Standards and Specifications

  • F. Leslie Hart
  • Harry Johnstone Fisher


Standards and specifications are not new, but as old as commerce itself. As trade grew beyond the barter stage, the need for a common trade language and definition of terms increased. Guilds and trade associations were formed to serve this purpose. Many of our present day standards are nothing more than codified trade practices.


Trade Association Grade Standard Poultry Product Meat Inspection Process Fruit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Text References

  1. 1.
    Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and General Regulations for its Enforcement. Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1964).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Regulations Governing the Meat Inspection Act. Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture (1965).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Regulations Governing the Inspection of Poultry and Poultry Products. Washington,: U.S. Department of Agriculture (1965).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Office Consolidation of the Foods and Drugs Actand Regulations. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer (as of Jan. 27, 1970). B.14.002.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Canada Meat Inspection Act and the Meat Inspection Regulations. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer (1965); Canada Agricultural Products Standard Act and Dressed and Eviscerated Poultry Regulations. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer (1960).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Office Consolidation of the Canada Agricultural Products Standards Act and the Processed Fruit and Vegetables Regulations. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer (1966).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    U.S. Standards for Grades of Processed Fruits, Vegetables and Certain Other Products. Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Consumer and Marketing Service (1970).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guide for Buying Fresh and Frozen Fish and Shellfish, Circular 214. Washington: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (Reprinted 1959). (Lists 14 U.S. Standards for Seafood.)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guide to Specifications of the Federal Government. Washington, D.C.: General Services Administration (1965).Google Scholar

Selected References

  1. A. Code of Federal Regulations. Washington: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration (as of Jan. 1, 1970). Title 21, parts 1–119.Google Scholar
  2. B.
    Allen, R. J. L.: “Food Standards in the United Kingdom”. In: Food Technol., 48:151 (1965).Google Scholar
  3. C.
    Bartlett, R. P. and Wegener, J. B.: “Sampling Plan Developed by USDA for Inspection of Processed Fruits and Vegetables.” In: Food Technol., 11:526 (1957).Google Scholar
  4. D.
    Department of Defense: Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection of Attributes, MIL-STD-105D. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office (1963).Google Scholar
  5. E.
    Requirements of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. FDA Publication No. 2. (1964).Google Scholar
  6. F.
    Kramer, A.: “Problem of Developing Grades and Standards of Quality”. In: Food, Drug and Cosmetic Law J., 7:23 (1952).Google Scholar
  7. G.
    Kramer, A. and Wigg, B. A. T.: Fundamentals of Quality Control for the Food Industry. Westport: Avi Publishing Co., Inc. (1962).Google Scholar
  8. H.
    Somers, R. K.: “Federal Meat Inspection Labeling Program.” In: Assoc. Food & Drug Officials U.S., Quart. Bull., 29:3 (1965).Google Scholar
  9. I.
    Stefferud, E. (ed.): Food, The Yearbook of Agriculture. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and U.S. Government Printing Office (1959). Chapter 6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Leslie Hart
    • 1
  • Harry Johnstone Fisher
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationBoston DistrictUSA
  2. 2.The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment StationNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations