Essential Hypercholesterolemia

  • G. Schettler
  • W. Kahlke
  • G. Schlierf

Abstract

Essential familial hypercholesterolemia (EFH) is an hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism which is characterized chemically by elevation of plasma cholesterol and phospholipids due to an increased concentration of beta-lipoproteins. The cholesterol to phospholipid ratio is greater than one. Typical clinical features are skin, fascial and tendon xanthomas, the incidence of which seems to depend on the plasma lipid level and increases with age. Xanthelasmas of the eyelids and arcus lipoides corneae are more frequent than in the general population. The prevalence of signs and symptoms of premature atherosclerosis is high. Since hypercholesterolemia in an individual is non-specific unless it is of very marked degree, the diagnosis of EFH frequently depends on the demonstration of one or more of these symptoms in several members of a kindred. Only rarely does a patient show all the symptoms of EFH; monosymptomatic (cholesterol elevation only) and heterosymptomatic forms are frequent.

Synonyms

Primary hypercholesterolemia familial hypercholesterolemic xanthomatosis hyperbetalipoproteinemia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achob, R. W. P., N. A. Christensen, K. G. Berge, and H. L. Mason: Treatment of hypercholesteremia with triparanol and comparison with nicotinic acid. Proc. Mayo Clin. 38, 32 (1963).Google Scholar
  2. Addison, T., and W. Gull: On a certain affection of the skin, vitiligoidea. (a) plana, (b) tuberosa with remarks. Guy’s Hosp. Rep. 7, 265 (1850).Google Scholar
  3. Adlersberg, D.: Newer advances in gout. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. 25, 651 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adlersberg, D.: Hypercholesterolemia with predisposition to atherosclerosis: an inborn error of lipid metabolism. Amer. J. Med. 11, 600 (1951).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adlersberg, D.: Inborn errors of lipid metabolism. Clinical, genetic, and chemical aspects. Arch. Path. (Chic.) 60, 481 (1955).Google Scholar
  6. Adlersberg, D.: Adrenocortical hormones and experimental atherosclerosis. In: Hormones and atherosclerosis, G. Pincus (Ed.). New York: Academic Press 1959.Google Scholar
  7. Adlersberg, D., A. D. Parets, and E. P. Boas: Genetics of atherosclerosis. J. Amer. med. Ass. 141, 246 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahrens jr., E. H., D. Hirsch, W. Insull, T. Tsaltas, R. Blomstrand, and M. -L.Peterson: The influence of dietary fats on serum-lipid levels in man. Lancet 1957/I, 943.Google Scholar
  9. Ahrens jr., E. H., W. Insull, J. Hirsch, W. Stoffel, M. L. Peterson: The effect on human serum-lipids of a dietary fat, highly unsaturated, but poor in essential fatty acids. Lancet 1959/I,115.Google Scholar
  10. Albrieux, A. S., Y. Costa, and R. Sarachaga: Cited after Harris-Jones (1957); An. Fac. Med. Montevideo 38, 480 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Altschul, R., and A. Hoffer: Effect of nicotinic acid upon serum cholesterol and upon basal metabolic rate of young normal adults. Arch. Biochem. 73, 420 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Altschul, R., and J. D. Stephen: Influence of nicotinic acid on serum cholesterol in man. Arch. Biochem. 54, 558 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Amatuzio, D. S., F. Grande, and S. Wade: Effect of glucagon on the serum lipids in essential hyperlipemia and in hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism 11, 1240 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Autenrieth, W., u. A. Funk: Über kolorimetrische Bestimmungsmethoden: Die Bestimmung des Gesamtcholesterins im Blut und in Organen. Münch. med. Wschr. 60, 1243 (1913).Google Scholar
  15. Avigan, J., and D. Steinberg: Effect of saturated and unsaturated fat on cholesterol metabolism in the rat. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 97, 814 (1958).Google Scholar
  16. Avigan, J., and D. Steinberg: Sterol and bile acid excretion in man and the effects of dietary fat. J. clin. Invest. 44, 1845 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bansi, H. W.: Hypothyreosen — Strumen — Thyreoiditiden. Verh. dtsch. Ges. inn. Med. 66,103 (1960).Google Scholar
  18. Berge, K. G., R. W. P. Achor, N. A. Christensen, H. L. Mason, and N. W. Barker: Hypercholesteremia and nicotinic acid. A long-term study. Amer. J. Med. 31, 24 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bergström, S.: Metabolism of bile acids. Fed. Proc. 20, Suppl. 7,121 (1961).Google Scholar
  20. Berkowitz, D.: The effects of Atromid on serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and radioactive fat tolerance in patients with hyperlipidemia. A preliminary report. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 538 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Berkowitz, D.: Blood lipid and uric acid interrelationships. J. Amer. med. Ass. 190, 856 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bernheim, C, G. Forster, E. Lüthy u. F. v. Planta: Die Behandlung von Hypercholesterinämie, Hvperlipämie und tuberöser Xanthomatosis mit D-Thyroxin. Schweiz, med. Wschr. 93, 238 (1963).Google Scholar
  23. Berry, C, A. Moxham, E. Smith, A. E. Kellie, and J. D. N. Nabarro: The effects of Atromid on the metabolism of adrenal steroids and on plasma lipid fractions. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 380 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Best, M. M., and C. H. Duncan: Effects of sitosterol on the cholesterol concentration in serum and liver in hypothyroidism. Circulation 14, 344 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Best, M. M., and C. H. Duncan: Effects of the esterification of supplemental cholesterol and sitosterol in the diet. J. Nutr. 65, 169 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Best, M. M., and C. H. Duncan: Effects of thiouracil and sitosterol on diet-induced hypercholesteremia and lipomatous arterial lesions in the rat. Amer. Heart J. 58, 214 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Best, M. M., and C. H. Duncan: Effects of cholesterol-lowering drugs on serum triglycerides. J. Amer. med. Ass. 187, 37 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Betzien, G., H. Bracharz, P. B. Diezel, H. Franke, R. Kuhn u. Th. Seidl: Zur Wirkung des Sitosterins auf den Cholesterin-Stoffwechsel beim Warmblüter. Drug Research, Arzneimittel-Forsch. 11, 751 (1961).Google Scholar
  29. Beveridge, J. M. R., W. F. Connell, and G. A. Mayer: Dietary factors affecting the level of plasma cholesterol in humans: The role of fat. Canad. J. Biochem. 34, 441 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Beveridge, J. M. R., W. F. Connell, and G. A. Mayer: The nature of the substances in dietary fat affecting the level of plasma cholesterol in humans. Canad. J. Biochem. 35, 257 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Beveridge, J. M. R., J. B. Firstbrook, and M. S. DeWolfe: The effects of certain vegetable and animal fats on the plasma lipids of humans. J. Nutr. 56, 311 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Beveridge, J. M. R., H. L. Haust, and G. A. Mayer: Dietary cholesterol and plasma cholesterol levels in man. Canad. J. Biochem. 37, 575 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Beveridge, J. M. R., G. A. Mayer and H. L. Haust: Plant sterols, degree of unsaturation, and hypocholesterolemic action of certain fats. Canad. J. Biochem. 36, 825 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Beveridge, J. M. R., G. A. Mayer and H. L. Haust: The response of man to dietary cholesterol. J. Nutr. 71, 61 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bieberdorf, F. A., and J. D. Wilson: Influence of unsaturated fat on cholesterol C14 metabolism in the isotopie steady state in the rabbit (abstract). Clin. Res. 12, 262 (1964).Google Scholar
  36. Blodi, F. C, and J. C. Yarbrough: Ocular manifestations of familial hypercholesterolemia. Amer. J. Ophthal. 60, 304 (1962).Google Scholar
  37. Blomstrand, R., and E. H. Ahrens jr.: The absorption of fat studied in a patient with chyluria. II. Palmitic and oleic acids. J. biol. Chem. 233, 321 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Blomstrand, R., and E. H. Ahrens jr.: The absorption of fat studied in a patient with chyluria. III.Cholesterol. J. biol. Chem. 233, 327 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Blumgart, H. L., A. S. Freedberg, and G. S. Kurland: Treatment of incapacitated euthyroid patients by producing hypothyroidism with radioactive iodine. New Engl. J. Med. 245, 83 (1951).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Blumgart, H. L., A. S. Freedberg, and G. S. Kurland: Treatment of incapacitated euthyroid cardiac patients with radioactive iodine. Summary of results in treatment of 1070 patients with angina pectoris or congestive failure. J. Amer. med. Ass. 157,1 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Böttcher, C. J. F.: Lipids of the human arterial wall. In: Proceedings of the Symposium (Milano 1960) on “Drugs affecting lipid metabolism”, p. 54. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1961.Google Scholar
  42. Böttcher, C. J. F., and F. P. Woodford: Chemical changes in the arterial wall associated with atherosclerosis. Fed. Proc. 21, Suppl. II, 15 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Borrie, P.: Essential hyperlipaemia and idiopathic hypercholesterolemic xanthomatosis. Brit. med. J. 1957/II, 911.Google Scholar
  44. Bragdon, J. H., R. J. Havel, and E. Boyle: Human serum lipoproteins. I. Chemical composition of four fractions. J. Lab. clin. Med. 48, 36 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Breslaw, L.: Xanthoma tuberosum: a 6-month control study. Amer. J. Med. 25, 487 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bross, K.: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der generalisierten Xanthomatose. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 227,144 (1920).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Burns, F. G.: Contribution to the study of xanthoma tuberosum multiplex. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chic.) 2, 415 (1920).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Carlson, L. A., B. Högstedt, and L. Orö: Effect of Atromid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in subjects with hyperlipoproteinemia. A preliminary report. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 467 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chauffard, A., et G. La Roche: Pathogénie du xanthelasma. Sem. méd. (Paris) 30, 241 (1910).Google Scholar
  50. Chiu, G. C.: Mode of action of cholesterol-lowering agents. A critique of facts and theories. Arch, intern. Med. 108, 717 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chiu, G. C.: Unpublished data. Cited by Chiu (1961).Google Scholar
  52. Christensen, N. A., R. W. P. Achor, K. G. Berge, and H. L. Mason: Hypercholesterolemia: Effects of treatment with nicotinic acid for three to seven years. Dis. Chest. 46, 411 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Constantinides, P., C. Johnson, B. M. Fahrini, R. Nakashima, and H. W. Mcintosh: Human hyperlipemia. Rapid correction with a sulphated polymannuronide. Brit. med. J. 1960/I, 535.Google Scholar
  54. Constantinides, P., and P. Saunders: Effect of sulfated algenic acid (SAA) on preestablished rabbit atherosclerosis. II. Study in the absence of concomitant cholesterol feeding. Arch. Path. 65, 360 (1958).Google Scholar
  55. Constantinides, P., and P. Saunders: Atherosclerotic and lipophage-stimulating effects of mannuronate. Arch. Path. 65, 499 (1958).Google Scholar
  56. Coste, F., J. Cayla, F. Basset et G. Tschobrousky: Cited after Sinner (1961). Rev. Rhum. 26,1 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Cotton, R. C, E. G. Wade, and G. W. Spiller: The effect of Atromid on plasma fibrinogen and heparin resistance. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 648 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Counihan, T. B., and P. Keelan: Atromid in high cholesterol states. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 580 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Cramer, K.: Action of Atromid on serum lipids and on β-lipoprotein lipids and protein. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 500 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Curtis, A. C, and J. P. Berger: Effect of feeding a lipotropic substance to patients with xanthelasma. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chic.) 52, 252 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cutting, W. C, D. A. Rytand, and M. L. Tainter: Relationship between blood cholesterol and increased metabolism from dinitrophenol and thyroid. J. clin. Invest. 13, 547 (1934).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Davis, W. W.: II. The physical chemistry of cholesterol and ß-sitosterol related to the intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 18,123 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Dawber, T. R., W. B. Kannel, and N. Revotskie: Some factors associated with the development of coronary heart disease. Amer. J. pubi. Hlth 49, 1349 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dawber, T. R., F. E. Moore, and G. V. Mann: Coronary heart disease in the Framingham study. Amer. J. pubi. Hlth 47, 4 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Debuch, H., and W. Kahlke: Unpublished results (1964).Google Scholar
  66. Delcourt, R., and M. Vastesaeger: Action of Atromid on total and β-cholesterol. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 533 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Diller, E. R., B. L. Woods, and O. A. Harvey: Effect of β-sitosterol on regression of hypercholesterosis and atherosclerosis in chickens. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 98, 813 (1958).Google Scholar
  68. Duchosal, P. W., and E. Rutishauser: Goutte lipoidique, cas familiaux et sporadiques. Helv. med. Acta 10, 223 (1943).Google Scholar
  69. Duncan, C. H., and M. M. Best: Lack of nicotinic acid effect on cholesterol metabolism of the rat. J. Lipid Res. 1, 159 (1960).Google Scholar
  70. Epstein, E. u. H. Kreitner: Beitrag zu einer vergleichenden Pathologie und Pathochemie der allgemeinen Cholesterinlipoidosen. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 306, 53 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Epstein, F. H.: The epidemiology of coronary heart disease. A review. J. chron. Dis. 18, 735 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Epstein, F. H, W. D. Block, E. H. Hand, and Th. Francis: Familial hypercholesterolemia, xanthomatosis and coronary heart disease. Amer. J. Med. 26, 39 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Epstein, N. M., R. H. Rosenbaum, and J. W. Gofman: Serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism in xanthelasma. Arch. Derm. Suppl. 65, 70 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fagge, C. H.: General xanthelasma or vitiligoidea. Trans. Path. Soc. (London) 24, 242 (1872/73).Google Scholar
  75. Failey Jr., R. B., E. Brown, and M. E. Hodes: Effect of nicotinic acid on conjugation pattern of bile acids in man. Circulation 20, 984 (1959).Google Scholar
  76. Farquhar, J. W., and M. Sokolow: Response of serum lipids and lipoproteins of man to β-sitosterol and safflower oil: a longterm study. Circulation 17, 890 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Fasoli, A., and A. Cesana: Serum lipid and lipoprotein changes after treatment with Atromid in patients with atherosclerosis, essential hyperiipaemia and familial hypercholesterolaemia. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 475 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Favarger, P.: Etude clinique de 3 cas de goutte lipoidique dout 2 cas familiaux et un apparaissant sporadique. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 86, 81 (1942).Google Scholar
  79. Favarger, P.: Mécanisme d’action des acides gras non saturés sur la cholestérolémie. Bull. Soc. clin. Biol. 45, 461 (1963).Google Scholar
  80. Finley, J. K., D. Berkowitz, and M. N. Croll: The physiologic significance of gerontoxon. Arch. Ophthal. 66, 211 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Fischer, H., u. W. Nikolowski: Zur formalen Genese der hyperlipidämischen Xanthome. Arch. klin. exp. Derm. 210, 141 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Fisher, H. N., and F. C. Knowles: Xanthoma tuberosum in childhood with visceral and tendon sheath involvement. J. Amer. med. Ass. 77, 1557 (1921).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Fleischmajer, R.: Dyslipidoses. Med. Clin. N. Amer. 49, 633 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Fletcher, R. F., and J. Gloster: The lipids in xanthomata. J. clin. Invest. 43, 2104 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fowlkes, R. W., and J. C. Forbes: Cholesterol fractionation studies of the serum of xanthelasma patients. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chic.) 62, 681 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Frantz Jr., I. D., and J. B. Carey jr.: Cholesterol content of human liver after feeding of corn oil and hydrogenated coconut oil. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 106, 800 (1961).Google Scholar
  87. Franz, G.: Über Xanthomatose mit besonderer Beteiligung des Gefäßsystems. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 49, 41 (1936).Google Scholar
  88. Fredrickson, D. S.: Essential familial hyperlipidemia. In: The metabolic basis of inherited disease. Eds.: J. B. Stanbury, J. B. Wyngaarden, and D. S. Fredrickson, p. 489. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1960.Google Scholar
  89. Fredrickson, D. S., and R. S. Lees: Familial hyperlipoproteinemia. In: The metabolic basis of inherited disease. Eds.: J. B. Stanbury, J. B. Wyngaarden, D. S. Fredrickson. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1966.Google Scholar
  90. Fredrickson, D. S., and R. I. Levy: Genetically determined abnormalities in lipid transport. In: Progress in Biochemical Pharmacology, vol II. Eds.: R. Paoletti, D. Kritschewsky, and D. Steinberg. Basel-New York: Karger 1966.Google Scholar
  91. Froehlich, A. L.: Les xanthomatoses. Brussels: Acta medica belgica 1951.Google Scholar
  92. From Hansen, P.: The effect of diet, d-thyroxin and Atromid on serum cholesterol and triglycerides in man. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 584 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Fulton, J. K.: Essential lipemia, acute gout, peripheral neuritis and myocardial disease in a Negro man. Arch, intern. Med. 89, 303 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gee, D. J., J. Goldstein, C. H. Gray, and J. F. Fowler: Biosynthesis of cholesterol in familial hypercholesterolemic xanthomatosis. Brit. med. J. 1959/II, 341.Google Scholar
  95. Gerson, T., and F. B. Shorland: Effect of β-sitosterol on cholesterol and lipid metabolism in the rat. Nature (Lond.) 200, 579 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Gertler, M. M., S. M. Garn, and S. A. Levine: Serum uric acid in relation to age and physique in health and in coronary heart disease. Ann. intern. Med. 34,1421 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gertler, M. M., and P. D. White: Young candidates for coronary heart disease. J. Amer. med. Ass. 147, 621 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Giampalmo, A.: Le tesaurosi lipidiche. Atti. Soc. ital. Pat. 29, 225 (1951).Google Scholar
  99. Giampalmo, A.: Les lipoidoses cholestérimiques du Systeme nerveux. 5. Intern. Neurolog. Kongress, Lissabon 1953.Google Scholar
  100. Gilbert, J. B., and J. F. Mustard: Some effects of Atromid on platelet economy and blood coagulation in man. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 623 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Glazier, F. W., A. Tamplin, B. Strisower, O. De Lalla, J. W. Gofman, T. Dewber, and E. Phillips: Human serum lipoprotein concentrations. J. Geront. 9, 395 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Glover, J., and C. Green: Sterol metabolism: III. The distribution and transport of sterols across the intestinal mucosa of the guinea pig. Biochem. J. 67, 308 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Godal, H. C, I. C. Lund, and E. Silvertsen: Lipids and lipoproteins in serum in cases of familial essential hypercholesteremia and xanthomatosis. Acta med. scand. 156, Suppl. 319,125 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gofman, J. W., L. Rtjbin, J. P. McGinley, and H. B. Jones: Hyperlipoproteinemia. Amer. J. Med. 17, 514 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Goldsmith, G. A.: Mechanism by which certain pharmacologic agents lower serum cholesterol. Fed. Proc. 21, Suppl. II, 81 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Goldsmith, G. A., J. G. Hamilton, and O. N. Miller: Investigation of mechanism by which unsaturated fats, nicotinic acid, and neomycin lower serum lipid concentrations: Excretion of sterols and bile acids. Trans. Ass. Amer. Phycns 72, 207 (1959).Google Scholar
  107. Goldstein, D. W.: Xanthoma tuberosum. Sth. med. J. (Bgham., Ala.) 28, 902 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Gordon, H., B. Lewis, L. Aeles, and J. E. Brock: Effect of different dietary fats on the faecal end products of cholesterol metabolism. Nature (Lond.) 180, 923 (1957 a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Gordon, H., B. Lewis, L. Aeles, and J. E. Brock: Dietary fat and cholesterol metabolism. Faecal elimination of bile acids and other lipids. Lancet 1957/II (b), 1299.Google Scholar
  110. Gottron, H.: Xanthoma tuberosum multiplex. Zbl. Haut- u. Geschl.-Kr. 40, 152 (1932).Google Scholar
  111. Gottron, H.: Familiäres Juvenilxanthom bei 2 Geschwistern. Zbl. Haut- u. Geschl.-Kr. 68, 76 (1942).Google Scholar
  112. Gould, K. G.: Absorbability of β-sitosterol. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 18, 129 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Gould, K. G., G. V. LeRoy, G. T. Okita, J. J. Kabara, P. Keegan, and D. M. Bergenstal: The use of C14 labeled acetate to study cholesterol metabolism in man. J. Lab. clin. Med. 46,372 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Graham, G., and A. G. Stansfield: J. Path. Bact. 58, 543 (1946); cited after Sinner (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Green, K. G., W. H. W. Inman, and J. M. Thorp: Multicentre trial in the United Kingdom and Ireland of a mixture of ethyl chlorophenoxyisobutyrate and androsterone (Atromid). A preliminary report. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 593 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Greiling, H., E. Peter u. B. Schuler: Zur Pathogenese der hypercholesterinämischen Xanthomatose. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 40, 1887 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Groen, J., B. K. Tjiong, C. E. Kamminga, and A. F. Willebrands: The influence of nutrition, individuality and some other factors, including various forms of stress, on the serum cholesterol: An experiment of 9 months’ duration in 60 normal human volunteers. Voeding 13, 556 (1952).Google Scholar
  118. Gtjravich, J. L.: Familial hypercholesteremic xanthomatosis: Prelim, report. I. Clinical, electrocardiographic and laboratory considerations. Amer. J. Med. 26, 8 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Gtjravich, J. L. and J. Venegas: Familial hypercholesterolemia. Fed. Proc. 21, Suppl. 7, 44 (1962).Google Scholar
  120. Haensch, R.: Der Heparin-Effekt auf das Lipoidelectrophorese-Diagramm bei idiopathischer hyperlipidämischer Xanthomatose. Arch. klin. exp. Derm. 205, 413 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Haensch, R.: Heparin-Therapie und Klinik der idiopathischen hyperlipidämischen Xanthomatose. Arch, klin. exp. Derm. 205, 512 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Harris-Jones, J. N.: Hyperuricaemia and essential hypercholesterolaemia. Lancet 1957/I, 857.Google Scholar
  123. Harris-Jones, J. N., E. G. Jones, and P. G. Wells: Xanthomatosis and essential hypercholesterolaemia. Lancet 1957/I,855.Google Scholar
  124. Hartmann, G., G. Cretjx, L. K. Widner u. H. Staub: Eine einfache Methode zur Erkennung von Hyperlipidämien. Helv. med. Acta 29, 515 (1962).Google Scholar
  125. Hashim, S. A., and T. B. van Itallie: Cholestyramine resin therapy for hypercholesterolemia. J. Amer. med. Ass. 192, 289 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hashim, S. A., E. E. Clancy, D. M. Hegsted, and F. Stare: Effect of mixed fat formula feeding on serum cholesterollevel in man. Amer. J. clin. Nutr. 7, 30 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Haust, H. L., and J. M. R. Beveridge: Effect of varying type and quantity of dietary fat on the fecal excretion of bile acids in humans subsisting on formula diets. Arch. Biochem. 78, 367 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Hayward, P. J., A. V. Davies, T. Deegan, and C. S. McKendrick: The effect of Atromid on serum lipids and coagulation activity. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 571 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Helland-Hansen, B. K.: Rheumatic fever in hereditary xanthomatosis. Acta med. scand. 156, Suppl. 319, 79 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hellman, L., R. S. Rosenfeld, M. L. Eidinoff, D. K. Fttkttshima, T. F. Gallagher, C. Wang, and D. Adlersberg: Isotopie studies of plasma cholesterol of endogenous and exogenous origins. J. clin. Invest. 34, 48 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hellman, L., B. Zumoff, G. Kessler, R. S. Rosenfeld, and T. F. Gallagher: Reduction of serum cholesterol in man by an oral androsterone preparation. J. clin. Invest. 41, 1364 (1962).Google Scholar
  132. Hellman, L., E. Kara, I. L. Rubin, and R. S. Rosenfeld: Reduction of cholesterol and lipids in man by ethyl-p-chlorophenoxy-isobutyrate. Ann. intern. Med. 59, 477 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Herbst, F. S. M., W. F. Lever, and N. A. Hurley: Idiopathic hyperlipemia and primary hypercholesteremic xanthomatosis. VI. Studies of the serum proteins and lipoproteins by moving boundary electrophoresis and paper electrophoresis before and after administration of heparin. J. invest. Derm. 24, 507 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Hernandez, H. H., D. W. Peterson, I. L. Chaikoff, and W. G. Dauben: Absorption of cholesterol-4-C14 in rats fed mixed soy bean sterols and β-sitosterol. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 83, 498 (1953).Google Scholar
  135. Hess, F. O.: Herztod infolge schwerer allgemeiner Xanthomatose. Verh. dtsch. Ges. inn. Med. 46, 355 (1934).Google Scholar
  136. Hirschhorn, K., and C. F. Wilkinson jr.: The mode of inheritance in essential familial hypercholesterolemia. Amer. J. Med. 26, 60 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Hoffer, A.: The relationship of nicotinic acid to cholesterol metabolism. J. clin. exp. Psychopath. 22, 165 (1961).Google Scholar
  138. Hood, B., and G. Angervall: Studies in essential hypercholesterolemia and xanthomatosis. Relationship between age, sex, cholesterol concentrations in plasma fractions, and rise of tendinous deposits. Amer. J. Med. 26, 35 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Howard, R. P., P. Alaupovic, O. J. Brusco, and R. H. Furman: Effects of ethyl chlorophenoxyisobutyrate, alone or with androsterone (Atromid) on serum lipids, lipoproteins and related metabolic parameters in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 482 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Hudson, J. L., E. R. Diller, R. R. Pfeiffer, and W. W. Davis: Formation of mixed cystals of cholesterol and sitosterol in vitro and in rabbit intestine. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 102, 461 (1959).Google Scholar
  141. Huffschmitt, G., et W. Nessman: Xanthomes familiaux. Bull. Soc. franc. Derm. Syph. 36, 1109 (1931).Google Scholar
  142. Hunter, J. D.: Nicotinic acid therapy in patients with coronary disease. N. Z. med. J. 59, 280 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Hunter, J. D.: Nicotinic acid therapy in coronary disease. Amer. Heart J. 63, 143 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Intengan, C: Studies on coconut oil. II. Relation to bile acid excretion in man. Thesis, Columbia University 1961.Google Scholar
  145. Intengan, C. L., S. A. Hashim, W. H. Sebrell, and T. B. van Itallie: Cited after van Itallie and S. A. Hashim. Clinical and experimental aspects of bile acid metabolism. Med. Clin. N. Amer. 47, 629 (1963).Google Scholar
  146. Jensen, J., D. H. Blankenhorn, and V. Kornerup: Blood-uric-acid levels in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Lancet 1966/I, 298.Google Scholar
  147. Jepson, E. M.: Hypercholesterolaemic xanthomatosis: Treatment with a corn oil diet. Brit. med. J. 1961/I, 847.Google Scholar
  148. J. D. Billimoria, and N. F. Maclagan: Serum and tissue lipids in patients with familial xanthomatosis. Clin. Sci. 29, 383 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. J. D. Billimoria, and D. C. O. James: The treatment of hypercholesterolaemic xanthomatosis with Atromid. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 554 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Jurand, J., and M. F. Oliver: The effects of ethyl chlorophenoxyisobutyrate on serum cholesteryl, triglyceride and phospholipid fatty acids. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 547 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Kernohan, R. J., and R. A. Neely: The effects of Atromid on the β-lipoprotein ratio in coronary disease. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 518 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Keys, A., J. T. Anderson, and F. Grande: Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet. II. The effect of cholesterol in the diet. Metabolism 14, 759 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Khachadurian, A. K.: The inheritance of essential familial hypercholesterolemia. Amer. J. Med. 37, 402 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Kinsell, L. W., G. D. Michaels, G. Walker, P. Wheeler, S. Splitter, and P. Flynn: Dietary lino!eie acid and linoleate. Effects in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects with and without vascular disease. Diabetes 8, 179 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kinsell, L. W., G. D. Michaels, R. W. Friskey, and S. Splitter: Essential fatty acids, lipid metabolism and vascular disease. In: Essential fatty acids, H. M. Sinclair (Ed.). London: Butterworths Sci. Pubi. 1958.Google Scholar
  156. Kinsell, L. W., J. Partridge, L. Boling, S. Margen, and G. Michaels: Dietary modification of serum cholesterol and phospholipid levels. J. clin. Endocr. 12, 909 (1952).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Kinsell, L. W., and G. Schlierf: Dietary fat in diabetes mellitus with particular reference to vascular disease. Excerpt med. Internat. Congr. Series No. 84, p. 430,1965.Google Scholar
  158. Kornerup, W.: Familiaer hyperchoiesterolaemi og Xanthomatose. Kolding, Denmark, 1948.Google Scholar
  159. Kouttinen, A., and J. Paloheimo: The effects of Atromid on serum lipids, proteins and some liver function tests in hypercholesterolaemic patients. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 525 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Kritchevsky, D.: Influence of thyroid hormones and related compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis and degradation: a review. Metabolism 9, 984 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Kuo, P. T., and D. R. Bassett: Primary hyperlipidemias and their management. Ann. intern. Med. 59, 495 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Lehzen, G., u. K. Knauss: Über Xanthoma multiplex, planum tuberosum mollusciforme. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 116, 85 (1889).Google Scholar
  163. Leonard, J. C.: Hereditary hypercholesterolaemic xanthomatosis. Lancet 1956/II, 1239.Google Scholar
  164. Letterer, E.: In: Lehrbuch d. allgem. Pathologic Stuttgart: Thieme 1959.Google Scholar
  165. Leube: Xanthoma endocardii. In Lehzen u. Knauss (1889).Google Scholar
  166. Lever, W. F.: Systemische Lipoidosen mit erhöhten Serumlipoidwerten. In: Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten, Ergänzungswerk, Bd. III/l, p. 87. Ed.: H. A. Gottron. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1963.Google Scholar
  167. F. S. Herbst, and N. A. Hurley: Idiopathic hyperlipemia and primary hypercholester-emic xanthomatosis. IV. Effects of administration of heparin on serum lipids in idiopathic hyperlipemia. Arch. Derm. 71,150 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. P. A. J. Smith, and N. A. Hurley: Idiopathic hyperlipemia and primary hypercholester-emic xanthomatosis. I. Clinical data and analysis of the plasma lipids. J. invest. Derm. 22, 33 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Lewis, B.: Effect of certain dietary oils on bile-acid secretion and serum-cholesterol. Lancet 1958/I, 1090.Google Scholar
  170. Lindholm, H.: Arcus lipoides corneae and arteriosclerosis. Acta med. scand. 168, 45 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Lindstedt, S., J. Avigan, D. S. Goodman, J. Sjövall, and D. Steinberg: The effect of dietary fat on the turnover of cholic acid and on the composition of the biliary bile acids in man. J. clin. Invest. 44, 1754 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Löhr, K., u. P. Neuffer: Xanthomatose Tendinopathien bei Stoffwechselstörungen. Verh. dtsch. Ges. inn. Med. 65, 414 (1959).Google Scholar
  173. Low, R. C.: Xanthoma tuberosum multiplex with lesions in the heart and tendon sheaths. Brit. J. Derm. 22, 109 (1910).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Mackenzie, S.: Trans, path. Soc. Lond. 33, 370 (1882).Google Scholar
  175. Maher, J. A., P. H. Epstein, and E. A. Hand: Xanthomatosis and coronary heart disease. Arch, intern. Med. 102, 437 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Malmros, H.: The effect on serum cholesterol of diets containing different fats. Lancet 1957/II, 1.Google Scholar
  177. Marmorston, J., F. J. Moore, J. J. Lewis, O. Magidson, and O. Kuzma: Estrogen therapy in men with myocardial infarction: occurrence of lipid changes before feminization. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 1, 449 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Merrill, J. M., and J. Lemley-Stone: Effects of nicotinic acid on serum and tissue cholesterol in rabbits. Circulat. Res. 5, 617 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Miller, O. N., J. G. Hamilton, and G. A. Goldsmith: Investigation of the mechanism of action of nicotinic acid on serum lipid levels in man. Amer. J. clin. Nutr. 8, 480 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Montgomery, H.: Cutaneous xanthoma especially in relation to disease of the liver. J. invest. Derm. 1, 325 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Montgomery, H.: Discussion to Epstein et al. (1952).Google Scholar
  182. Müller, C: Xanthoma, Hypercholesterolemia, Angina pectoris. Acta med. scand. Suppl. 89, 75 (1938).Google Scholar
  183. Müller, C: Angina pectoris in hereditary xanthomatosis. Arch, intern. Med. 64, 675 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Nitter-Hauge, S.: Juvenile xanthomatosis — a recessive inherited disease ? Acta med. scand. 179, 71 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Nobbe, F.: Familiäre hypercholesterinämische Xanthomatose und Hypertonie. Beitr. path. Anat. 126, 256 (1962).Google Scholar
  186. Nobbe, F.: Hypercholesterinämie und Coronarsklerose. Verh. dtsch. Ges. inn. Med. 69, 640 (1963).Google Scholar
  187. Nobbe, F.: Familiäre Hypercholesterinämie und Hochdruck. Beitr. path. Anat. 131, 450 (1965).Google Scholar
  188. Nödl, F.: Zur Histo-Pathogenese der Xanthomatose. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Beri.) 193, 176 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Nothman, M. M., and S. Proger: Cephalins in the blood. Patients with coronary heart disease and patients with hyperlipemia. J. Amer. Ass. Soc. 179, 40 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Nothman, M. M., and S. Proger: Kephaline im Blut Gesunder und an Atherosklerose der Kranzarterien Erkrankter. Med. Welt (Beri.) 1965, 190.Google Scholar
  191. Oliver, M. F.: Further observations on the effects of Atromid and of ethyl chlorophenoxy-isobutyrate on serum lipid levels. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 427 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Oliver, M. F., and G. S. Boyd: The effect of estrogen on the plasma lipids in coronary artery disease. Amer. Heart J. 47, 348 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Oliver, M. F., and G. S. Boyd: Hormonal aspects of coronary artery disease. In: Vitamins and Hormones, vol. 16, p. 147. New York: Academic Press 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Oliver, M. F., and G. S. Boyd: Thyreoid and estrogen treatment of hypercholesterolemia in man. In: Hormones and atherosclerosis, G. Pinkus (ed.), p. 403. New York: Academic Press 1959.Google Scholar
  195. O’Reilly, P. O.: Some clinical aspects of nicotinic acid therapy in hypercholesteremia. Canad. med. Ass. J. 78, 402 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Öst, C. R.: Nikotinsyrabehandling vid arterioskleros och blodlipidrubbningar. Nord. Med. 64, 1380 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Owen, W. R., J. C. Owens, and W. B. Neely: Objective effects of dextrothyroxine therapy. Angiology 13, 75 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Owen Williams, G. E., M. J. Meynell, and R. Gaddie: Atromid and anticoagulant therapy. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 658 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Paget, G. E.: Experimental studies of the toxicity of Atromid with particular reference to fine structural changes in the liver of rodents. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 729 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Pardue, W. D.: Severe liver dysfunction during nicotinic acid therapy. J. Amer. med. Ass. 175, 137 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Parsons Jr., W. B.: Treatment of hypercholesteremia by nicotinic acid. Progress report with review of studies regarding mechanism of action. Arch, intern. Med. 107, 639 (1961a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Parsons Jr., W. B.: Studies of nicotinic acid use in hypercholesteremia. Changes in hepatic functions, carbohydrate tolerance, and uric acid metabolism. Arch, intern. Med. 107, 653 (1961 b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Pedace, F. J., and R. K. Winkelmann: Xanthelasma palpebrarum. J. Amer. med. Ass. 193, 893 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Pelkonen, R.: Plasma vitamin A and E in the study of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in coronary heart disease. Acta med. scand. 174, Suppl. 399, 1 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Perry, W. F.: Effect of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on incorporation of acetate into cholesterol, fatty acids and CO2 by rat liver slices. Metabolism 9, 686 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Peterson, D. W., C. W. Nichols Jr., and E. A. Shneour: Some relationship among dietary sterols, plasma and liver cholesterol levels, and atherosclerosis in chicks. J. Nutr. 47,57 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Pick, L., u. F. Pinktjs: Über doppelbrechende Substanz in Hauttumoren, ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Xanthomatose. Mschr. prakt. Dermat. 5, 46 (1908).Google Scholar
  208. Piper, J., and L. Orrild: Essential familial hypercholesterolemia and xanthomatosis. Follow up study of twelve danish families. Amer. J. Med. 21, 34 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Piper, J., and L. Orrild: Xanthomatosis of the pulmonary artery in a patient with essential familial hypercholesterolaemia. Acta med. scand. 157, 103 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Polano, M. K.: Über die Pathogenese der Cholesterosen der Haut. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Beri.) 174, 213 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Polano, M. K.: Die Xanthelasmatosen der Haut. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Beri.) 181, 139 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Pollak, O. J.: Successful prevention of experimental hypercholesteremia and cholesterol atherosclerosis in the rabbit. Circulation 7, 696 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Pürschel, W., u. S. Rust: Xanthomatose Haut- und Organveränderungen bei Hyperchole-sterinämie. Z. Haut- u. Geschl.-Kr. 15, 89 (1953).Google Scholar
  214. Quinquaud, C.-E.: Recherches hémato-chimiques et dermato-chimiques. Rev. Soc. Clin. 2,259 (1878).Google Scholar
  215. Rausen, A. R., and D. Adlersberg: Idiopathic (hereditary) hyperlipemia and hypercholesteremia in children. Pediatrics 28, 276 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Rayer, P. F. O.: Traité des maladie de la peau. Paris 1836.Google Scholar
  217. Riederer, J.: Kardiale Xanthomatose bei familiärer Hypercholesterinämie. Verh. dtsch. Gres. inn. Med. 67, 441 (1961).Google Scholar
  218. Rigdon, R. H., and G. Willeford: Sudden death during childhood with xanthoma tuberosum. J. Amer. med. Ass. 142, 1268 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Rivin, A. U.: Jaundice occurring during nicotinic acid therapy for hypercholesteremia. J. Amer. med. Ass. 170, 2088 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Roberts, S. D., and J. F. Pantridge: Effect of Atromid on requirements of warfarin. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3 655 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Roels, O. A., and S. A. Hashim: Influence of fatty acids on serum cholesterol. Fed. Proc. 21, Suppl. II, 71 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Rohrschneider, W.: Personal communication (1960).Google Scholar
  223. Roels, O. A., and S. A. Hashim: Die klinische Bedeutung des Arcus lipoides corneae senilis. Wien. med. Wschr. 112, 845 (1962).Google Scholar
  224. Roper, B. W.: Essential hypercholesteremic xanthomatosis. Brit. med. J. 1964/II, 990.Google Scholar
  225. Sansone, G., O. Baruffaldi, and C. Romano: Essential familial hypercholesteraemia with tendino-cutaneous and cardiovascular xanthomatosis. Clinical and pathological report. Ann. paediat. (Basel) 195, 35 (1960).Google Scholar
  226. Sanwald, R.: Nicotinic acid in the treatment of atherosclerosis. In: Atherosclerosis. Ed.: G. S. Boyd and G. Schettler. Amsterdam: Elsevier Pubi. Co. 1966.Google Scholar
  227. Savitsky, J. P.: Nongenetic prolonged serum cholesterol alteration induced by deoxyribonucleic acids. Amer. J. Physiol. 203, 929 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Schade, H., and P. Saltman: Influence of nicotinic acid on hepatic cholesterol synthesis in rabbits. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 102, 265 (1959).Google Scholar
  229. Schaefer, L. E., D. Adlersberg, and A. G. Steinberg: Heredity, environment and serum cholesterol. A study of 201 healthy families. Circulation 17, 537 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Schettler, G.: I. Die Beeinflussung des Blut- und Organcholesterins durch verschiedene Fette und Öle ohne Cholesterinzusatz. Biochem. Z. 319, 349 (1949).Google Scholar
  231. Schettler, G.: Schilddrüsenfunktion und Cholesterinstoffwechsel. Z. ges. exp. Med. 115, 251 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Schettler, G.: Essentielle familiäre Xanthomatose Hypercholesterinämie. In: Handb. d. inn. Med. VII/2, 4. Aufl., S. 680. BerlüvGöttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1955.Google Scholar
  233. Schettler, G.: Erkrankungen durch Änderung des Lipoidstoffwechsels. Regensburg. Jb. ärztl. Fortbild. 5, 493 (1957).Google Scholar
  234. Schettler, G.: Störungen des Fettstoffwechsels und die Grundsätze ihrer Behandlung. Eegensburg. Jb. ärztl. Fortbild. 7, 171 (1959).Google Scholar
  235. Schettler, G.: Erbliche Störungen des Fettstoffwechsels. Verh. dtsch. Ges. inn. Med. 64, 287 (1959).Google Scholar
  236. Schettler, G.: Die essentielle familiäre Xanthomatose Hypercholesterinämie. Klin. d. Gegenwart Bd. IX, 573 (1960).Google Scholar
  237. Schettler, G.: In: Arteriosklerose. Ätiologie, Pathologie, Klinik und Therapie. G. Schettler (Ed.). Stuttgart: Thieme 1961.Google Scholar
  238. Schettler, G. u. F. Dietrich: Die Bedeutung von Xanthomen und Xanthelasmen für die Arteriosklerose. Klin. Wschr. 31, 1040 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Schettler, G., H. Jobst, H. P. Käppler u. G. Körfgen: Familiäre Hypercholesterinämie. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 84, 356 u. 368 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Schettler, G., G. W. Löhr u. E. Stein: Die Bedeutung der essentiellen Hyperlipämie und Hypercholesterinämie für die Entstehung von Herzinfarkten. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 82, 610 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Schildhaus, J. M.: Xanthoma tuberosum. Münch. med. Wschr. 89, 549 (1934).Google Scholar
  242. Schilling, F. J., G. J. Christakis, N.J. Bennett, and J. F. Coyle: Studies of serum cholesterol in 4244 men and women: An epidemiological and pathogenetic interpretation. Amer. J. Pubi. Hlth 54, 461 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Schirrensen, C. G.: Über die Ursache der Lokalisation von Xanthelasmen bei einem Fall von idiopathischer Hyperlipämie. Hautarzt 3, 552 (1952).Google Scholar
  244. Schirren, C.: Hyperlipämische Xanthomatosen. Hautarzt 8, 119 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Schmidt, E.: Über die Bedeutung des Cholesterins für die Xanthombildung. Dermat. Z. 21, 137 (1914).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Scholl, H., u. G. Schettler: Die Lipoproteidlipase und ihre klinische Bedeutung. Ergebn. inn. Med. Kinderheilk. N. F. 16, 245 (1961).Google Scholar
  247. Schoenheimer, R.: Über die Bedeutung der Pflanzensterine für den tierischen Organismus. Z. physiol. Chem. 180, 1 (1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Schoenheimer, R.: Die Spezifität der Cholesterinresorption und ihre biologische Bedeutung. Klin. Wschr. 11, 1793 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Siegmund, H.: Kardiovaskuläre Xanthomatose als Todesursache beim Jugendlichen. Münch. med. Wschr. 85, 1617 (1938).Google Scholar
  250. Sinner, W.: Xanthomatose und Rheumatismus. Über zwei Fälle essentieller familiärer xanthomatöser Hypercholesterinämie mit chronischem Gelenkrheumatismus. Schweiz, med. Wschr. 91, 1114 (1961).Google Scholar
  251. Siperstein, M. D., and V.M. Fagan: Studies on the feedback regulation of cholesterol synthesis. Adv. Enzyme Regulation 2, 249. New York: Pergamon Press 1964.Google Scholar
  252. Siperstein, M. D., M. E. Jayko, I. L. Chaikoff, and W. G. Dauben: Nature of the metabolic products of C14 cholesterol excreted in bile and feces. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 81, 720 (1952).Google Scholar
  253. Spritz, N., E. H. Ahrens Jr., and S. Grundy: Sterol balance in man as plasma cholesterol concentrations are altered by exchanges of dietary fats. J. clin. Invest. 44, 1482 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Srivastava, S. C, M.J. Smith, and H.A. Dewar: The effect of Atromid on fibrinolytic activity of patients with ischaemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia. J. Atheroscler. Res. 3, 640 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Stamler, J., L. N. Katz, R. Pick, L. A. Lewis, I. H. Page, A. Pick, B. M. Kaplan, D. M. Berkson, and D. Century: Effects of long-term estrogen therapy on serum cholesterol-lipid-lipoprotein levels and on mortality in middle-aged men with previous myocardial infarction. In: Garattini, S., and R. Paoletti (Eds.): Proc. of the symposium on drugs effecting lipid metabolism, p. 432. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1961.Google Scholar
  256. Stamler, J., R. Pick, L. N. Katz, A. Pick, and B. M. Kaplan: Interim report on clinical experiences with long-term estrogen administration to middle-aged men with coronary heart disease. Hormones and Atherosclerosis, p. 423. New York: Academic Press 1959.Google Scholar
  257. Stamler, J., E. N. Silber, A.J. Miller, L. Akman, C. Bolene, and L. N. Katz: The effect of thyroid-and of dinitrophenol - induced hypermetabolism on plasma and tissue lipids and atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed chick. J. Lab. clin. Med. 35, 351 (1950).Google Scholar
  258. Stanley, P., C. Chartrand, and A. Davignon: Acquired aortic stenosis in a twelve-year-old girl with xanthomatosis. Successful surgical correction. New Engl. J. Med. 273, 1378 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Stannus, H. S.: Hyperlipochromia (carotinaemia xanthosis cutis). Int. Clin. 39, 146 (1929).Google Scholar
  260. Startin, J.: Xanthelasma. Trans, path. Soc. Lond. 31, 374 (1882).Google Scholar
  261. Strisower, E. H., and B. Strisower: The separate hypolipoproteinemic effects of dextrothyroxine and ethyl chlorophenoxy-isobutyrate. J. clin. Endocr. 24, 139 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Sugg, E. S., and D. D. Stetson: Xanthoma tuberosum associated with trauma and mild diabetes mellitus. J. Amer. med. Ass. 109, 414 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Swell, L., T. A. Boiter, H. Field Jr., and C. R. Treadwell: Esterification of Soybean sterols in vitro and their influence on blood-cholesterol level. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 86, 295 (1954).Google Scholar
  264. Swell, L., H. Field Jr., and C. R. Treadwell: Sterol specificity of pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 87, 216 (1954).Google Scholar
  265. Thannhauser, S. J.: Cholesterol. In: Lipidoses. Diseases of the intracellular lipid metabolism, p. 32. Ed.: S. J. Thannhauser. New York: Grune and Stratton 1958.Google Scholar
  266. Tygstrup, N., K. Winkler u. K. Jorgensen: Behandlung von Hypercholesterinämie mit p-Aminosalicylsäure. Ugeskr. Laeg. 123, 255 (1961).Google Scholar
  267. Wagener, H., and B. Frosch: Dünnschichtchromatographische Untersuchungen über die Phosphatide des Blutserums Gesunder und Arteriosklerosekranker. Z. ges. exp. Med. 138, 425 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Wilkens, J. A., H. Dewitt, and B. Bronte-Stewart: A proposed mechanism for effect of different dietary fats on some aspects of cholesterol metabolism. Canad. J. Biochem. 40, 1091 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Woleson, W. Q., C. Colin, R. Levine, E. F. Rosenberg, and H. D. Hunt: Essential hyperlipemia and gout. Ann. intern. Med. 30, 598 (1949).Google Scholar
  270. Wood, P., R. Shioda, and L. Kinsell: Dietary regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Lancet 1966/II, 604.Google Scholar
  271. Zöllner, N.: Nukleinstoffwechsel. In: Thannhausers Lehrbuch des Stoffwechsels und der Stoffwechselkrankheiten, S. 511. Stuttgart: Thieme 1957.Google Scholar
  272. Zöllner, N.: Idiopathische familiäre Hypercholesterinämie. In: Erbliche Stoffwechselkrankheiten, Linneweh (Ed.). München-Berlin: Urban & Schwarzenberg 1962a.Google Scholar
  273. Zöllner, N.: Angeborene Störungen im Stoffwechsel der Lipoide. Gastroenterologia (Basel) 97, 247 (1962b).Google Scholar
  274. Zöllner, N.: Untersuchungen über das Verhalten der Plasmalipoide bei idiopathischer Hypercholesterinämie, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Cholesterinester. Z. klin. Chem. 1, 18 (1963).Google Scholar
  275. Zöllner, N.: Round-table discussion: Prophylaxis and treatment of atherosclerosis. In: Symposium on pathophysiological and clinical aspects of lipid metabolism. Heidelberg 1965. Ed.: G. Schettler. Stuttgart: Thieme 1966.Google Scholar
  276. Zöllner, N. and G. Wernekke: A comparative study of the hypocholesteremic effect of nicotinic acid and some compounds related to it. Pres, at the 6th intern. Congress for Gerontology, Copenhagen, 1963.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Schettler
  • W. Kahlke
  • G. Schlierf

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations