Multiple Primary Malignant Neoplasms of Multicentric Origin

  • Charles G. Moertel
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research / Fortschritte der Krebsforschung / Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 7)

Abstract

Multicentric neoplastic change must be anticipated when a common tissue, presumably endowed with a common susceptibility to malignant disease, is exposed to a common carcinogenic influence. Both of these criteria — a common tissue and exposure to common carcinogenic influence — must be met before true multicentric malignant change will take place. We will demonstrate in this section that multicentric carcinoma of the common squamous epithelium of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx occurs quite frequently. However, it has been demonstrated in the previous section and will be amplified in this one that this tendency to multicentricity does not extend to the contiguous columnar epithelium of the trachea and bronchi, although both epithelial surfaces are exposed to the same presumably carcinogenic respiratory irritants. Similarly, multicentric epitheliomas of the skin are exceedingly common in the patient whose occupation requires prolonged exposure of the skin to sun and wind. These lesions, however, are distinctly limited to the exposed surfaces of the skin; the unexposed skin surfaces, although they are of the same type of tissue, are not exposed to the same carcinogenic influence.

Keywords

Lymphoma Adenocarcinoma Gall Smoke Straw 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Cooper, Z. K.: A study of 106 cases of multiple primary skin cancer. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. Oct., 1022 (1944).Google Scholar
  2. Phillips, Charles: Multiple skin cancer: A statistical and pathologic study. Sth. med. J. (Bgham, Ala.) 35, 583 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cooper, Z. K.: A study of 106 cases of multiple primary skin cancer. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. Oct., 1022 (1944).Google Scholar
  4. MacDonald, Eleanor J.: Occurrence of multiple primary cancers in a population of 200,000. Acta Un. int. Cancr. 16, 1702 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Molesworth, E.H.: Rodent ulcer. Med. J. Aust. 1, 878 (1927).Google Scholar
  6. Phillips, Charles: Multiple skin cancer: A statistical and pathologic study. Sth. med. J. (Bgham, Ala.) 35, 583 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Willis, R. A.: Further studies on the mode of origin of carcinomas of the skin. Cancer Res. 5, 469 (1945).Google Scholar
  8. Byars, L. T., and R. Anderson: Multiple cancers of oral cavity. Amer. Surg. 18, 386 (1952).Google Scholar
  9. Engelbreth-Holm, J.: Om multiple carcinomer i mundsvaelgoesophagus. Nord. Med. 16, 3171 (1942).Google Scholar
  10. Lund, C. C.: Second primary cancer in cases of cancer of buccal mucosa: Mathematical study of susceptibility to cancer. New Engl. J. Med. 209, 1144 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mounier-Kuhn, P., J. Gaillard, J. P. Rebattu, and B. Jakubowicz: Statistique des cancers multiples à la clinique oto-rhino-laryngologique de Lyon de 1950 à 1962. Lyon med. 212, 1389 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Sarasin, R.: Les manifestations successives des; epitheliomas des muqueuses de la cavité buccale: Sont elles des récidives vaies ou résultent-elles de nouvelles cancérisations? Radiophys. et radiothérapie 3, 33 (1933).Google Scholar
  13. Scheel, Axel: Multiple kancere i munnhule — svelg — spiserør. Nord. Med. 15, 2165 (1942).Google Scholar
  14. Slaughter, D. P.: Multicentric origin of intraoral carcinoma. Surgery 20, 133 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Videbaek, A.: Solitary and multiple carcinomas of upper alimentary tract; their location, age, and sex incidence and correlation with Plummer-Vinson syndrome. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 25, 339 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wilkins, S.A., Jr., and W. R. Vogler: Cancer of the gingiva. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 105, 145 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Einhorn, J., and P. Jakobsson: Multiple primary malignant tumors. Cancer (Philad.) 17, 1437 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Warwick, Margaret: Model of carcinoma of the lip reconstructed from serial section. J. Amer. med. Ass. 82, 1119 (1924).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mounier-Kuhn, P., J. Gaillard, J. P. Rebattu, and B. Jakubowicz: Statistique des cancers multiples à la clinique oto-rhino-laryngologique de Lyon de 1950 à 1962. Lyon méd. 212, 1389 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Albrecht, P.: Über die Multiplizität primärer maligner Geschwülste. Oncologia (Basel) 5, 12 (1952).Google Scholar
  21. Barth: (Abstract of presentation). Bull. Soc. anat. Paris;. 30, 1 (1855).Google Scholar
  22. Prindley, G. V., Jr., M. B. Dockerty, and H. K. Gray: Multiple carcinomas of the stomach: Report of case. Proc. Mayo Clin. 18, 193 (1943).Google Scholar
  23. Brown, C. H., and M. F. Moots: Multiple gastric carcinoma. Gastroenterology 26, 846 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Collins, W. T., and E. A. Gall: Gastric carcinoma: A multicentric lesion. Cancer (Philad.) 5, 62 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goriainowa, R. W., and L. M. Schabad: Zur Frage der multiplen primären Geschwülste. Z. Krebsforsch..33, 594 (1930).Google Scholar
  26. Irons, H. S., Jr.: Carcinoma twice in the same stomach. Gastroenterology 46, 44 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. MacDonald, Eleanor J.: Occurrence of multiple primary cancers in a population of 200,000. Acta Un. int. Cancr. 16, 1702 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Moore, J. R., and H. S. Morton: Gastric carcinoma: A statistical review of 427 cases of carcinoma of the stomach from 1941 through 1950. Ann. Surg. 141, 185 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oota, K., and M. Tanaka: Colliding carcinomas of the stomach (a consideration of histogenesis of single malignant tumor in general). Gann 43, 210 (1952).Google Scholar
  30. Schell, R. F., M. B. Dockerty, and M. W. Comfort: Carcinoma of the stomach associated with pernicious anemia: A clinical and pathologic study. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 98, 710 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Teperson, J. A., L. S. Altman, and B. Kogut: Multiple heterogeneous carcinoma of the stomach. J. int. Coll. Surg. 17, 374 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Walters, W., H. K. Gray, and J. T. Priestley: Carcinoma and Other Malignant Lesions of the Stomach. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company 1943, p. 351.Google Scholar
  33. Warren, S.: Multiple cancers of the human gastrointestinal tract. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 5, 375 (1945).Google Scholar
  34. Warren, S., and O. Gates: Multiple primary malignant tumors: A survey of the literature and a statistical study. Amer. J. Cancer. 16, 1358 (1932).Google Scholar
  35. Caldarola, V. T., R. J. Jackman, C. G. Moertel, and M. B. Dockerty: Carcinoid tumors of the rectum. Amer. J. Surg. 107, 844 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cooke, H.H.: Carcinoid tumors of the small intestine. Arch. Surg. 22, 568 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dockerty, M. B., and F. S. Ashburn: Carcinoid tumors (so-called) of the ileum: Report of thirteen cases in which there was metastasis. Arch. Surg. 47, 221 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Feldman, Maurice: Multiple primary carcinomas of small intestine: A review of the literature. Amer. J. dig. Dis. 20, 1 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lubarsch, Otto: Über den primären Krebs des Ileum nebst Bemerkungen über das gleichzeitige Vorkommen von Krebs und Tuberculose. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 111, 280 (1888).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moertel, C.G., W. G. Sauer, M. B. Dockerty, and A. H. Baggenstoss: Life history of the carcinoid tumor of the small intestine. Cancer (Philad.) 14, 901 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Albrecht, P.: Über die Multiplizität primärer maligner Geschwülste. Oncologia (Basel) 5, 12 (1952).Google Scholar
  42. Bargen, J. A., and F. W. Rankin: Multiple carcinomata of the large intestine. Ann. Surg. 91, 583 (1930).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bargen, J. A., W. G. Sauer, W. P. Sloan, and R. P. Gage: The development of cancer in chronic ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 26, 32 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Behrend, M.: Carcinoma of colon: Treatment depending on location of lesions. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 65, 505 (1937).Google Scholar
  45. Berson, H. L., and L. Berger: Multiple carcinomas of the large intestine. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 80, 75 (1945).Google Scholar
  46. Brindley, G. V., and J. S. Rice, Jr.: Multiple primary malignancies of the large intestine. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. 32, 1499 (1952).Google Scholar
  47. Broders, A. C., C. Phillips, and J. C. Stinson: Neoplasms of the large bowel. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. 32, 1511 (1952).Google Scholar
  48. Buie, L. A.: Polypoid disease of the colon. Postgrad. Med. 5, 177 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Czerny: II. Aus der Heidelberger chirurgischen Klinik: Nachtrag zur Darmresection. Berl. klin. Wschr. 17, 683 (1880).Google Scholar
  50. Dixon, C.F.: Malignant lesions of the colon: Preoperative and postoperative management with comment on prognosis. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. 31, 1013 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fenger, C.: Double carcinoma of the colon. J. Amer. med. Ass. 11, 606 (1888).Google Scholar
  52. Garlock, J. H., Bernard Lerman, S. H. Klein, A. S. Lyons, and P. A. Kirschner: Twentyfive years’ experience with surgical therapy of cancer of the colon and rectum: An analysis of 1,887 cases. Dis. Colon Rect. 5, 247 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ginzburg, L., and D. A. Dreiling: Successive independent (metachronous) carcinomas of the colon. Ann. Surg. 143, 117 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hiel, M.: Cancers primitifs multiples rectocoliques et association d’une tumeur gastrique à une tumeur rectocolique. Acta chir. belg. 52, 777 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kirshbaum, J. D., and F. L. Shively, Jr.: Multiple primary malignant tumors. J. Lab. clin. Med. 24, 283 (1938).Google Scholar
  56. Long, J. W., C. W. Mayo, M. B. Dockerty, and E. S. Judd, Jr.: Recurrent versus new and independent carcinomas of the colon and rectum. Proc. Mayo Clin. 25, 169 (1950).Google Scholar
  57. MacDonald, Eleanor J.: Occurrence of multiple primary cancers in a population of 200,000. Acta Un. int. Cancr. 16, 1702 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mayo, C. W.: Surgery of the colon: Selection of patients and operations for malignant lesions. Postgrad. Med. 5, 394 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. McGregor, R. A., and H. E. Bacon: Multiple cancers in colon surgery: Report of 162 cases. Surgery 44, 828 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mider, G. B., J. A. Schilling, J. C. Donovan, and E. S. Rendall: Multiple cancer: A study of other cancers arising in patients with primary malignant neoplasms of the stomach, uterus, breast, large intestine, or hematopoietic system. Cancer (Philad.) 5, 1104 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Peabody, C. N., and R. H. Smithwick: Practical implications of multiple tumors of the colon and rectum. New Engl. J. Med. 264, 853 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Polk, H. C., Jr., J. S. Spratt, Jr., and H. R. Butcher, Jr.: Frequency of multiple primary malignant neoplasms associated with colorectal carcinoma. Amer. J. Surg. 109, 71 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Postlethwait, R. W., J. E. Adamson, and Deryl Hart: Carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 106, 257 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Rankin, F. W., and C. C. Johnston: II. Multiple malignant lesions of the large bowel. Int. Clin. 4. 2, 246 (1941).Google Scholar
  65. Schweiger, L. R., and J. A. Bargen: Multiple primary malignant lesions of the large bowel. Arch. intern. Med. 66, 1331 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shallow, T. A., F. B. Wagner, Jr., and R. E. Colcher: Clinical evaluation of 750 patients with colon cancer: Diagnostic survey and follow-up covering a fifteen-year period. Ann. Surg. 142, 164 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shands, W. C., M. B. Dockerty, and J. A. Bargen: Adenocarcinoma of the large intestine associated with chronic ulcerative colitis: Clinical and pathologic features of 73 cases. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 94, 302 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Slaughter, D. P.: The multiplicity of origin of malignant tumors: Collective review. Int. Abstr. Surg. 79, 89 (1944).Google Scholar
  69. Spear, H. C., and S. C. Brainard: Cancer of the large bowel — an analysis of 580 lesions. Ann. Surg. 134, 934 (1951).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stenstrom, J. D., and H. S. Ford: Carcinoma of the colon: Analysis of 1,000 cases with particular reference to polyps and multiple carcinoma. Amer. J. Surg. 88, 200 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Swinton, N. W., Enrique Moszkowski, and J. C. Snow: Cancer of the colon and rectum: A statistical study of 608 patients. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. 39, 745 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Thomas, J. F., M. B. Dockerty, and J. M. Waugh: Multiple primary carcinomas of the large intestine. Cancer (Philad.) 1, 564 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thorlakson, P. H. T.: The incidence of multiple malignant growths of the large bowel. Manitoba med. Rev. 32, 158 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Tondreau, R. L.: Multiple primary carcinomas of the large intestine. Amer. J. Roentgen. 71, 794 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Warren, S.: Multiple cancers of the human gastrointestinal tract. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 5, 375 (1945).Google Scholar
  76. Wilson, J. S., and Robert Tennant: Carcinoma of the colon: A 10-year study. Cancer (Philad.) 11, 278 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Broders, A.C.: Discussion. Proc. Mayo Clin. 13, 499 (1938).Google Scholar
  78. Committee On Carcinoma Registry: Cancer of the bladder: A study based on 902 epithelial tumors of the bladder in the carcinoma registry of the American Urological Association. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 31, 423 (1934).Google Scholar
  79. Ewing, James: Neoplastic Diseases, Ed. 3. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company 1934, pp. 909–910.Google Scholar
  80. Ferris, D. O., J. H. Kaplan, and G. J. Thompson: Papillary epitheliomas in each ureter and in the bladder. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 62, 448 (1949).Google Scholar
  81. Kaplan, J. H., J. R. McDonald, and G. J. Thompson: Multicentric origin of papillary tumors of the urinary tract. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 66, 792 (1951).Google Scholar
  82. McDonald, D. F., and Theodore Thorson: Clinical implications of transplantability of induced bladder tumors to intact transitional epithelium of dogs. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 75, 690 (1956).Google Scholar
  83. McDonald, J. R., and J. T. Priestley: Carcinoma of the renal pelvis: Histopathologic study of seventy-five cases with special reference to prognosis. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 51, 245 (1944).Google Scholar
  84. Melicow, M. M.: Classification of renal neoplasms: A clinical and pathological study based on 199 cases. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 51, 333 (1944).Google Scholar
  85. Melicow, M. M. Tumors of the urinary bladder: A clinicopathological analysis of over 2500 specimens and biopsies. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 74, 498 (1955).Google Scholar
  86. Oppenheimer, G. D., and Harold Lear: Papillary carcinoma of the ureter and bladder thirteen years post-nephrectomy for papillary carcinoma of the kidney. J. Mt Sinai Hosp. 17, 671 (1951).Google Scholar
  87. Willis, R. A.: Pathology of Tumours. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company 1948, p. 470.Google Scholar
  88. Green, T. H., Jr., Howard Ulfelder, and J. V. Meigs: Epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva: An analysis of 238 cases. Part I. Etiology and diagnosis. Part II. Therapy and end results. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 75, 834 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Byrne, R. N., L. S. Bringhurst, and J. Gershon-Cohen: Postoperative detection of cancer by periodic mammography of remaining breast. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 115, 282 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Carroll, W. W., and T. W. Shields: Bilateral simultaneous breast cancer. Arch. Surg. 70, 672 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Dobson, Leonard: The problem of bilateral nonsimultaneous breast cancer. Stanf. med. Bull. 13, 456 (1955).Google Scholar
  92. Guiss, L. W.: The problem of bilateral independent mammary carcinoma. Amer. J. Surg. 88, 171 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Harrington, S. W.: Survival rates of radical mastectomy for unilateral and bilateral carcinoma of the breast. Surgery 19, 154 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hubbard, T. B., Jr.: Nonsimultaneous bilateral carcinoma of the breast. Surgery 34, 706 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kilgore, A. R.: The incidence of cancer in the second breast after radical removal of one breast for cancer. J. Amer. med. Ass. 77, 454, (1921).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kilgore, A. R., H. G. Bell, and R. E. Ahlquist, Jr.: Cancer in the second breast. Amer. J. Surg. 92, 156 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mider, G. B., J. A. Schilling, J. C. Donovan, and E. S. Rendall: Multiple cancer: A study of other cancers arising in patients with primary malignant neoplasms of the stomach, uterus, breast, large intestine, or hematopoietic system. Cancer (Philad.) 5, 1104 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Missakian, M. M., D. M. Witten, and E.G. Harrison, Jr.: Mammography after mastectomy: Usefulness in search for recurrent carcinoma of breast. J. Amer. med. Ass. 191, 1045 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nisbet, William: A case of the cure of cancer of both breasts, the one ulcerated, the other scirrhous. Med. Phys. J. 4, 296 (1800).Google Scholar
  100. Pack, G. T.: Argument for bilateral mastectomy. (Editorial.) Surgery 29, 929 (1951).Google Scholar
  101. Pierce, E. H., J. W. Kirklin, J. R. McDonald, and R. P. Gage: Carcinoma in the medial and lateral halves of the breast. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 103, 759 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sanders, G. B., and D. W. Griffin: Bilatral mastectomy for breast cancer. Sth. med. J. (Bgham, Ala.) 46, 1083 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yeates, J. M.: Bilateral carcinoma of the breast. Med. J. Aust. 2, 54 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Abeshouse, B. S., Antonio Tiongson, and Morton Goldfarb: Bilateral tumors of testicles: Review of literature and report of case of bilateral simultaneous lymphosarcoma. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 74, 522 (1955).Google Scholar
  105. Hamilton, J. B., and J. B. Gilbert: Studies in malignant tumors of the testis. IV. Bilateral testicular cancer: Incidence, nature, and bearing upon management of the patient with a single testicular cancer. Cancer Res. 2, 125 (1942).Google Scholar
  106. Harper, J. G. M., S. B. Dewing, and G. Nagamatsu: Bilateral carcinoma of testis: Report of 3 cases. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 71, 634 (1954).Google Scholar
  107. Livingstone, John: A case of cancer of both testicles, which terminated favourably by the supervention of scurvy. Edinb. med. surg. J. 1, 163 (1805).Google Scholar
  108. Dockerty, M. B., and J. C. Masson: Clinical features, types and grades of malignant ovarian tumors. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. Aug., 1201 (1941).Google Scholar
  109. Geist, S.H.: Ovarian tumors. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. 1944, pp. 120–121.Google Scholar
  110. Auerbach, Oscar, J.B. Gere, J.M. Pawlowski, G.E. Meuhsam, H.J. Smolin, and A. P. Stout: Carcinoma-in-situ and early invasive carcinoma occurring in the tracheobronchial trees in cases of bronchial carcinoma. J. thorac. Surg. 34, 298 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Black, Harrison, and L. V. Ackerman: The importance of epidermoid carcinoma in situ in the histogenesis of carcinoma of the lung. Ann. Surg. 136, 44 (1952).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. McGrath, E. J., E. A. Gall, and D. P. Kessler: Bronchogenic carcinoma, a product of multiple sites of origin. J. thorac. Surg. 24, 271 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Ryan, R. F., and J. R. McDonald: Bronchogenic carcinoma with in situ carcinoma in the opposite lung: Report of five cases. Proc. Mayo Clin. 31, 478 (1956).Google Scholar
  114. Shields, T. W., C. T. Drake, and J. C. Sherrick: Bilateral primary bronchogenic carcinoma. J. thorac. Surg. 48, 401 (1964).Google Scholar
  115. Williams, Marjorie J.: Extensive carcinoma in situ in the bronchial mucosa associated with two invasive bronchogenic carcinomas: Report of case. Cancer (Philad.) 5, 740 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hermann, H. B., and M. L. Lieberman: Bilateral renal carcinoma. N. Y. med. J. 55, 1915 (1955).Google Scholar
  117. Batzdorf, Ulrich, and Nathan Malamud: The problem of multicentric gliomas. J. Neurosurg. 20, 122 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Courville, C. B.: Multiple primary tumors of the brain: Review of the literature and report of twenty-one cases. Amer. J. Cancer. 26, 703 (1936).Google Scholar
  119. Scherer, J. H.: Critical review: Pathology of cerebral gliomas. J. Neurol. Psychiat. 3, 147 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Virchow: Cited by Courville, C. B.Google Scholar
  121. Slaughter, D. P.: The multiplicity of origin of malignant tumors: Collective review. Int. Abstr. Surg. 79, 89 (1944).Google Scholar
  122. Carson, R. P., and E. A. Gall: Preinvasive carcinoma and precancerous metaplasia of the cervix: A serial block survey. Amer. J. Path. 30, 15 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Collins, W. T., and E. A. Gall: Gastric carcinoma: A multicentric lesion. Cancer (Philad) 5, 62 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Long, J. W., C. W. Mayo, M.B. Dockerty, and E. S. Judd, Jr.: Recurrent versus new and independent carcinomas of the colon and rectum. Proc. Mayo Clin. 25, 169 (1950).Google Scholar
  125. Molesworth, E.H.: Rodent ulcer. Med. J. Aust. 1, 878 (1927).Google Scholar
  126. Qualheim, R. E., and E. A. Gall: Breast carcinoma with multiple sites of origin. Cancer (Philad.) 10, 460 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Slaughter, D. P.: Multicentric origin of intraoral carcinoma. Surgery. 20, 133 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Warwick, Margaret: Model of carcinoma of the lip reconstructed from serial section. J. Amer. med. Ass. 82, 1119 (1924).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Willis, R. A.: The mode of origin of tumors: Solitary localized squamous cell growths of the skin. Cancer Res. 4, 630 (1944).Google Scholar
  130. Willis, R. A.: Further studies on the mode of origin of carcinomas of the skin. Cancer Res. 5, 469 (1945).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles G. Moertel
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Section of Medicine and Section of Clinical OncologyMayo ClinicUSA
  2. 2.Mayo Graduate School of MedicineUniversity of MinnesotaUSA

Personalised recommendations