Increased-Valence Structures Constructed from Lewis Structures: Delocalization of Lone-Pair Electrons into Vacant Bonding Orbitals
For diamagnetic polyatomic molecules, it is very easy to write down standard Lewis structures that have electron-pair bonds and lone-pairs of electrons. It is then also easy to generate “increased-valence” structures from them. To do this, we must delocalize one or more lone-pair electrons into either two-centre bonding orbitals or two-centre antibonding orbitals, both types of orbitals being vacant in the standard Lewis structures. In this chapter, we shall describe these delocalizations into bonding orbitals in some detail.
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