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Die Enzyme der Oxydation und Reduktion

  • H. v. Euler
  • W. Franke
  • R. Nilsson
  • K. Zeile
Part of the Chemie der Enzyme book series (CDE, volume 3)

Zusammenfassung

Von den beiden grossen Fermentgruppen, die sich als Grundlage einer natürlichen Einteilung nach der Wirksamkeit darbieten, ist die eine, die der hydrolytischen Enzyme, in vorausgehenden Abschnitten eingehend behandelt worden. Trotz der Mannigfaltigkeit der Substrate und der dement-sprechenden Vielzahl der enzymatischen Katalysatoren ist das Prinzip der Wirksamkeit in dieser Gruppe doch von einer erstaunlichen Einfachheit und Einheitlichkeit; in einfachen Modellversuchen mit Säuren und Basen lässt es sich, wenn auch in unspezifischer Weise, nachahmen. Aus kompliziert gebauten Molekülen entstehen einfachere Bruchstücke, indem der Wasserstoff des Wassers sich an das eine, die Hydroxylgruppe an das andere Spaltstück anlagert. Das Prinzip des Vorgangs ist das gleiche, ob es sich nun um die Lösung amidartiger Bindungen wie in den Polypeptiden, ätherartiger wie in den Kohlehydraten und Glucosiden oder um Esterspaltung wie bei den Fetten handelt. Die Bedeutung dieser Prozesse für den Organismus liegt in der erhöhten Resorbierbarkeit, Löslichkeit und Umwandlungsfähigkeit der Spaltstücke, nicht oder untergeordnet im Energiegewinn, der bei diesen hydrolytischen Spaltungen relativ unerheblich ist.

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