benzbromarone, a new uricosuric drug. Arthritis Rheum 19: 183–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sorensen LB, Levinson DJ (1980) Isolated defect in postsecretory reabsorption of uric acid. Ann Rheum Dis 39: 180–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Steele TH, Rieselbach RE (1975) Renal urate excretion in normal man. Nephron 14: 21–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stein HB, Hasan A, Fox IH (1976) Ascorbic acid-induced uricosuria. A consequence of megavitamin therapy. Ann Intern Med 84: 385–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Sternon J, Kocheleff P, Couturier E, Baiasse E, Vanden-Abeele P (1967) Effet hypouricemiant de la benzbromarone — etude de 24 cas. Acta Clin Belg 22: 285–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sudlow G, Birkett DJ, Wade DN (1975) The characterization of two specific drug binding sites on human serum albumin. Mol Pharmacol 11: 824–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Szczeklik A, Czerniawska-Mysik G, Nizankowska E (1980) Sulfinpyrazone and aspirin-induced asthma. N Engl J Med 303: 702–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Talbott JH (1957) Gout. Grune & Stratton, New York London.Google Scholar
  102. Talbott JH (1967) Die Gicht. Hippokrates, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  103. Tester-Dalderup CBM (1988) Antiprotozoal drugs. In: Dukes MNG (ed) Meyler’s side effects of drugs, 11th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 889–902.Google Scholar
  104. Thompson GR, Duff JF, Robinson WD, Mikkelsen WM, Galindez H (1962) Longterm uricosuric therapy in gout. Arthritis Rheum 5: 384–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Verstraete M, Vermylen J, Claeys H (1968) Dissimilar effect of two anti-anginal drugs belonging to the benzofuran group on the action of coumarin derivates. Arch Intern Pharmacodyn Ther 176: 33–40.Google Scholar
  106. Vrhovac B (1988) Anti-inflammatory analgesics and drugs used in gout. In: Dukes MNG (ed) Meyler’s side effects of drugs, 11th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 170–204.Google Scholar
  107. Walter E, Staiger Ch, de Vries J, Zimmermann R, Weber E (1981) Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by sulfinpyrazone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 19: 353–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Walter-Sack I, de Vries JX, Ittensohn A, Kohlmeier M, Weber E (1988) Benzbromarone disposition and uricosuric action; evidence for hydroxilation instead of debromination to benzarone. Klin Wochenschr 66: 160–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Walter-Sack I, Gresser U, Adjan M, Kamilli I, Ittensohn A, de Vries JX, Weber E, Zöllner N (1990) Variation of benzbromarone elimination in man — a population study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol (in press).Google Scholar
  110. Weiner IM (1973) Transport of weak acids and bases. In: Orloff J, Berliner RW (eds) Handbook of Physiology, Section 8. Renal Physiology. American Physiology Society, Washington DC, pp 521–554.Google Scholar
  111. Weiner IM, Mudge GH (1964) Renal tubular mechanisms for excretion of organic acids and basis. Am J Med 36: 743–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Weiner IM, Washington JA, Mudge GH (1960) On the mechanism of action of probenecid on renal tubular secretion. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 106: 333–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Weiner IM, Blanchard KC, Mudge GH (1964) Factors influencing renal excretion of foreign organic acids. Am J Physiol 207: 953–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Whitehouse MW, Kippen I, Klinenberg JR, Schlosstein L, Campion DS, Bluestone R (1973) Increasing excretion of urate with displacing agents in man. Ann NY Acad Sci 226: 309–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wingender W, Beerman D, Förster D et al. (1985) Mechanism of renal excretion of ciprofloxacin (Bay 0 9867), a new quinolone carboxylic acid derivative, in humans.Google Scholar
  116. Zitiert nach Hoigné et al. 1988.Google Scholar
  117. Witwer MW, Schmid FR, Tesar JT (1976) Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia and multiple myeloma after sulphinpyrazone and colchicine treatment of gout. Br Med J 2: 89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wyngaarden JB (1955) The effect of phenylbutazone on uric acid metabolism in two normal subjects. J Clin Invest 34: 256–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wyngaarden JB, Kelley WN (1983) Gout. In: Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden JB, Fredrickson DS, Goldstein JL, Brown MS (eds) The metabolic basis of inherited disease, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1043–1114.Google Scholar
  120. Yü TF (1974) Milestones in the treatment of gout. Am J Med 56: 676–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yü TF (1976) Pharmacokinetic and clinical studies of a new uricosuric agent — benzbromarone. J Rheumatol 3: 305–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Yü TF, Gutman AB (1955) Paradoxical retention of uric acid by uricosuric drugs in low dosage. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 90: 542–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Yü TF, Dayton PG, Gutman AB (1963) Mutual suppression of the uricosuric effects of sulfinpyrazone and salicylate: a study of interactions between drugs. J Clin Invest 42: 1330–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Yü TF, Perel J (1980) Pharmacokinetic and clinical studies of Carprofen in gout. J Clin Pharmacol 20: 347–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Yü TF, Burns JJ, Gutman AB (1958) Results of clinical trial of G-28315, a sulfoxide analog of phenylbutazone, as a uricosuric agent in gouty subjects. Arthritis Rheum 1: 532–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yü TF, Perel J, Berger L, Roboz J, Israili ZH, Dayton PG (1977) The effect of interaction of pyrazinamide and probenecid on urinary uric acid excretion in man. Am J Med 63: 723–728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zöllner N (1968) Die Gichtniere. In: Schwiegk H (Hrsg) Handbuch der Inneren Medizin. Bd 8/3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  128. Zöllner N, Gröbner W (1969) Die Wirkung von Cumarin-, Indandion-und Benzofuranderivaten auf die renale Harnsäureausscheidung. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 94: 2652–2654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Zöllner N, Stern G, Gröbner W, Dofel W (1968) Über die Senkung des Harnsäurespiegels im Plasma durch Benzbromaron. Klin Wochenschr 46: 1318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zöllner N, Dofel W, Gröbner W (1970 a) Die Wirkung von Benzbromaron auf die renale Harnsäureausscheidung Gesunder. Klin Wochenschr 48: 426–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zöllner N, Griebsch A, Fink JK (1970 b) Über die Wirkung von Benzbromaron auf den Serumharnsäurespiegel und die Harnsäureausscheidung des Gichtkranken. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 95: 2405–2412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zöllner N, Griebsch A, Gröbner W, Hector G, Schattenkirchner M (1970 c) Klinische Erfahrungen mit dem neuen Uricosuricum Benzbromaronum. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 76: 853.Google Scholar
  133. Zöllner N, Gresser U, Walter-Sack I (1990) Deficient Benzbromarone Elimination: A Familial Disorder? KliWo 68: 101.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Löffler

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations