Investment, Pricing and Regulation in Urban Transportation and Spatial Development
Japan is a rarity in the world where urban railway transportation is provided largely by the private sector. The extremely high density of the major metropolitan areas such as Tokyo and Osaka makes it feasible to provide urban transit services on a commercial basis. Furthermore, in the Tokyo and Osaka metropolitan areas, a fair number of private railway companies are competing each other.
KeywordsTransportation Income Oligopoly
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