How to build Bridges by Molecular Orbital-Valence Bond Theory: The Structures of A2X4 Molecules

  • Nicolaos Demetrios Epiotis
Part of the Lecture Notes in Chemistry book series (LNC, volume 34)


A2X4 molecules with ten valence electrons, assuming that the X ligands are monovalent groups, have a choice of adopting one of the following two “extreme” geometries: A planar, D2h, or, a perpendicular, D2d, conformation.


Lone Pair Core Hole Vacant Orbital Core Excitation Ligand Fragment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Pepperberg, I.M.; Halgren, T.A.; Lipscomb, W.N. Inorg. Chem. 1977, 16, 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Danielson, D.D.; Patton, J.V.; Hedberg, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1977, 99, 6484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ryan, R.R.; Hedberg, K. J. Chem. Phys. 1969, 50, 4986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Danielson, D.D; Hedberg, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1979, 101, 3199. See also: Odom, J.D.; Saunders, J.E.; Durig, J.R. J. Chem. Phys. 1972, 56, 1643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark, T.; Schleyer, P.v.R J. Comput. Chem. 1981, 2, 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bibort, C.H.; Ewing, G.E. J. Chem. Phys. 1974, 61, 1248. Snyder, R.G.; Hisatsune, I.C. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 1957, 1, 139.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Currie, G.N.; Ramsay, D.A. Com. J. Phys. 1971, 49, 317.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hagen, K.; Hedberg, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hagen, K.; Hedberg, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 4796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10. (a)
    Aston, J.G.; Ssasz G.J.; Wooley, H.W.; Brickwedde, F.G. J. Chem. Phys. 1946, 14, 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (b).
    Almenningen, A; Bastiansen, O.; Traetteberg, M. Acta Chem. Scand. 1958, 12, 1221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (c).
    Batuer, M.; Ouischchenko, A.; Matreera, A,; Azonova, N.I. Dokl. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 1960, 543.Google Scholar
  13. (d).
    Mavais, D.J.; Sheppard, N.; Stoicheff, B.P. Tatrahedron 1962, 17, 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 11.
    Devaquet, A.J.P.; Townsend, R.E.; Hehre, W.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1976, 98, 4068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 12.
    Ssasz, G.J.; Sheppard, N. Trans. Faraday Soc. 1953, 49, 358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 1. (a)
    a) Sidgwick, N.V., “The Electronic Theory of Valency”; Oxford University Press: London, 1927.Google Scholar
  17. (b).
    Gillespie, R.J., “Molecular Geometry”; van Nostrand Reinhold: London, 1972.Google Scholar
  18. 2. (a)
    Wheland, G.W. J. Chem. Phys. 1934, 2, 474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. (b).
    Pauling, L., Springall, H.S., Palmer, K.J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1939, 61, 927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. (c).
    Mulliken, R.S. J. Chem. Phys. 1939, 7, 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. (d).
    Mulliken, R.S., Rieke, C.A., Brown, W.G., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1941, 63, 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. (e).
    Dewar, M.J.S., “Hyperconjugation”; Ronald Press Co.: New York, 1962.Google Scholar
  23. 3. (a)
    Bartell, L.S. J. Chem. Ed. 1968, 45, 754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. (b).
    Pearson, R.G., “Symmetry Rules for Chemical Reactions”; Wiley and Sons, Inc.: New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  25. 4. (a)
    Walsh, A.D., J. Chem. Soc. 1953, 2260, 2266, 2288, 2296, 2301.Google Scholar
  26. b) Walsh, A.D., Progress in Stereochemistry 1954, 1.Google Scholar
  27. (c).
    Mulliken, R.S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1955, 77, 887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 5.
    Epiotis, N.D., Larson, J.R., Eaton, H., “Unified Valence Bond Theory of Electronic Structure” in Lecture Notes in Chemistry, Vol. 29; Springer-Verlag: New York and Berlin, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolaos Demetrios Epiotis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations