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Atomare Fehlstellen und Strahlenschädigung

  • J. Diehl
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Unter atomaren Fehlstellen in Kristallen versteht man Abweichungen vom idealen Kristallbau, die in keiner Richtung größere Abmessungen als von der Größenordnung des Atomabstandes aufweisen. Typische Vertreter solcher Fehlstellen sind die Leerstelle (unbesetzter Gitterplatz) und das Zwischengitteratom (zwischen die Gitteratome zusätzlich eingezwängtes Atom). Ein intensiveres Interesse an den Eigenschaften und dem Verhalten solcher atomarer Gitterfehler in Metallen ist vor etwa 20 Jahren im Zusammenhang mit detaillierteren theoretischen und experimentellen Untersuchungen über den Mechanismus der Diffusion erwacht. Es hatte sich damals gezeigt, daß ein unmittelbarer Platzwechsel benachbarter Atome, wie er lange Zeit als Grundprozeß der Selbstdiffusion angenommen worden war, in dicht gepackten Gittern aus energetischen Gründen höchst unwahrscheinlich ist [1], [2].

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