Attempts to Measure Natural Selection by Altering Gene Frequencies in Natural Populations

  • J. S. Jones
  • D. T. Parkins
Part of the Lecture Notes in Biomathematics book series (LNBM, volume 19)

Abstract

Experiments designed to demonstrate the action of natural selection on a polymorphic locus can provide convincing results only if they relate to a polymorphism whose genetic and ecological environment reflects that found in nature. Two important practical problems arise from this. First, laboratory experiments using only a small sample of alleles from a natural population may produce a misleading appearance of selection on the locus under investigation as a result of sampling disequilibria between this locus and others which are more responsive to selection. This effect can be avoided by using adequate samples from nature (Jones and Yamazaki 1974; Powell 1973). Secondly, investigations of polymorphism in, for example, a Drosophilapopulation cage are open to the criticism that the laboratory environment lacks important components of selection which may be present in nature. A failure to demonstrate selection in such conditions may therefore not be a real indication of selective neutrality. Thus, attempts to simulate the natural environment (such as adding ethanol to the medium when studying the alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism? see Clarke, this symposium) sometimes reveal previously undetected selective differences. Experiments on populations in their natural environment avoids this problem.

Keywords

Migration Dust Cage Drilling Parkin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benson, W.W. 1972. Natural selection for Mullerian mimicry in Heliconius evatoin Costa Rica. Science 176: 936–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brower, L.P., Cook, L.M., and Croze, H.J. 1967. Predator responses to artificial Batesian mimics released in a neotropical environment. Evolution 21: 11–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bundgaard, J., and Christiansen, F.B. 1972. Dynamics of polymorphisms. I. Selection components in an experimental population of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 71: 439–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cain, A.J., and Currey, J.D. 1963. Area effects in Cepaea. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond.B 246: 1–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clarke, B.C. 1966. The evolution of morph ratio clines. Amer. Natur.100: 389–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crumpacker, D.W., and Williams, J.S. 1973. Density, dispersion and population structure in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Ecol. Monogr.43: 449–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dobzhansky, Th. 1973. Active dispersal and passive transport in Drosophila. Evolution 27: 565–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dobzhansky, Th., and Wright, S. 1943. Genetics of natural populations. X. Dispersion rates in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics 28: 304–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Endler, J.A. 1973. Gene flow and population differentiation. Science 179: 243–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fienberg, S.E. 1970. The analysis of multi-dimensional contingency tables. Ecology 51: 419–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goodhart, C.B. 1963. “Area effects” and non-adaptive differentiation between populations of Cepaea(Mollusca). Heredity 18: 459–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Johnson, M.S. 1976. Allozymes and area effects in Cepaea nemoralison the western Berkshire Downs. Heredity 36: 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Johnston, J.S., and Heed, W.B. 1976. Dispersal of desert-adapted Drosophila: the Saguaro-breeding D. nigrospiracuta. Amer. Natur.110: 629–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones, J.S. 1973. Ecological genetics and natural selection in molluscs. Science 182: 546–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jones, J.S. 1974. Area effects in the snail Cepaea vindobonensisin the Lika region of Yugoslavia. Heredity 32: 165–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones, J. S., and Seiander, R.K. 1976. Population differentiation at the molecular level in Cepaea.In preparation.Google Scholar
  17. Jones, J.S., and Yamazaki, T. 1974. Genetic background and the fitness of allozymes. Genetics 78: 1185–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kettlewell, H.B.D. 1961. The phenomenon of industrial melanism in the Lepidoptera. Ann. Rev. Entomol.6: 245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kimura, M., and Ohta, T. 1971. Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Krebs, C., and Myers, J. 1974. Population cycles in small mammals. Adv. Ecol. Res.8: 267–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lomnicki, A. 1969. Individual differences among adult members of a snail population. Nature 223: 1073–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Neider, J.A. 1974. General Linear Interactive Modelling. Available from the Numerical Algorithms Group, 13 Banbury Road, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  23. Powell, J.R. 1973. Apparent selection of enzyme alleles in natural populations of Drosophila. Genetics 75: 557–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Powell, J.R., and Dobzhansky, Th. 1976. How far do flies fly? Amer. Sci.64: 179–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Prout, T. 1971. The relation between fitness components and population prediction in Drosophila.I. The estimation of fitness components. Genetics 68: 127–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Richardson, A.M.M. 1974. Differential climatic selection in natural populations of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis. Nature 247: 572–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Slatkin, M. 1973. Gene flow and selection in a cline. Genetics 75: 733–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Wolda, H., and Kreulen, D.A. 1973. Ecology of some experimental populations of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis(L.). II. Production and survival of eggs and juveniles. Neth. J. Zool.23: 168–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yamazaki, T. 1971. Measurement of fitness at the esterase-5 locus of Drosophila pseudoobseura. Genetics 67: 579–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Jones
  • D. T. Parkins

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations