Introduction and Historical Review
Solid-state systems with pronounced one-dimensional (1D) structures and strong anisotropies of electronic interactions have focused considerable experimental and theoretical interest over the past years [I.1–I.13]. 1D materials with building principles that differ from those realized in “classical” solids have been studied in many chemical and physical laboratories. Research fields in chemistry cover the synthesis and determination of crystal structures of new classes of low-dimensional materials with collective properties that are comparable to those of “classical” solids (e.g., metals, alloys, simple semi-conductors and insulators, etc.). Physical experiments concern the quantification of electronic and lattice properties. Relevant topics in this context are e.g. electric conductivities, activation parameters for the charge transfer, drift mobilities, mean free paths of the carriers, and spectroscopic and magnetic properties. These quantities have been measured and classified as a function of structural building principles. Solid-state ensembles that are formed by discrete, well-defined molecular building blocks are suitable model-systems for a transparent analysis of the strength and influence of “ensemble properties” (i.e. modifications in the electronic structure as a result of the formation of a low-dimensional order).
KeywordsDrift Mobility Augmented Plane Wave Organic Superconductor Molecular Building Block Crystal Orbital
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