Catalysis pp 221-273 | Cite as

X-Ray Techniques in Catalysis

  • Pierre Gallezot
Part of the Catalysis book series (CATALYSIS, volume 5)

Abstract

X-ray diffraction (XRD) was developed during the first half of the century and was soon applied to identify the solid phases involved in heterogeneous catalysts. Identification was based on the Bragg law giving the lattice spacings which are the fingerprints of any crystalline phase. Soon, this powerful analytical tool was complemented by line broadening analysis (LBA) giving the average crystallite size in the directions perpendicular to the reflecting plane, thus providing a direct evaluation of the state of division of the solid phases. The development of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) brought another method to determine the particle size and the specific surface area of catalysts. Finally, the theory of X-ray scattering by amorphous matter made possible the determination of the interatomic distances between nearest neighbor atoms in materials which do not even exhibit any diffraction lines.

Keywords

Clay Porosity Sulfide Benzene Cage 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Gallezot
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueInstitut de Recherches sur la CatalyseVilleurbanne, CedexFrance

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