Classification of Materials and Chemical Compounds

  • Kurt Varmuza
Part of the Lecture Notes in Chemistry book series (LNC, volume 21)


The origin of materials can often be classified by analyzing the contents of trace elements. The pattern of concentrations is caused by the raw materials which are used and by the production process, e.g. the trace elements in paper samples stem from wood, process water and other materials and substances used during the production. Duewer and Kowalski [79] used the concentrations of ten elements (Na, Al, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Zn, Sb, Ta) — determined by neutron activation analysis — to characterize a paper sample, A set of 119 different sheets of papers from nine manufacturers have been classified by several pattern recognition methods. Classifiers were computed to recognize both the manufacturer and the paper grade. The concentration of aluminum was found to be very characteristic of paper samples. A simple feature by feature plot (concentration of aluminum versus concentration of manganese) revealed well defined groups of manufacturers. All attempts to find natural groups other than paper grade and manufacturers were unsuccessful.


Feature Selection Neutron Activation Analysis Paper Sample Pattern Recognition Method Pattern Recognition Technique 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Varmuza
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Allgemeine ChemieTechnischen Universität WienWienAustria

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