Osteoarthritis pp 111-120 | Cite as

Tissue Engineering in Cartilage Repair: In Vitro and In Vivo Experiments on Cell-Seeded Collagen Matrices

  • S. Nehrer
  • M. Spector
Conference paper

Abstract

The limited healing response of articular cartilage has been reported for over three centuries (Hunter 1743; Paget 1853). Healing of cartilage depends on blood clot formation as a provisional matrix for cell migration and a subsequent cascade of chondroprogenitor cells derived from adjacent cartilage, underlying marrow, or synovium, which eventually leads to the formation of reparative tissue in the defect (Buckwalter et al. 1988; Johnson 1991). The persistence of full thickness chondral defects in the articular surface (i.e. those that do not initially penetrate the subchondral bone) is multifactorial: the lack of blood supply, insufficient fibrin clot formation at the area of injury (Buckwalter et al. 1988; Mankin et al. 1994), the low mitotic activity of chondrocytes, inhibition of synovial cell attachment (Langer and Gross 1974), and stimulation of degrading enzymes (Mankin 1982). It is the variability of the repair process that contributes to the difficulty in predicting results of cartilage repair (Buckwalter et al. 1990).

Keywords

Migration Transportation Drilling Dimethyl Osteoarthritis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amiel D, Coutts R, Abel M, Stewart W, Harwood F, Akeson W (1985) Rib perichondrial grafts for the repair of full thickness articular cartilage defects. J Bone Joint Surg 67A: 911–920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bentley G, Greer R (1971) Homotransplantation of isolated articular and epiphysial chondrocytes into the joint surfaces of rabbits. Nature 230: 383–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L (1994) Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation. N Eng J Med 331: 889–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buckwalter J, Hunziker E, Rosenberg L, Coutts R, Adams M, Eyre D (1988) Articular cartilage: composition and structure. In: Woo SL-J, Buckwalter JA (eds) Injury and repair of the musculoskeletal soft tissues. AAOS, Park Ridge, IL, pp 405–425Google Scholar
  5. Buckwalter J, Mow V (1992) in: Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and Management, edited by Moskowitz RW, Howell DS, Goldberg VM, Mankin HJ (2nd Edit) Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1992, pp 71–107Google Scholar
  6. Buckwalter J, Rosenberg L, Coutts R, Hunzider E, Reddi A, Mow V (1988) Articular cartilage: injury and repair. In: Woo SL-J, Buckwalter JA (eds) Injury and repair of the musculoskeletal soft tissues. AAOS, Park Ridge, IL, pp 465–482Google Scholar
  7. Buckwalter J, Rosenberg L, Hunziker E (1990) Articular cartilage composition, structure, response to injury, and methods of facilitating repair. In: Ewing JW (eds) Articular cartilage and knee joint function: basic science and arthroscopy. Raven Press, New York, pp 19–56Google Scholar
  8. Byers P, Conteponti C, Farkas T (1970) A post-mortem study of the hip joint. Ann Rheum Dis 29: 15–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caplan A, Fink D, Goto T, Linton A, Young R, Wakitani S, Goldberg V, Haynesworth S (1993) Mesenchymal stem cells and tissue repair. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Chu C, Coutts D, Yoshioka M, Harwood L, Monosov A, Amiel D (1995) Articular cartilage repair using allogenic perichondrocyte-seeded biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA): a tissue engineering study. J Biomed Mat Res 29: 1147–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Convery FR, Akeson WH, Keown GH (1972) The repair of large osteochondral defects. An experimental study in horses. Clin Orthop Rel Res 82: 253–262Google Scholar
  12. Coutts R, Yoshioka M, Amiel D, Hacker S, Harwood F, Monosov A (1994) Cartilage repair using a porous polylactic acid matrix with allogenic perichondrial cells. 40th ORS Meeting, New Orleans, pp 240–241Google Scholar
  13. Engkvist O, Johansson SH (1980) Perichondrial arthroplasty: a clinical study in twenty-six patients. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 14: 71–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ficat R, Ficat C, Gedeon P, Toussaint J (1979) Spongialization: a new treatment for diseased patellae. Clin Orthop 144: 74–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Freed L, Marquis J, Nohria A, Emmanual J, Mikos A, Langer R (1993) Neocartilage formation in vitro and in vivo using cells cultured on synthetic biodegradable polymers. J Biomed Mat Res 27: 11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Freed LE, Grande DA, Lingbin Z, Emmanual J, Marquis JC, Langer R (1994) Joint resurfacing using allograft chondrocytes and synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res 28: 891–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grande DA, Pitman MI, Peterson L, Menche D, Klein M (1989) The repair of experimentally produced defects in rabbit articular cartilage by autologous chondrocyte transplantation. J Orthop Res 7: 208–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grande D, Halberstadt C, Schwartz R, Linton J, Naughton G (1993) Evaluation of extracellular matrix scaffolds for engineering of articular cartilage grafts. 39th ORS Meeting, San Francisco, p 227Google Scholar
  19. Green W (1977) Articular cartilage repair. Behavior of rabbit chondrocytes during tissue culture and subsequent allografting. Clin Orthop Rel Res 124: 327–250Google Scholar
  20. Hendrickson D, Nixon A, Erb H, Lust G (1993) Phenotype and biological activity of neonatal equine chondrocytes cultured in a three-dimensional fibrin matrix. Am J Vet Res 55: 410–414Google Scholar
  21. Homminga G, van der Linden T, Terwindt-Rouwenhorst E, Drukker J (1989) Repair of articular defects by perichondrial grafts: experiments in the rabbit. Acta Orthop Scand 60: 326–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hunter W (1743) On the structure and disease of articulating cartilage. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 42b: 514–521Google Scholar
  23. Johnson L (1991) Characteristics of the immediate postarthroscopic blood clot formation in the knee joint. Arthroscopy 7: 14–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson LL (1986) Arthroscopic abrasion arthroplasty historical and pathologic perspective: present status. Arthroscopy 2: 54–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kimura T, Yasui N, Ohsawa S, Ono K (1984) Chondrocytes embedded in collagen gels maintain cartilage phenotype during long-term cultures. Clin Orthop Rel Res 186: 231–239Google Scholar
  26. Langer F, Gross A. (1974) Immunogenicity of allograft articular cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg 56A: 297–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mankin H, Mow V, Buckwalter J, Iannotti J, Ratcliffe A (1994) Form and function of articular cartilage. In: Sheldon R Simon (ed) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Orthopedic Basic Science, pp 1–44Google Scholar
  28. Mankin HJ (1982) The response of articular cartilage to mechanical injury. J Bone Joint Surg 64A: 460–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Nehrer S, Breinan H, Ashkar S, Shortkroff S, Minas T, Sledge C, Yannas J, Spector M (1998) Characteristics of articular chondrocytes seeded in collagen matrices in vitro. Tissue Engineering 4: 175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nehrer S, Breinan H, Ramappa A, Hsu H-P, Shortkroff S, Minas T, Spector M (1998) Autologous chondrocyte-seeded type I and type II collagen matrices implanted in a chondral defect in a canine model. ORS, New Orleans, p 377Google Scholar
  31. Nehrer S, Breinan H, Ramappa A, Shortkroff S, Young G, Minas T, Sledge C, Yannas J, Spector M (1998) Canine chondrocytes seeded in type I and type II collagen implants investigated in vitro. J Biomed Mat Res 38: 95–104Google Scholar
  32. Nehrer S, Breinan H, Ramappa A, Young G, Shortkroff S, Louie L, Sledge C, Yannas J, Spector M (1997) Matrix collagen type and pore size influence behavior of seeded canine chondrocytes. Biomaterials 18: 769–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nixon A, Sams A, Lust G, Grande D, Mohammed H (1993) Temporal matrix synthesis and histological features of a chondrocyte laden porous collagen analogue. Am J Vet Res 54: 349–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Paget J (1853) Healing of injuries in various tissues. Lect Surg Pathol T: 262Google Scholar
  35. Pridie K (1959) A method of resurfacing osteoarthritic knee joints. J Bone Joint Surg 41B: 618–619Google Scholar
  36. Radin E (1990) Factors influencing osteoarthrosis progression. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Rich D, Johnson E, Zhou L, Grande D (1994) The use of periosteal cell/polymer tissue constructs for the repair of articular cartilage defects. 40th ORS meeting, New Orleans, p 241Google Scholar
  38. Rodrigo JJ, Steadman RJ, Siliman JF, Fulstone HA (1994) Improvement of fullthickness chondral defects in the human knee after debridement and microfracture using continous passive motion. Am J Knee Surg 7 (3): 109–116Google Scholar
  39. Salter RB, Simmonds DF, Malcolm BW, Rumble EJ, MacMichael D (1980) The biological effect of continuous passive motion on the healing of full-thickness defects in articular cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg 62A: 1232–1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Skoog T, Johansson SH (1976) The formation of articular cartilage from free perichondrial grafts. Plast Reconstr Surg 57: 1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Speer D, Chvapil M, Volz R, Holmes M (1979) Enhancement of healing in osteochondral defects by collagen implantation. Clin Orthop Rel Res 144: 326–335Google Scholar
  42. Tippett J (1991) Articular cartilage drilling and osteotomy. In: JB McGinty et al. (eds) Osteoarthritis of the knee. Operative arthroscopy. Raven Press, New York, pp 325–339Google Scholar
  43. Vacanti C, Kim W, Upton J, Schloo G, Vacanti J (1993) Tissue engineered composites of bone and cartilage using synthetic polymers seeded with two cell types. 39th ORS meeting, San Francisco, p 276Google Scholar
  44. Weadock K, Miller E, Bellincampi L, Zawadsky J (1995) Physical crosslinking of collagen fibers: comparison of ultraviolet irradiation and dehydrothermal treatment. J Biomed Mat Res 29: 1373–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Nehrer
  • M. Spector

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations