Pharmacodynamics is the science which studies the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and attempts to explain their mechanism of action. Pharmacodynamic toxicology does exactly the same thing but must keep its hands off the therapeutically useful actions and be content with the undesired ones. No one will deny that it is a much neglected branch of toxicology, and always has been. Geoffrey Woodard knew it when he wrote almost 20 years ago: “All too often in the pressure of events involved in obtaining data to support the safety of a chemical for use by man, the pharmacodynamic study is relegated to second place or forgotten entirely. In other cases, the pharmacodynamic study came as an afterthought when it became apparent that certain observations made during the course of the classical toxicity studies needed explanation.” (Lehman et al., 1955)
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