Oscillatory Phenomena in a Porous, Fixed Charge Membrane

  • T. Teorell


The nerve action potentials were quite early recognized as oscillatory phenomena resembling certain rhythmical, chemical reactions at metal (Fe, Cr) interfaces (Ostwald, Lillie, Franck) and were described mathematically as ‘relaxation oscillations’ (Bethe, van der Pool, Bonhoeffer, Franck, Fitzhugh, and others). Many features exhibited by living, exitable tissues (nerve and heart) could be reproduced on these metallic systems, as all-or-non responses, threshold, bistability etc. The ‘energy’ driving the oscillations was obtained from electrochemical reactions.


Membrane Resistance Pressure Stimulus Acta Physiol Excitable Tissue Undamped Oscillation 
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A. Papers describing the membrane oscillator, experiments, and theories

  1. Teorell, T.: Acta physiol. scand. 31, suppl. 268 (preliminary communication) (1954).Google Scholar
  2. Teorell, T.: A contribution to the knowledge of the rhythmical transport processes of salt and water. Exp. Cell Res. Suppl. 3, 339 (1955).Google Scholar
  3. Teorell, T.: Transport processes in membranes in relation to the nerve mechanism. Exp. Cell Res. Suppl. 5, 83 (1958).Google Scholar
  4. Teorell, T.: On oscillatory transport of fluid across membranes. Acta Soc. Med. upsalien. 62, 60 (1957).Google Scholar
  5. Teorell, T.: Rectification in a plant cell (Nitella) relation to electro-endosmosis. (Compares effects of square wave current on Nitella cells with corresponding results on the membrane oscillator.) Z. physik. Chem. NF 15, 25 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Teorell, T.: Electrokinetic membrane processes in relation to properties of excitable tissues. I. Experiments on oscillatory transport phenomena in artificial membranes. (A full technical description of the membrane oscillator; damped and undamped oscillations; current and pressure stimuli.) J. gen. Physiol. 42, 831 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Teorell, T.: Electrokinetic membrane processes in relation to properties of excitable tissues. II. Some theoretical considerations. (Basic equations, description of graphical methods of solving non-linear differential equations, i.e. the ‘isocline method’.) J. gen. Physiol. 42, 847 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Teorell, T.: Oscillatory electrophoresis in ion exchange membranes. (Membrane of granulated ion exchanger, oscillations with identical solutions inside and outside.) Arkiv för kemi (Roy. Swed. Acad. Science) 18, 401 (1961).Google Scholar
  9. Teorell, T.: The ion flux across membranes during electro-diffusion and convection. (Theory for ion flux in single salt/porous membrane systems.) Acta physiol. scand. 62, 293 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

B. The electrohydraulic excitability analog

  1. Teorell, T.: Biophysical aspects on mechanical stimulation of excitable tissues. (Analog computation on a modified membrane oscillator, demonstrating features of pressure stimuli.) Acta Soc. Med. upsalien. 64, 341 (1959).Google Scholar
  2. Teorell, T.: Application of a voltage-clamp to the electro-hydraulic nerve analog. (Analog computation of voltage clamp responses, discussion of nerve voltage clamps.) Acta Soc. Med. upsalien. 65, 231 (1960).Google Scholar
  3. Teorell, T.: An analysis of a current-voltage relationship in excitable Nitella cells. (Nitella can give ‘dynamic’ V-I-characteristics, which are analyzed in terms of the electro-hydraulic theories.) Acta physiol. scand. 53, 1 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Teorell, T.: Some biophysical considerations of presso-receptors. (Analysis of the effects of dynamic pressure stimuli, mathematical and graphical methods, analog computation, discussion of presso-receptor properties.) Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 140, 562 (1962).Google Scholar
  5. Teorell, T.: Electrokinetical considerations of mechano-electrical transduction. (Further developments of the electrohydraulic pressoreceptor analog with a pronounced ‘frequency modulation’, discussion of a relation impulse frequency vs stimulation intensity, relations between generator potentials and action potentials.) Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 137, 950 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

C. General reviews of the membrane oscillator and excitability

  1. Teorell, T.: Excitability phenomena in artificial membranes. (An introduction and review.) Biophys. J. 2, No. 2, part 2, suppl., 27 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

D. Some references to recent works by other authors

  1. Aranow, R. H.: Periodic behavior in charge membranes with physical and biological implications. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 50, 1066 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  3. Kobatake, Y., and H. Fujita: Flow through charged membranes. I. Flipflop currents vs. voltage relation. J. chem. Phys. 40, 2212 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kobatake, Y., and H. Fujita: Flows through membranes. II. Oscillation phenomena. J. chem. Phys. 40, 2219 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

E. Some general references to fixed charge (ion exchange) membranes

  1. Helfferich, F.: Ionenaustauscher, Bd. I. (A handbook with complete literature references, English translations available.) Weinheim (Bergstraße): Verlag Chemie GmbH 1959.Google Scholar
  2. Schlögl, R.: Stofftransport durch Membranen. Darmstadt: Dr. R. Steinkopff Verlag 1964.Google Scholar
  3. Teorell, T.: Zur quantitativen Behandlung der Membranpermeabilität. (Basic mathematical theory of fixed charge membranes.) Z. Elektrochem. 55, 460 (1951).Google Scholar
  4. Teorell, T.: Transport processes and electrical phenomena in ionic membranes. (Monograph covering membrane theories, transport kinetics, distribution equilibria, and electrical membrane phenomena.) Progr. Biophys. 3, 305 (1953).Google Scholar
  5. Teorell, T.: Transport phenomena in membranes. (A general lecture on membrane phenomena.) Farad. Soc. Disc. No. 21, 1 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1969

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  • T. Teorell

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