Malformations pp 242-286 | Cite as

Anomalies of the Urethra

  • Keith Waterhouse
Part of the Handbuch der Urologie / Encyclopedia of Urology / Encyclopédie d’Urologie book series (HDBUROL, volume 7 / 1)

Abstract

This chapter will consider congenital anomalies of the urethra, but will not include epispadias (Chapter 5), hypospadias (Chapter 10), or ectopic ureters draining into the urethra (Chapter 4). Bladder neck obstruction is the subject of a separate communication (Chapter 6) and will be considered only in so far as it arises secondarily to diseases originating more distally in the urethra.

Keywords

Migration Catheter Phenol Mercury Urea 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Introduction

  1. Brodny, M. L., and S. A. Robins: Urethrocystography in the male child. J. Amer. med. Ass. 137, 1511 (1948).Google Scholar
  2. Hellman, L. M., and S. G. Kohl: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  3. Kjellberg, S. R., N. O. Ericsson, and U. Rudhe: Lower urinary tract in childhood: Some correlated clinical and roentgenologic observations. Chicago: Yearbook Publ. Inc. 1957.Google Scholar
  4. Paquin Jr., A. J.: Personal communication 1965.Google Scholar
  5. ——— Marshall, V. F., and J. McGovern: The megacystis syndrome. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 83, 634 (1960).Google Scholar
  6. Stephens, F. D.: Urethral obstruction in childhood. The use of urethrocystography in diagnosis. Aust. N. Z. J. Surg. 25, 89 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Williams, D. I.: Urologist letter club 1965.Google Scholar

Congenital Absence of Urethra

  1. Kruger, R.: Über Vesica gigantea. Z. urol. Chir. 82, 330 (1931).Google Scholar
  2. May, F.: Ein Fall von kongenitalem Verschluß der Urethra membranacea. Z. Urol. 42, 245 (1949).Google Scholar
  3. Menegaux, G., et M. Boidot: Des obliterations congenitales du meat et de la portion balanique de l’urètre (hypospadias excepte). J. Chir. (Paris) 43, 641 (1934).Google Scholar
  4. Miller, H. L.: Agenesia of the urinary bladder and urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 59, 1156–1163 (1948).Google Scholar

Meatal Stenosis

  1. Higgins, T. T., D. I. Williams, and D. F. Ellison Nash: Urology of childhood, p. 113. London: Butterworth & Co. 1951.Google Scholar
  2. Nesbit, R. M., and W. C. Baum: Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive uropathy in childhood. Amer. J. Dis. of Child. 88, 239 (1954).Google Scholar

Distal Urethral Stenosis

  1. Lyon, R. P., and D. R. Smith: Distal urethral stenosis. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 89, 414–421 (1963).Google Scholar
  2. ——— and E. A. Tanagho: Distal urethral stenosis in little girls. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 93, 379 (1965).Google Scholar
  3. Stephens, F. D.: Congenital malformations of the rectum, anus and genito-urinary tracts, p. 243. Edinburgh and London: Livingstone 1963.Google Scholar

Congenital Urethral Stricture

  1. Engel, W. J, and F. C. Schlumberger: Urinary extravasation in newborn infant associated with congenital stenosis of the urethra; report of case. Cleveland Clin. Quart. 5, 278–283 (1938).Google Scholar
  2. Johanson, B.: Reconstruction of the male urethra in strictures. Acta chir. scand. Suppl. 176 (1953).Google Scholar
  3. Leadbetter, G. W., and G. F. Leadbetter: Urethral strictures in male children. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 87, 409–415 (1962).Google Scholar
  4. McGowan Jr., A. J., and K. Waterhouse: Mobilisation of anterior urethra. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. 40, 10 776 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Russell, R. H.: The treatment of urethral stricture by excision. Med. J. Aust. 1, 231–234 (1919).Google Scholar
  6. Young, H. H., W. A. Frontz, and Baldwin: Congenital obstruction of the posterior urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 3, 289 (1919).Google Scholar

Congenital Valves of the Female Urethra

  1. Barker, N. J.: Valves in the female urethra. Urol. int. (Basel) 6 (1–2), 187 (1958).Google Scholar
  2. Brack, C. B., and H. G. Guild: Urethral obstructions in the female child. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 76, 1105 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Everett, H. S., and C. B. Brack: Unusual lesions of the female urethra. Obstet, and Gynec. 1, 571 (1953).Google Scholar
  4. Nesbit, R. M., H. P. McDonald, and S. Busby: Obstructing valves in the female urethra. Trans Amer. Ass. gen.-urin. Surg. 55, 21 (1963).Google Scholar
  5. Stevens, W. E.: Congenital obstructions of female urethra. J. Amer. med. Ass. 106, 89 (1936).Google Scholar

Congenital Hypertrophy of the Verumontanum

  1. Baldridge, R. R.: Congenital hypertrophy of verumontanum; case. New Engl. J. Med. 213, 46 (1935).Google Scholar
  2. Bugbee, H. G., and M. Wollstein: Retention of urine due to congential hypertrophy of verumontanum. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 10, 477 (1923).Google Scholar
  3. Campbell, M. F.: Urology, vol. 2, p. 1765. Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders Co. 1963.Google Scholar
  4. Emmett, J. L.: Obstruction of the vesical neck of a male infant produced by hypertrophy of the verumontanum. Proc. Mayo Clin. 15, 364 (1940).Google Scholar
  5. Kjellberg, S. R., N. O. Ericsson, and U. Rudhe: Lower urinary tract in childhood: Some correlated clinical and roentgenologic observations. Chicago: Yearbook Publ. Inc. 1957.Google Scholar
  6. Pilcher Jr., F., and H. W. Price: Congenital hypertrophy of verumontanum. J. Amer. med. Ass. 115, 2072 (1940).Google Scholar
  7. Robinson, W. W.: Congential hypertrophy of verumontanum as a cause of urinary retention. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 17, 381 (1927).Google Scholar
  8. Stephens, F. D.: Congenital malformations of the rectum, anus and genito-urinary tracts. Edinburgh and London: Livingstone 1963.Google Scholar

Anterior Urethral Valves

  1. Boissonnat, P., and P. Bouteau: Valve of the anterior urethra, accessory diverticular canal and disease of the vesical neck in boy 10 years old. J. Urol. (Paris) 60, 949 (1954).Google Scholar
  2. Hope, J. W., P. J. Jameson, and A. J. Michie: Diagnosis of anterior urethral valve by voiding urethrography: Report of two cases. Radiology 74, 798 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Waterhouse, K., and L. J. Scordamaglia: Anterior urethral valve: A rare cause of bilateral hydronephrosis. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 87, 556 (1962).Google Scholar
  4. Williams, D. I.: Urology in childhood. Encyclopedia of urology, vol. 15. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1958.Google Scholar

Diverticula of the Anterior Urethra

  1. Abeshouse, B. S.: Diverticula of anterior urethra in male: report of 4 cases and review of literature. Urol, cutan. Rev. 55, 690 (1951).Google Scholar
  2. Boissonnat, P., and P. Bouteau: Valve of the anterior urethra, accessory diverticular canal and disease of vesical neck in boy 10 years old. J. Urol. (Paris) 60, 949 (1954).Google Scholar
  3. Boissonnat, P., and B. Duhamel: Congenital diverticulum of the anterior urethra associated with aplasia of the abdominal muscles in a male infant. Brit. J. Urol. 34, 59 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bourne, W. I.: Congenital diverticulum of the urethra. Brit. J. Radiol. 30, 327 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Browne, D.: Techniques in British surgery: Hypospadias, p. 412. London and Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. 1950.Google Scholar
  6. Dahl-Iversen, E., and H. Joergensen: Congenital diverticula in male; case. Lyon chir. 35, 37 (1938).Google Scholar
  7. Dees, J. E.: Congenital diverticulum of anterior male urethra. Urol, cutan. Rev. 54, 480 (1950).Google Scholar
  8. Demos, N. J., D. A. Gillis, and K. E. Barber: Congenital diverticula of the anterior urethra in male infants: Report of two cases. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 88, 252 (1962).Google Scholar
  9. De Paoli, E.: Delle borse urinose uretroli. Abstract from Gazz. med. di Torrino 1885. Zbl. Chir. 12, 905 (1885).Google Scholar
  10. Dorairajan, T.: Defects of spongy tissue and congenital diverticula of the penile urethra. Aust. N.Z. J. Surg. 32, 209 (1963).Google Scholar
  11. Durand, M.: Un cas de poche diverticulaire congénitale de l’urètre pénien. Bull. Soc. Chir. de Lyon 4, 23 (1900).Google Scholar
  12. Forshall, I., and P. P. Rickham: Case of congenital diverticulum of anterior urethra in male infant. Brit. J. Urol. 25, 142 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Geiringer, D., and M. O. Zucker: Diverticulum of anterior urethra in male child. Amer. J. Surg. 44, 463 (1939).Google Scholar
  14. Gross, E. E., and A. H. Bill: Concealed diverticulum of the male urethra as a cause of urinary obstruction. Pediatrics 1, 44 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Halperstein, J. E.: Congenital diverticula of urethra. Z. urol. Chir. 19, 79 (1926).Google Scholar
  16. Hueter, F.: Großes angeborenes Divertikel der Urethra mit klappengoringen Verschluß der Urethra und Incontinentia urinae. Operation. Heilung. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 46, 32 (1896).Google Scholar
  17. Johnson, F. P.: Diverticula and cysts of the urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 10, 295 (1923).Google Scholar
  18. Kaufman, C.: Verletzungen und Krankheiten der maennlichen Harnröhre und des Penis. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke 1886.Google Scholar
  19. Khoury, E. N.: Diverticula of male urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 69, 291 (1953).Google Scholar
  20. Knox, W. G.: Congenital diverticulum of male urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 58, 344 (1947).Google Scholar
  21. Kott, B.: Case of congential diverticulum of urethra. Z. Urol. 20, 499 (1926).Google Scholar
  22. Kretschmer, H. L.: Diverticula in the anterior urethra in male children. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 62, 634 (1936).Google Scholar
  23. Lattimer, J. K.: Congenital deficiency of the abdominal musculature and associated genitourinary abnormalities. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 79, 343 (1958).Google Scholar
  24. Lowsley, O. S., and R. Gutierrez: Congenital diverticula of the male urethra. Verh. Dtsch. Ges. Urol. 8, 312 (1928).Google Scholar
  25. McGauran, H. G.: Diverticula of male; 2 cases. J. Amer. med. Ass. 120, 1381 (1942).Google Scholar
  26. Mills, W. G. Q.: Chronic retention in boys caused by diverticula in anterior urethra. Brit. J. Urol. 27, 292 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Moucha, D.: Voluminous urethral scrotal diverticulum in a 2-year-old boy. Review of the literature appropos of an operated case. J. Chir. (Paris) 81, 581 (1961).Google Scholar
  28. Nesbitt, T. E.: Congenital megalourethra (variation of diverticulum). J. Urol. (Baltimore) 73, 839 (1955).Google Scholar
  29. Nunn, I. N., and F. D. Stephens: The triad syndrome: A composite anomaly of the abdominal wall, urinary system and testes. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 86, 782 (1961).Google Scholar
  30. Petz : Quoted by Bokay. Jahrbuch für Kinderheilkunde, Bd. 52, No 2. (1900);Google Scholar
  31. Petz : Derm. Z. 7, 741 (1900).Google Scholar
  32. Rioseco, E., and J. Vargas: Congenital diverticulum. Urol, cutan. Rev. 48, 209 (1944).Google Scholar
  33. Russell, R. H.: Papers and addresses in surgery, p. 298. Melbourne: Grant 1923.Google Scholar
  34. Stephens, F. D.: Congenital malformations of the rectum, anus and genitourinary tracts. Edinburgh and London: Livingstone 1963.Google Scholar
  35. Suter, F.: Ein Beitrag zur Histologie und Genese der congenitalen Divertikel der männlichen Harnröhre. Langenbecks Arch. klin. Chir. 87, 225 (1908).Google Scholar
  36. Ternousky, S.: Congential diverticula. Urol, cutan. Rev. 34, 578 (1930).Google Scholar
  37. Vincent, E.: Contribution to the study of diverticula of the male posterior urethra. J. Urol. méd. chir. 66, 475 (1960).Google Scholar
  38. Vollemier: Traite des maladies des voies urinaires, p. 382. 1868.Google Scholar
  39. Watten Jr., J. W.: Congenital diverticulum. Amer. Surg. 21, 385 (1955).Google Scholar
  40. Watts, S. H.: Urethral diverticula in the male with report of a case. Johns Hopk. Hosp. Rep. 13, 49 (1906).Google Scholar

Double Urethra and Accessory Urethra

  1. Anselmo, G.: On a case of duplication of the female urethra. Arch. ital. Urol. 36, 403 (1964).Google Scholar
  2. Arnold, M. W., and W. M. Kaylor: Double urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 70, 746 (1953).Google Scholar
  3. Boissonnat, P.: Accessory urethral canals; anatomic classification in connection with 5 cases. J. Urol. méd. chir. 60, 954 (1954).Google Scholar
  4. ——— Two cases of complete double functional urethra with a single bladder. Brit. J. Urol. 33, 453 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonanome, L.: Bifid urethra; case. Arch. ital. Urol. 19, 361 (1942).Google Scholar
  6. Brown, J. J. M.: Lesions of the anterior urethra in infancy and childhood. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 49, 891 (1956).Google Scholar
  7. Chauvin, E.: A propos des urètres doubles, en particulier de leurs variétés postérieures. J. Urol. méd. chir. 23, 293 (1927).Google Scholar
  8. Couvelaire, R.: Roentgenography of rare form of duplication in infant 6 months old; case. J. Urol. méd. chir. 52, 208 (1944/45).Google Scholar
  9. Dannreuther, W. T.: Complete double urethra in a female. J. Amer. med. Ass. 81, 1016 (1923).Google Scholar
  10. De Nicola, R. R., and R. C. McCartney: Duplication in female child treated with sclerosing solution. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 61, 1065 (1949).Google Scholar
  11. Funfack, M.: Complete double urethra in male; case. Z. Urol. 46, 391 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gross, R. E., and T. G. Moore: Duplication; report of 2 cases and summary of literature. Arch. Surg. 60, 749 (1950).Google Scholar
  13. Irmisch, G. W., and E. W. Cook: Double and accessory urethra. Minn. Med. 29, 999 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lowsley, O. S.: Accessory urethra; Report of 2 cases with review of literature. N.Y. St. J. Med. 39, 1022 (1939).Google Scholar
  15. May, F.: Double urethra in male and its surgical therapy. Urologia 21, 319 (1954).Google Scholar
  16. Moore, C. B.: Reduplication of urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 56, 130 (1946).Google Scholar
  17. Rinker, J. R.: Accessory urethra in boy. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 50, 331 (1943).Google Scholar
  18. Schurr, P. H.: Accessory urethral canal in male. Brit. J. Surg. 36, 181 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Slotkin, E. A., and A. Mercer: Case of epispadis with double urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 70, 743 (1953).Google Scholar
  20. Thevathasan, C.: Accessory urethra in the male child. Report of 2 cases. Aust. N.Z. J. Surg. 31, 134 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Wrenn, T., and A. J. Michie: Ann. Surg. 145, 119 (1951).Google Scholar

Posterior Urethral Valves

  1. Addison, O.: Congenital valvular obstruction. Arch. Dis. Childh. 4, 255 (1929).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bazy, P.: A propos du diagnostic des lesions renale unilaterales. Bull. Soc. Chir. Paris 29, 32 (1903).Google Scholar
  3. Boissonnat, P.: Congenital dysurias not due to bladder neck obstruction; 12 cases of urethral valves. Mém. Acad. Chir. 79, 242 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Burnell, G. H.: Congenital valvular obstruction of posterior urethra. Aust. N.Z. J. Surg. 4, 322 (1935).Google Scholar
  5. Burns, E., A. M. Pratt, and R. G. Hendon: Management of bladder neck obstruction in children. J. Amer. med. Ass. 157, 570 (1955).Google Scholar
  6. Campbell, M. F.: Posterior urethral valve obstruction in infancy and childhood; study of 18 cases. J. Amer. med. Ass. 96, 592 (1931).Google Scholar
  7. ——— Pediatric urology, vol. 2. New York: Macmillan Co. 1937.Google Scholar
  8. Chadwick, jR. D., and S. P. Meadows: Congenital obstruction of posterior urethra. Brit, med. J. 1930 I, 443.Google Scholar
  9. Counseller, R. S., and J. G. Menville: Congenital valves of posterior urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 34, 268 (1935).Google Scholar
  10. Davidson, I., and C. Newberger: Congenital valves of posterior urethra in twins. Arch. Path. 16, 57 (1933).Google Scholar
  11. Derow, H. A., and M. L. Brodny: Congenital posterior urethral valves causing renal rickets; case. New Engl. J. Med. 221, 685 (1939).Google Scholar
  12. Dodson, A. I., and H. Lorraine: Congential obstruction of posterior urethra. Virginia med. Mth. 58, 102 (1931).Google Scholar
  13. Fagerstrom, D. P.: Congenital obstruction of lower urinay tract in male with particular reference to valve formations. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 37, 166 (1937).Google Scholar
  14. Forsythe, W. F., and D. F. McFadden: Congenital posterior urethral valves; a study of 35 cases. Brit. J. Urol. 31, 63 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Frontz, W. A.: Congenital urinary obstructions in male children, with reports of cases presenting unusual anomalies. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 27, 489 (1932).Google Scholar
  16. Fuchs, N.: Zwei Fälle von kongenitaler Hydronephrose. Inaug.-Diss. Zürich 1900.Google Scholar
  17. Griesbach, W. A., K. Waterhouse, and H. Z. Mellins: Voiding cystourethrography in the diagnosis of congential posterior urethral valves. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 82, 521 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gross, R. E.: Surgery of infancy and childhood. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. 1953.Google Scholar
  19. Hansmann, G. H.: Obstructions of posterior urethra by congential valves; report of case. Boston med. surg. J. 190, 12 (1924).Google Scholar
  20. Hasen, H. B., and Y. S. Song: Congenital valvular obstruction of posterior urethra in 2 brothers. J. Pediat. 47, 207 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hess, E., and C. O. Peters: Congenital valves of posterior urethra; 2 cases. Penn. med. J. 35, 460 (1932).Google Scholar
  22. Higgins, T. T., D.I. Williams, and D. F. E. Nash: The urology of childhood. London: Butterworth & Co. 1951.Google Scholar
  23. Hinman, F., and A. A. Kutzmann: Congenital valvular obstruction of posterior urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 14, 71 (1925).Google Scholar
  24. Iversen, T.: A peculiar valve formation in the prostatic urethra. Hospitalstidende 7, 1367 (1914).Google Scholar
  25. Jorups, S., and S. R. Kjellberg: Congenital valvular formations in the urethra. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 30, 197 (1948).Google Scholar
  26. Kjellberg, S. R., N. O. Ericsson, and U. Rudhe: Lower urinary tract in childhood: Some correlated clinical and roentgenologic observations. Chicago: Yearbook Publ. Inc. 1957.Google Scholar
  27. Kretschmer, H. L., and L. E. Pierson: Congenital valves of posterior urethra. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 38, 804 (1929).Google Scholar
  28. Landes, H. E., and R. Rall: Congenital valvular obstruction of posterior urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 34, 254 (1935).Google Scholar
  29. Langenbeck: Memoire sur la lithotomie 1802.Google Scholar
  30. Lattimer, J. K., and M. Hubbart: Relative incidence of pediatric urological conditions. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 71, 759 (1954).Google Scholar
  31. Lowsley, O. S., and T. J. Kirwin: A clinical and pathological study of congenital obstruction of the urethra; report of 4 cases. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 31, 497 (1934).Google Scholar
  32. Maxwell, M. H., C. R. Kleeman, and R. Rockney: Peritoneal dialysis-technique and applications. J. Amer. med. Ass. 170, 917 (1959).Google Scholar
  33. McCrea, L. E.: Congenital valves of posterior urethra. J. int. Coll. Surg. 12, 342 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. McDonald, H. P.: A peritoneal dialysis trocar. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 89, 946 (1963).Google Scholar
  35. McKay, R. W.: Obstructions of vesical neck (due to congenital valves of the urethra) in children. Sth. med. J. (Bgham, Ala.) 33, 377 (1940).Google Scholar
  36. Minkowski, A., and P. Claisse: Congenital urethral valves as a cause of giant dilation of urinary tract. Arch. fran9. Pediat. 8, 840 (1951).Google Scholar
  37. Mitchell, J. P.: Association of valves in the posterior urethra with bladder neck obstruction. Acta urol. belg. 31, 507 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Nesbit, R. M.: Congenital valvular obstruction of prostatic urethra; surgical procedure. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 51, 167 (1944).Google Scholar
  39. ——— R. L. Thirlby, and F. P. Raper: Diagnosis and treatment of congenital urethral valves. J. Mich. med. Soc. 50, 1244 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Nunn, I. N.: Bladder neck obstruction in children. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 93, 693 (1965).Google Scholar
  41. Paquin jr., A. J.: Ureterovesical anastomosis: The description and evaluation of a technique. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 82, 573 (1959).Google Scholar
  42. Presman, D.: Congenital valves of the posterior urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 86, 602 (1961).Google Scholar
  43. Randall, A.: Congenital valves of posterior urethra with report of case. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 23, 57(1930).Google Scholar
  44. Raper, F. P.: Recognition and treatment of congenital urethral valves. Brit. J. Urol. 25, 136 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Rattner, W. H., U Meyer, and J. Bernstein: Congenital abnormalities of the urinary system. IV. Valvular obstruction of the posterior urethra. J. Pediat. 63, 84 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Reisman, D. D.: Bladder neck obstructions in children. J. Amer. med. Ass. 188, 1057 (1964).Google Scholar
  47. Rutherford, R., and J. H. Follows: Congenital valvular obstruction in prostatic urethra. Brit. J. Child. Dis. 31, 297 (1934).Google Scholar
  48. Schacht, F. W.: Congenital valvular obstruction with vesical diverticulum. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 24. 83 (1930).Google Scholar
  49. Sheldon, W.: Posterior urethral obstruction in childhood (due to valve formations). Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 31, 1366 (1938).Google Scholar
  50. Stephens, F. D.: Congenital malformations of the rectum, anus and genito-urinary tracts. Edinburgh and London: Livingstone 1963.Google Scholar
  51. Thompson, G. J.: Urinary obstruction of vesical neck and posterior urethra of congenital origin. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 47, 591 (1942).Google Scholar
  52. Tolmatschew, N. v.: Ein Fall von Semilumarron Klappen der Harnrohre und von Vergrossater Vesicula Prostatica. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 49, 348 (1870).Google Scholar
  53. Torp, K. H.: Congenital valvular formation of posterior urethra. Acta paediat. (Uppsala) 43, 192 (1954).Google Scholar
  54. Velpeau S: Nouveaux elements de medicine operatoire. vol. 111, p. 907. Paris 1832. SGoogle Scholar
  55. Waterhouse, K.: Voiding cystourethrography: A simple technique. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 85, 103 (1961).Google Scholar
  56. ——— Lower urinary tract obstruction in children. Biochem. Clin. 2, 245 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Waterhouse, K.: The dilated posterior urethra: I. Male. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 91 71 (1964).Google Scholar
  58. ——— and F. C. Hamm: The importance of urethral valves as a cause of vesical neck obstruction in children. Trans. Amer. Ass. gen.-urin. Surg. 53, 138 (1961).Google Scholar
  59. Watson, E. M.: The structure of the verumontanum — A study of the origin and development of its inherent glandular elements. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 2, 337 (1918).Google Scholar
  60. Williams, I. I.: Congenital valves in posterior urethra (2 cases). Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 46, 427 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. ——— Urology in childhood. Encyclopedia of urology, vol. 15. Berlin-Gottingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1958.Google Scholar
  62. ——— and H. B. Eckstein: Obstructive valves in the posterior urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 93, 236 (1965).Google Scholar
  63. Wisiol, E.: Congenital valvular obstruction of posterior urethra; case. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 35, 524 (1936).Google Scholar
  64. Wolgin, W., M. Rosenberg, and M. Muschat: Co-existence of congenital median bar and urethral valves. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 68, 506 (1952).Google Scholar
  65. Young, H. H., W. A. Frontz, and Baldwin: Congenital obstruction of the posterior urethra. J. Urol. (Baltimore) 3, 289 (1919).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith Waterhouse

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations