Catalysis pp 1-38 | Cite as

History of Catalysis in Coal Liquefaction

  • E. E. Donath
Part of the CATALYSIS — Science and Technology book series (CATALYSIS, volume 3)


This chapter is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Matthias Pier. The work covered herein was conducted to a great part in his department at Ludwigshafen under his inspiring guidance. Coal liquefaction is now recognized as a process of immense future significance for the production of alternative liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks. It is a process with a long technical history, and it is important for those currently working in the field to have an opportunity of seeing at least the catalytic component from an historical viewpoint. This chapter summarizes the industrial experience in direct coal hydrogenation up to the end of the second World War, with most attention being paid to the German experience since it was in this country where the process was most fully developed.


Brown Coal Bituminous Coal Methanol Synthesis Iron Catalyst Motor Fuel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Summary Publications

  1. (A).
    Catalytic Pressure Hydrogénation of Coal, Tars and Oil. Work of the “High Pressure Experiments Department” 1924 to 1945 at the BASF, Ludwigshafen/Rh. Germany, with foreword by M. Pier. 8 Vols. (English translation: FIAT Final Report) No. 1319, ATI No. 88, 723. March 1951 )Google Scholar
  2. (B).
    Kroenig, W.: Die katalytische Druckhydrierung von Kohlen, Teeren und Mineraloelen. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1950Google Scholar
  3. (C).
    Hoering, M.; Donath, E. E.: In: Ullmanns Encyklopädie d. techn. Chem. 10, 483, München, Berlin: Urban and Schwarzenberg 1958Google Scholar
  4. (D).
    Donath, E. E.: Chemistry of Coal Utilization (Lowry, H. H., ed.). New York: Wiley 1963, p. 1041Google Scholar
  5. (E).
    Wu, W. R. K.; Storch, H. H.: Hydrogénation of Coal and Tar. US Bureau of Mines Bulletin No. 633 (1968) (cf. NTIS PB-233, 396, 1968). See also US Bureau of Mines Bulletin No. 485Google Scholar

Individual References

  1. 1.
    Berthelot, P. E. M.: Bull Soc. Chim. 11, 278 (1869)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fischer, F.; Tropsch, H.: Abhandl. Kohle 2, 154 (1917)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bergius, F.; Billwiller, J.: German Patent 301, 231 (1919)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bergius, F.: Proc. World Pet. Congr. Vol. 2, p. 282 (1933)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hughes, T. P.: Technological momentum in history: Hydrogénation in Germany 1898 to 1933. Past and Present No. 44, August 1969, p. 106. The Past and Present SocietyGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krauch, C; Pier, M.: Zeit. Angew. Chem. 44, 953 (1931): also presented at 3rd Internat. Coal Conf. Pittsburgh, 1931. Also German Patents 608, 466; 609, 538; 619, 739; 633, 185; 643, 141; 651, 203; 664, 563: all assigned to IG FarbenindustrieGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    French Patent 612, 504 (1925); German Patent 608, 467 (1926): both assigened to IG FarbenindustrieGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haslam, R. T.; Rüssel, R. P.; Asbury, W. C.: Proc. World Pet. Congr. Vol. 2, p. 302 (1933)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gordon, K.: T. Inst. Fuel 9, 68 (1935); 20, 42 (1946)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    See (A) above: Vol. 3Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    See (A) above: Vol. 7Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    See (C) above: p. 495Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Strobel, B.; Koelling, G.: IGT Symp. Adv. Coal Utiliz. Technol. Louisville, 1978Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pott, A.; Broche, H.: German Patents 632, 631 (1927); 719, 439 (1936)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Uhde, F.: French Patent 800, 920 (1929). Uhde, F.; Pfirrmann, T. W.: French Patent 819, 660 (1937)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pier, M.: Oel u. Kohle 13, 916 (1937) Pier, M.: Z. Elektrochem. 53, 291 (1949) Reitz, O.: Chem.-Ing.-Tech. No. 2122, 413 (1949)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Donath, E. E.: Advances in Catalysis 8, 239 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hiickel, E.: Adsorption u. Kapillarkondensation, Leipzig: Akademischer-Verlag, 1928Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hirst, L. L.; Clarke, E. A.; Chaffee, C. C.: US Bureau of Mines Rept. Invest. No. 4676(1950); No. 4944(1953); No. 5043(1954)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaftal, G.: Chim. Ind. (Italy) 24, 53 (1942)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. E. Donath
    • 1
  1. 1.Christiansted, St. CroixUSA

Personalised recommendations