Structural Considerations for the Encoding of Medical Data: A Formalism for Medicine

  • B. J. Kostrewski
  • J. Anderson
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Medical Informatics book series (LNMED, volume 5)


Medical data is scattered among a variety of documents and the representation of this information makes different demands on available reference languages (Major et al 1978). In this paper we will demonstrate that the synthesis of several types of medical documentation is feasible. In order to achieve this it is necessary to accept the notion of structure and to define this at two levels: (i) at the level of the conceptual framework of medicine i.e. derive a broad model; (ii) at the level of presentation of information — this is the explicit definition of the conceptual steps involved in the unfolding of an information structure.


Thyroid Medullary Carcinoma Semantic Model Medical Informatics Computational Linguistics Semantic Framework 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bar Hillel, Y. (1964) Language and Information. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  2. Charniak, F. (1975) Organisation and Inference, in Theoretical Issues in Natural Language Processing. Cambridge Mass. Ed. Bolt, Bangarek and Newman. (1975)Google Scholar
  3. Chen, P.P. (1976) The entity relationship model — toward a unified view of data. ACM Transactions DBS 1, 1, 9–36.Google Scholar
  4. Cicourel, A.V. (1977) Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Social Structure. International Workshop on the Cognitive Viewpoint — Ghent, 1977, p. 1.Google Scholar
  5. Codd, E.F. (1970) A relational model of data for large shared data banks. Communications of ACM 1970, Vol B, 6 377–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coté, R.A. (1977) Systematized Nomenclature in Medicine. American College of Pathologists.Google Scholar
  7. Dunham, G.S., Pacock, M.G. and Pratt, A.W. (1978) Automatic Indexing of Pathology Data. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. 29 (2) 81–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Farradane, J. (1967) Concept Organisation for Information Retrieval. Information Storage and Retrieval, 3, 297–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grishman, R. and Hischman, L. (1978) Question Answering from Natural Language Databases. Artificial Intelligence, 25–43.Google Scholar
  10. de Heaulme, M. (1978) Artificial Medical Languages, a solution for clinical needs in documentation. Example using REMEDE Proceedings. MIE’78, 63–73.Google Scholar
  11. Kennedy, J. and Kosman, L.E. (1973) Nomenclature in Medicine. Bulletin of Medical Library Association, 61, 238–252.Google Scholar
  12. Kostrewski, B.J., Anderson, J. (1978) On the Expression of Relations in Medicine: Linguistic Aspects. MIE’78.Google Scholar
  13. Levy, F. (1967) On the Relative Nature of Relational Factors in Classifications. Information Storage and Retrieval, 3, 315–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Loh, S.L. and Korg, L. (1977) Computer translation of Chinese Scientific Journals in Overcoming the Language Barrier in Third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks. Luxembourg, 3–6 May 1977, Verlag Dokumentation, München.Google Scholar
  15. Major, P., Kostrewski, B.J., and Anderson, J. (1977) Languages for Medical Information Systems. Medical Informatics, Vol.2, 1, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Major, P., Kostrewski, B.J. and Anderson, J. Analysis of Semantic Structures of Medical Languages. Part I. A Framework for the Semantic Power of Reference Languages. Medical Informatics, Vol.3(4), 261–267.Google Scholar
  17. Major, P., Kostrewski, B.J. and Anderson, J. (1978) Analysis of the Semantic Structures of Reference Languages: Part II. Analysis of Semantic Power of MeSH, ICD, and SNOMED. Medical Informatics, Vol.3 (4)269–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Masterman, M. (1975) Chasing the Enthymeme, Part 3: Basic Reiterative Semantic Patterns of Language. Informatics 3, Proceedings of Conference, 2–4 April 1975, Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 12–65.Google Scholar
  19. Minsky, M. (1975) A framework for representing knowledge, edited in The Psychology of Computer Vision, edited by Winston. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Pages, R. (1967) Relational Aspects of Conceptualization in Message Analysis. Information Storage and Retrieval, 3, 351–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pratt, A.W. (1977) Use of Categorized Nomenclatures for Representing Medical Statements in Computational Linguistics in Medicine, p.45–54. Editors W. Schneider and Sagvall Hein. Proceedings of IFIP Working Conference on Computational Linguistics in Medicine. Uppsala, Sweden, 2–6 May 1977.Google Scholar
  22. Preece, S.E. and Williams, M.E. (1977) EARL: Implementing the Entity Relationship Model. Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, Vol. 14, p. 16.Google Scholar
  23. Sager, N., Hischamnh, L., Grishman, R. and Insolio, C. (1977) Computer Programmes for Natural Language Files. Proceedings of ASIS Annual Meeting. Vol. 14, p. 17.Google Scholar
  24. Salton, G. (1965) SMART System — Progress in Automatic Information Retrieval. IEE Spectrum, 1965 (August) 90–103.Google Scholar
  25. Schank, R. (1975) Using Knowledge to Understand in Theoretical Issues in Natural Language Processing. Cambridge Mass. Bolt, Beranek and Newman, P. 42–51.Google Scholar
  26. Schmidt, C.F., Skidhoran, N.S. and Goodston, J.L. (1978) Plan Recognition Problems, an interaction of Psychology and Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence 11, 45–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schneider, W. (1977) Impact of CL and AI Techniques on Modelling in Medicine in Computational Linguistics in Medicine edited by W. Schneider and Sagvall-Hein. North Holland Publishing Company, Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Van Dijk, T.A. Complex Semantic Information Processing. In Walker, D.E., Karlgren, H. and Kay, M. (eds) Natural Language and Information Science. FID Publication 551. Stockholm: Skriptor 1977 (127–163).Google Scholar
  29. Weil, B.H. (1970) Standards for Writing Abstracts. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. 21, 351–381 (ANSI Standard 239.14–1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wilks, U. (1977) Language boundaries and knowledge structures. Communication and cognition, 10 (2) 53–61.Google Scholar
  31. Winston, P.H. (1978) Learning by Creatifying Transfer Frames. Artificial Intelligence, JO, 147–172.Google Scholar
  32. Winter, E.O. (1977) Clause Relational Approach to English Texts, Instructional Science. Vol.6, Special issue.Google Scholar
  33. Winograd, T. and Bobrow, D. (1977) An overview of KRL in Cognitive Science, 1, 3–46.Google Scholar
  34. Winograd, T. (1972) Understanding Natural Language. Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Online Conferences Ltd., Uxbridge, England 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. J. Kostrewski
    • 1
  • J. Anderson
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Information ScienceThe City UniversityLondonUK
  2. 2.King’s College Hospital Medical SchoolLondonUK

Personalised recommendations