Knee Surgery pp 303-351 | Cite as

Overview of Complications of Total Knee Arthroplasty

  • Felicia M. Ollivierre
  • M. Mike Malek

Abstract

Over the past two decades, total knee arthroplasty has evolved into a procedure with reliable and predictable results. The reported 10-to 15-year survivorship of a total knee replacement is as high as 95% to 98%.1–3 Refinements in prosthetic designs, recognition of the importance of ligamentous balancing, and modifications in instrumentation to achieve appropriate alignment contribute to the improved success rate. Despite the improvement in surgical outcome, however, complications continue to occur.

Keywords

Fatigue Arthritis Ischemia Bacillus Osteoarthritis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Li S. Ultra-high-molecular-molecular weight polyethylene: the weak link. In: Lotke P, Garino J (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1999: 43–88.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ranawat C, Flynn W, Saddler S, et al. Long-term results of the total condylar knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1993; 286: 94–101.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ritter M, Herbst S, Keating E, et al. Long-term survival analysis of a posterior cruciate-retaining total condylar total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1994; 309: 136145.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klein N, Cox C. Wound problems in total knee arthroplasty. In: Fu F, Harner C, Vince K (eds). Knee Surgery. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994: 1539–1552.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dennis D. Wound complications in total knee arthroplasty. Instr Course Lect 1997; 46: 165–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scapinelli R. Studies on the vasculature of the human knee joint. Acta Anat 1968; 70: 305–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Craig S. Soft tissue considerations in the failed total knee arthroplasty. In: Scott W (ed). The Knee. Orlando: Mosby, 1994: 1279–1295.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ackland R, Shusterman M, Godine M, et al. The saphenous neurovascular free flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 1981; 67: 763–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hallock G. Salvage of total knee arthroplasty with local fasciocutaneous flaps. J Bone Joint Surg 1990; 72A: 1236–1239.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peters P. Surgical exposures for revision total knee arthroplasty. In: Engh G, Rorabeck C (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1997: 195–204.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ayers D, Dennis D, Johanson N, et al. Common complications of total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1997; 79A: 278–311.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johnson D. Midline or parapatellar incision for knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1988; 70B: 656–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rothaus K. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. In: Rand J (ed). Total Knee Arthroplasty. New York: Raven Press, 1993: 1193–1202.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adzick N. Wound healing. In: Sabiston D, Lyerly H (eds). Textbook of Surgery, 15th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1997: 207–220.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kwiatkowski T, Hanley E, Ramp W. Cigarette smoking and its orthopaedic consequences. Am J Orthop 1996; 25: 590–597.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Garner R, Mowat A, Hazelman B. Wound healing after operations on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg 1973; 55B: 134–144.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barbul A, Purtill W. Nutrition in wound healing. Clin Dermatol 1994; 12: 133–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greene K, Wilde A, Stulberg B. Preoperative nutritional status of total joint patients. J Arthroplasty 1991; 6: 321–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    LaVan F, Hunt T. Oxygen and wound healing. Clin Plast Surg 1990; 17: 463–472.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    England S, Stern S, Insall J, et al. Total knee arthroplasty in diabetes mellitus. Clin Orthop 1990; 260: 130–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Winiarsky R, Barth P, Lotke P. Total knee arthroplasty in morbidly obese patients. J Bone Joint Surg 1998; 80A: 1770–1774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perhala R, Wilke W, Clough J, et al. Local infectious complications following large joint replacement in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate versus those not treated with methotrexate. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 146–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnson D. The effect of continuous passive motion on wound healing and joint mobility after knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1990; 72A: 421–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gerwin M, Rothaus K, Windsor R, et al. Gastrocnemius muscle flap coverage of exposed or infected knee prostheses. Clin Orthop 1993; 286: 64–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    LaRossa D, Low D. Postoperative complications of wounds and skin necrosis. In: Lotke P, Garino J (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1999: 447–459.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nahabedian M, Orlando J, Delanois R, et al. Salvage procedures for complex soft tissue defects of the knee. Clin Orthop 1998; 356: 119–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Markovich G, Dorr L, Klein N, et al. Muscle flaps in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1995; 321: 122–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hemphill E, Ebert F, Muench A. The medial gastrocnemius muscle flap in the treatment of wound complications following total knee arthroplasty. Orthopedics 1992; 15: 477–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Boykin J. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a physiologic approach to selected problem wound healing. Wounds 1996; 8: 183–198.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roth R, Weiss L. Hyperbaric oxygen and wound healing. Clin Dermatol 1994; 12: 141–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Leach R, Rees P, Wilmshurst P. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Br Med J 1998; 317: 1140–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kindwall E, Gottlieb L, Larson D. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in plastic surgery: a review article. Plast Reconst Surg 1991; 88: 898–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gold D, Scott S, Scott W. Soft tissue expansion prior to arthroplasty in the multiply-operated knee. J Arthroplasty 1996; 11: 512–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Santore R, Kaufman D, Robbins A, et al. Tissue expansion prior to revision total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1997; 12: 475–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Namba R, Diao E. Tissue expansion for staged reim-plantation of infected total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1997; 12: 471–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    McKenna R, Galante J, Bachmann F, et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism after total knee replacement by high-dose aspirin or intermittent calf and thigh compression. Br Med J 1980; 280: 514–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zimlich R, Fulbright B, Friedman R. Current status of anticoagulation therapy after total hip and total knee arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1996; 4: 54–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pellegrini V. Thromboembolic disease. Instr Course Lect 1997; 46: 185–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lotke P, Ecker M. Deep venous thrombosis after total knee surgery. In: Rand J (ed). Total Knee Arthroplasty. New York: Raven Press, 1993: 409–416.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mosca P, Haas S. Thromboembolic disease. In: Fu F, Harner C, Vince K (eds). Knee Surgery. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994: 1493–1506.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haas S. Postoperative complications of deep venous thrombosis. In: Lotke P, Garino J (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1999: 437–446.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Leclerc J. Natural history of venous thromboembolism. In: Leclerc J (ed). Venous Thromboembolic Disorders. Philadelphia: Lea Febiger, 1991: 166–175.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Insall J, Haas S. Complications of total knee arthroplasty. In: Insall J, Windsor R, Scott W, et al (eds). Surgery of the Knee, 2nd ed. New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1993: 891–934.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stulberg B, Insall J, Williams G, et al. Deep-vein thrombosis following total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg 1984; 66A: 194–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Haas S, Tribus C, Insall J, et al. The significance of calf thrombi after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1992; 74A: 799–802.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Maynard M, Sculco T, Ghelman B. Progression and regression of deep venous thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1991; 273: 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cladgett G, Anderson F, Heit J, et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism. Chest 1995;108(suppl):S312S334.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ansari S, Warwick D, Ackroyd C, et al. Incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism after 1,390 knee arthroplasties without routine prophylactic anticoagulation, except in high risk cases. J Arthroplasty 1997; 12: 599–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Virchow R. Nuer fall von todlicher emboli der kungerarteries. Arch Pathol Anat 1856; 10: 225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Paltiel O. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. In: Leclerc J (ed). Venous Thromboembolic Disorders. Philadelphia: Lea Febiger, 1991: 166–175.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Neilsen P, Jorgensen L, Albrecht-Beste E, et al. Lower thrombosis risk with epidural blockade in total knee arthroplasty. Acta Orthop Scand 1990; 61: 29–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grady-Benson J, Oishi C, Hanson P, et al. Postoperative surveillance for deep venous thrombosis with duplex ultrasonography after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1994; 76A: 1640–1657.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hirsh J. Oral anticoagulant drugs. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1865–1875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    RD Heparin Arthroplasty Group. RD heparin compared with warfarin for prevention of venous thromboembolic disease following total hip or total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1994; 76A: 1174–1185.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration, Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy-III: reduction in venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by antiplatelet prophylaxis among surgical and medical patients. Br Med J 1994; 308: 235–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Clayton M, Thompson T. Activity, air boots, and aspirin as thromboembolism prophylaxis in knee arthroplasty:23: Overview of Complications of Total Knee Arthroplasty 347a multiple regimen approach. Orthopedics 1987; 10: 1525–1527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Leclerc J, Geerts W, Desjardins L, et al. Prevention of deep vein thrombosis after major knee surgery-a randomized double blind trial comparing a low molecular weight heparin fragment (enoxaprin) to placebo. Thromb Haemost 1992; 67: 417–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Haas S, Insall J, Scuderi G, et al. Pneumatic sequential-compression boots compared with asprin prophylaxis of deep-vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1990;72A:27–31.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Westrich G, Sculco T. Prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1996;78A:826–834.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wilson N, Das S, Kakkar V, et al. Thrombo-embolic prophylaxis in total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg 1992; 74B: 50–54.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Patterson B, Marchand R, Ranawat C. Complications of heparin therapy after total joint arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1989;71A:1130–1134.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Emerson R, Cross R, Head W. Prophylactic and early therapeutic use of the Greenfield filter in hip and knee joint arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1991; 6: 129–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    DiGioia A, Rubash H. Periprosthetic fractures of the femur after total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1991; 271:135–142.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lewis P, Rorabeck C. Periprosthetic fractures. In: Engh G, Rorabeck C (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1997:275–295.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Healy W, Schmitz M, Siliski J. Femoral fractures above total knee arthroplasty. In: Siliski J (ed). Traumatic Disorders of the Knee. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994: 409–415.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sochart D, Hardinge K. Nonsurgical management of supracondylar fracture above total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1997;12:830–834.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Merkel K, Johnson E. Supracondylar fracture of the femur after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1986; 68A: 29–43.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Aaron R, Scott R. Supracondylar fracture of the femur after total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1987; 219: 136–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ayers D. Supracondylar fracture of the distal femur proximal to a total knee replacement. Instr Course Lect 1997; 46: 197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chmell M, Moran M, Scott R. Periarticular fractures after total knee arthroplasty: principles of management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1996; 4: 109–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Culp R, Schmidt R, Hanks G, et al. Supracondylar fracture of the femur following prosthetic knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1987;222:212–222.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ritter M, Faris P, Keating M. Anterior femoral notching and ipsilateral supracondylar femur fracture in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1988; 3: 185–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Booth R. Supracondylar fractures: all or nothing. Orthopedics 1995; 18: 921–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Figgie M, Goldberg V, Figgie H, et al. The results of treatment of supracondylar fracture above total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1990; 5: 267–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chen F, Mont M, Bachner R. Management of ipsilateral supracondylar femur fractures following total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1994; 9: 521–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rand J. Supracondylar fracture of the femur associated with polyethylene wear after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1994;76A:1389–1393.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Neer C, Grantham S, Shelton M. Supracondylar fracture of the adult femur. J Bone Joint Surg 1967; 49A: 591–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Jabczenski F, Crawford M. Retrograde intramedullary nailing of supracondylar femur fractures above total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1995; 10: 95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Murrell G, Nunley J. Interlocked supracondylar intramedullary nails for supracondylar fractures after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1995; 10: 37–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rolston L, Christ D, Halpern A, et al. Treatment of supracondylar fractures of the femur proximal to a total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1995; 77A: 924–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Engh G, Ammeen D. Periprosthetic fractures adjacent to total knee implants. J Bone Joint Surg 1997; 79A: 1100–1113.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ritter M, Keating M, Faris P, et al. Rush rod fixation of supracondylar fractures above total knee arthroplasties. J Arthroplasty 1995; 10: 213–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Biswas S, Kurer M, Mackenney R. External fixation for femoral shaft fracture after Stanmore total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg 1992; 74B: 313–314.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kraay M, Goldberg V, Figgie M, et al. Distal femoral replacement with allograft/prosthetic reconstruction for treatment of supracondylar fractures in patients with total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1992; 7: 7–16.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Felix N, Stuart M, Hanssen A. Periprosthetic fractures of the tibia associated with total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1997; 345: 113–124.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reis M, Richman J. Extended tibial tubercle osteotomy in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1996; 11: 964–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ritter M, Carr K, Keating M, et al. Tibial shaft fracture following tibial tubercle osteotomy. J Arthroplasty 1996; 11: 117–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Aglietti P, Windsor R, Buzzi R, et al. Arthroplasty for the stiff or anklylosed knee. JArthroplasty 1989; 4: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Papagelopoulos P, Brodersen M. Knee stiffness after reconstruction. In: Morrey B (ed). Reconstructive Surgery of the Joints, 2nd ed. New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1996: 1701–1710.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kettlekamp D, Johs R, Schmidt G, et al. An electrogoniometric study of knee motion in normal joints. J Bone Joint Surg 1970;58A:754–765.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lombardi A Jr, Mallory T. Dealing with flexion contractures in total knee arthroplasty. In: Insall J, Scott W, Scuderi G (eds). Current Concepts in Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996: 191–202.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Johanson N. The stiff total knee replacement: causes, treatment, and prevention. Instr Course Lect 1997; 46: 191–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jordan L, Olivio J. Stiffness and limitation of motion: prevention and management. In: Lotke P, Garino J (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1999: 461–467.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hofmann A, Tkach T, Evanisch C, et al. Patella component medialization in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1997; 122: 155–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Montgomery W, Insall J, Haas S, et al. Primary total knee arthroplasty in stiff and anklylosed knees. Am J Knee Surg 1998; 11: 20–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Anouchi Y, McShane M, Kelly F. Range of motion in total knee replacement. Clin Orthop 1996; 331: 87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Moreland J. Mechanisms of failure in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1988; 226: 49–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vince K, Eissmann E. Stiff total knee arthroplasty. In: Fu F, Harner C, Vince K (eds). Knee Surgery. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994: 1529–1538.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Harwin S, Stein A, Stern R, et al. Heterotopic ossification following primary total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1993; 8: 113–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hepburn G. Case studies: contracture and stiff joint management with Dynasplint. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1987; 8: 498–504.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Whiteside L. Exposure in difficult total knee arthroplasty using tibial tubercle osteotomy. Clin Orthop 1995; 321: 32–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Insall J. Surgical approaches. In: Insall J, Windsor R, Scott W, et al (eds). Surgery of the Knee, 2nd ed. New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1993: 135–148.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Barrack R. Specialized exposure for revision total knee arthroplasty: quadriceps snip and patellar turndown. J Bone Joint Surg 1999; 881A: 138–141.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Windsor R, Insall J. Exposure in revision total knee arthroplasty: the femoral peel. Tech Orthop 1988; 3: 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Trousdale R, Hanssen A, Rand J, et al. V-Y quadricepsplasty in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1993; 286: 48–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zimmerman G, Crossett L, Rubash H. Intraoperative complications of revision total knee arthroplasty. In: Lotke P, Garino J (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1999: 411–436.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mont M, Dellon L, Chen F, et al. The operative treatment of peroneal nerve palsy. J Bone Joint Surg 1996; 78A: 863–869.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Idusuyi O, Morrey B. Peroneal nerve palsy after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1996; 78A: 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rose H, Hood R, Otis J, et al. Peroneal-nerve palsy following total knee arthroplasty. A review of the Hospital for Special Surgery experience. J Bone Joint Surg 1982; 64A: 347–351.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Krackow K, Maar D, Mont M. Surgical decompression for peroneal palsy after total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1993; 292: 223–228.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Asp J, Rand J. Peroneal nerve palsy after total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1990; 261: 233–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hozack W, Cole P, Gardner R, et al. Popliteal aneurysm after total knee arthroplasty: case reports and review of the literature. J Arthroplasty 1990; 5: 301–305.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Heck D, Blaha J, Windsor R. Knee reconstruction. In: Kasser J (ed). Orthopaedic Knowledge Update V. Rosemont: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1996: 481–498.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Johanson N. Neurovascular complications following total knee replacement: causes, treatment, and prevention. Instr Course Lect 1997; 46: 181–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Dennis D, Neumann R, Toma P, et al. Arteriovenous fistula with false aneurysm of the inferior medial geniculate artery. Clin Orthop 1987; 222: 255–260.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kumar S, Chapman J, Rawlins I. Vascular injuries in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1998; 13: 21 1216.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rand J. Neurovascular complications of total knee arthroplasty. In: Rand J (ed). Total Knee Arthroplasty. New York: Raven Press, 1993: 417–422.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rubash H, Berger R, Britton C, et al. Avoiding neurologic and vascular injuries with screw fixation of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1993; 286: 56–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hagan P, Kaufman E. Vascular complication of knee arthroplasty under tourniquet: a case report. Clin Orthop 1990; 257: 159–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rush J, Vidovich J, Johnson M. Arterial complications of total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg 1987; 69B: 400–402.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    McAuley C, Steed D, Webster M. Arterial complications of total knee replacement. Arch Surg 1984; 119: 960–962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Abdel-Salam A, Eyres K. Effects of tourniquet during total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1995; 77B: 250–253.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sculco T. Economic issues: the economic impact of infected joint arthroplasty. Orthopedics 1995; 18: 87 1873.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Herbert C, Williams R, Levy R, et al. Cost of treating an infected total knee replacement. Clin Orthop 1996; 331: 140–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Pellegrini V. Management of the patient with an infected knee arthroplasty. Instr Course Lect 1997; 46: 215–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hofmann A, Kane K, Tkach T, et al. Treatment of infected total knee arthroplasty using an articulating spacer. Clin Orthop 1995; 321: 45–54.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Barrack R, Wolfe M. Diagnosis of the infected total knee replacement. In: Engh G, Rorabeck C (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1997: 355–370.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Rand J. Sepsis following total knee arthroplasty. In: Rand J (ed). Total Knee Arthroplasty. New York: Raven Press, 1993: 349–375.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hanssen A, Rand J. Evaluation and treatment of infection at the site of a total hip or knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1998; 80A: 910–922.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Osmon D, Steckelberg J, Wilhelm M, et al. Medical management of total knee arthroplasty infection. In: Rand J (ed). Total Knee Arthroplasty. New York: Raven Press, 1993: 377–390.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Windsor R, Insall J. Management of the infected total knee arthroplasty. In: Insall J, Windsor R, Scott W, et al. (eds). Surgery of the Knee, 2nd ed. New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1993: 959–974.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ritter M. Intraoperative controls for bacterial contamination during total knee replacement. Orthop Clin North Am 1989; 20: 49–53.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wilson M, Kelley K, Thornhill T. Infection as a complication of total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1990; 72A: 878–883.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Luessenhop C, Higgins L, Brause B, et al. Multiple prosthetic infections after total joint arthroplasty: risk factor anaylsis. J Arthroplasty 1996; 11: 862–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Rodriguez J, Saddler S, Edelman S, et al. Long-term results of total knee arthroplasty in class 3 and 4 rheumatoid arthritis. J Arthroplasty 1996; 11: 141–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Fitzgerald R. Medical and surgical management of the patient with an infected total knee arthroplasty. In: Lotke P, Garino J (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1999: 371–386.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Friedman R, Freidrich L, White R, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis and tourniquet inflation in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1990; 260: 17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tanzer M, Miller J, Richards G. Preoperative assessment of skin colonization and antibiotic effectiveness in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1994; 299: 163–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Mont M, Waldman B, Banerjee C. Multiple irrigation, debridement and retention of components in infected total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1997; 12: 426433.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Windsor R, Bono J. Infected total knee replacements. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1994; 2: 44–53.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sacchetti G, Ghisellini F, Brambilla M, et al. Quantitative scintigraphic evaluation of total knee arthoplasties. Clin Orthop 1996; 325: 181–189.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Rand J, Brown M. The value of indium leukocyte scanning in the evaluation of painful or infected total knee arthroplasties. Clin Orthop 1990; 259: 179–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Duff G, Lachiewicz P, Kelley S. Aspiration of the knee joint before revision arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1996; 331: 132–139.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    McLaren A, Spooner C. Salvage of infected total knee components. Clin Orthop 1996; 331: 146–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Petty W. Operative management of the infected knee. Orthopedics 1995; 18: 927–929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Insall J, Thompson F, Brause B. Two-stage reimplantation for the salvage of infected total knee arthroplasty, J Bone Joint Surg 1983; 65A: 1087–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Goldman R, Scuderi G, Insall J. 2-stage reimplantation for infected total knee replacement. Clin Orthop 1996; 331: 118–124.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Wasielewski R, Barden R, Rosenberg A. Results of different surgical procedures on total knee arthroplasty infections. J Arthroplasty 1996; 11: 931–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Booth R, Lotke P. The results of pacer block technique in revision of infected total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1989; 248: 57–60.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Masri B, Duncan C, Beauchamp C. The modified two stage exchange arthroplasty in the treatment of the infected total knee replacement: the Prostalac system and other articulated spacers. In: Engh G, Rorabeck C, (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1997: 394–424.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Dajani A, Bisno A, Chung K, et al. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: recommendations by the American Heart Association. JAMA 1990; 264: 219–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Dennis D. Extensor mechanism problems in total knee arthroplasty. Instr Course Lect 1997; 49: 171–180.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Rand J. The patellofemoral joint in total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1994; 76: 612–620.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Hozack W. Patellar complications related to tracking. In: Fu F, Hamer C, Vince K (eds). Knee Surgery. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994: 1459–1472.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kolessar D, Rand J. Extensor mechanism problems following total knee arthroplasty. In: Morrey B (ed). Reconstructive Surgery of the Joints, 2nd ed. New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1996: 1533–1547.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rand J. The patellofemoral joint in total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1994; 76A: 612–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cameron H, Fedorkow D. The patella in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1982; 165: 197–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lynch A, Rorabeck C, Boume R. Extensor mechanism complications following total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1987; 2: 135–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Cadambi A, Schmidt R. The extensor mechanism in revision total knee arthroplasty. In: Engh G, Rorabeck C (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1997: 205–223.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Reuben J, McDonald C, Woodard P, et al. Effect of 350 patella thickness on patella strain following total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1991; 6: 251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Evanich C, Tkach T, Von Glinski S, et al. 6- to 10-year experience using countersunk metal-backed patellas. J Arthroplasty 1997; 12: 149–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Yoshii I, Whiteside I, Anouchi Y. The effect of patella button placement and femoral component design on patella tracking in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1992; 275: 214–219.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kewonowski K, Dorr L, McPherson E, et al. Medialization of the patella in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1997; 12: 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Johnson D, Eastwood D. Lateral patellar release in knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1992; 7 (suppl): 427–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Scuderi G, Scharf S, Meltzer L, et al. The relationship of lateral releases to patella viability in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1987; 2: 209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rand J, Morrey B, Bryan R. Patella tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1989; 244: 233–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    James D, Scott R. Extensor mechanism complications. In: Rand J (ed). Total Knee Arthroplasty. New York: Raven Press, 1993: 393–401.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Emerson R. Extensor mechanism rupture. In: Fu F, Harner C, Vince K (eds). Knee Surgery. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994: 1483–1490.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Emerson R, Head W, Malinin T. Reconstruction of patella tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty with an extensor mechanism allograft. Clin Orthop 1990; 260: 154–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Cadambi A, Engh G. Use of a semitendinosis tendon autogenous graft for rupture of the patellar ligament after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1992; 74: 974–979.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Jaureguito J, Dubois C, Smith S, et al. Medial gastrocnemius transposition flap for the treatment of disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1977; 79: 866–873.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Kraay M, Goldberg V. Patellar fracture and breakage. In: Fu F, Harner C, Vince K (eds). Knee Surgery. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994: 1473–1482.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Tria A, Harwood D, Alicea J, et al. Patella fractures in posterior stabilized knee arthroplasties. Clin Orthop 1994; 299: 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Markel D, Luessenhop C, Windsor R, et al. Arthroscopic treatment of peripatellar fibrosis after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1996; 11: 293–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Thorpe C, Bocell J, Tullos H. Intra-articular fibrous bands. J Bone Joint Surg 1990; 72A: 811–814.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Beight J, Yao B, Hozack W, et al. The patella “clunk” syndrome after posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1994; 299: 139–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Bocell J, Thorpe C, Tullos H. Arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1991; 271: 125–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Rosenberg A, Andriacchi T, Barden R, et al. Patella component failure in cementless total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1988; 226: 106–114.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Rosenberg A. Management of the failed metal-backed patella. Orthopedics 1996; 19: 813–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Bayley J, Scott R. Further observations on metal-backed patella component failure. Clin Orthop 1986; 236: 88105.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Bayley J, Scott R. Further observations on metal-backed patellar component failure. Clin Orthop 1988; 286: 82–87.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Stulberg S, Stulberg B, Hamati Y, et al. Failure mechanisms of metal-backed patella components. Clin Orthop 1988; 236: 88–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Berry D, Rand J. Isolated patella component revision of total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1988; 236: 82–87.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Goldstein S, Coale E, Weiss A, et al. Patella surface strain. J Orthop Results 1986; 4: 372–377.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Bloebaum R, Bachus K, Jenson J, et al. Porous-coated metal-backed patella components in total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg 1998; 80A: 518–528.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Engh G, Dwyer K. Mechanical failure: implant breakage and loosening. In: Fu F, Harner C, Vince K (eds). Knee Surgery. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994:15071527.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Faris P. Soft tissue balancing and total knee arthroplasty. In: Fu F, Harner C, Vince K (eds). Knee Surgery. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994: 1385–1389.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Ayers D. Polyethylene wear and osteolysis following total knee replacement. Instr Course Lect 1997; 46: 205213.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Hungerford D. Alignment in total knee replacement. Instr Course Lect 1996; 45: 455–468.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Hungerford D, Mont M. The issue of ligament balance in revision total knee replacement. In: Lotke P, Garino J (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1999: 77–87.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Bartel D. The effect of design on long term survivorship. In: Lotke P, Garino J (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1999: 17–29.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Garino J. Successes and failures. In: Lotke P, Garino J (eds). Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1999: 3–14.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Dorr L. Management of bone defects. In: Rand J (ed). Total Knee Arthroplasty. New York: Raven Press, 1993: 309–317.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Dorr L, Ranawat C, Sculco T, et al. Bone graft for tibial defects in total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1977; 79A: 1030–1039.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Morrey B. Bone deficiency. In: Morrey B (ed). Reconstructive Surgery of the Joints, 2nd ed. New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1996: 1569–1585.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Engh G, Parks N. The management of bone defects in 23: Overview of Complications of Total Knee Arthroplasty 351 revision total knee arthroplasty. Instr Course Lect 1997; 46: 227–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Laskin R, Saddler S. Bone defects in total knee arthroplasty. In: Fu F, Harner C, Vince K (eds). Knee Surgery. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994: 1399–1405.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Rand J. Bone deficiency in total knee arthroplasty: use of metal wedge augmentation. Clin Orthop 1991: 271; 63–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Mow C, Wiedel J. Structural allografting in revision total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1996; 11: 236241.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Mow C, Wiedel J. Noncemented revision total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1994; 309: 110–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Ullmark G, Hovelius L. Impacted morsellized allografts and cement for revision total knee arthroplasty. Acta Orthop Scand 1996; 67: 10–12.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Cameron H, Turner D, Cameron G. Results of bone grafting in tibial defects in uncemented total knee replacements. Can J Surg 1988; 31: 30–32.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Aglietti P, Buzzi R, Srobe F. Autologous bone grafting for medial tibial defects in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1991; 6: 287–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Ghazavi M, Stockley I, Yee G, et al. Reconstruction of massive bone defects with allografts in revision total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1977; 79A: 17–25.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Harris A, Poddar S, Gitelis S, et al. Arthroplasty with a composite of an allograft and a prosthesis with severe deficiency of bone. J Bone Joint Surg 1995; 77A: 373–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kraay M, Goldberg V, Figgie M, et al. Distal femoral replacement with allograft/prosthetic reconstruction for treatment of supracondylar fractures in patients with total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1992; 7: 7–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Altchek D, Sculco T, Rawlins B. Autogenous bone grafting for severe angular deformity in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1989; 4: 151–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Hill R, Phillips H. Bone grafting in primary total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1992; 7: 81–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Laskin R. Total knee arthroplasty in the presence of large bone defects of the tibia and modified knee instability. Clin Orthop 1989; 248: 66–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Windsor R, Insall J, Sculco T. Bone grafting of tibial defects in primary and revision total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1986; 205: 132–137.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Wilde A, Schickendantz M, Stulberg B, et al. The incorporation of tibial allografts in total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Arthroplasty 1990; 72: 815–824.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Insall JN. Total knee replacement. In: Insall J (ed). Surgery of the Knee. New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1984: 587.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Dennis D. Structural allografting in revision total knee arthroplasty. Orthopedics 1994; 17: 849–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Rosenberg A. The use of bone graft for managing bone defects in complex total knee arthroplasty. Am J Knee Surg 1977; 10: 42–48.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Samuelson K. Bone grafting and noncemented revision arthroplasty of the knee. Clin Orthop 1988; 226: 93101.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Engh G, Herzwurn P, Parks N. Treatment of major defects of bone with bulk allografts and stemmed components during total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1977; 79A: 1030–1039.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Mnaymneh W, Emerson R, Borja F, et al. Massive allografts in salvage revisions of failed total knee arthroplasties. Clin Orthop 1990; 260: 144–153.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Stockley I, McAuley J, Gross. Allograft reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1992; 74B: 393–397.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Tsahakis P, Beaver W, Brick G. Technique and results of allograft reconstruction in revision total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1994; 303: 86–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Whiteside L. Cementless reconstuction of massive tibial bone loss in revision total knee replacement. Clin Orthop 1989; 248: 80–86.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Whiteside L. Cementless revision total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1993; 286: 160–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Malefijt M, Van Kampen A, Slooff T. Bone grafting in cemented knee replacement. Acta Orthop Scand 1995; 66: 325–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Elia E, Lotke P. Results of revision total knee arthroplasty associated with significant bone loss. Clin Orthop 1991; 271: 114–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felicia M. Ollivierre
  • M. Mike Malek

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations