Advertisement

Die Behandlung der sackförmigen intrakraniellen Aneurysmen

  • W. Tönnis
  • W. Walter
Part of the Klinik und Behandlung der Raumbeengenden Intrakraniellen Prozesse book series (NEUROCHIRURGIE, volume 4 / 2)

Zusammenfassung

Die operative Behandlung der sackförmigen Aneurysmen der Hirngefäße hat sich innerhalb der neurochirurgischen Behandlungsmethoden zunächst nur sehr zögernd und langsam entwickelt. Dieses lag weniger an der technischen Unzulänglichkeit des operativen Vorgehens, sondern war in der Tatsache begründet, daß allgemein derartige Eingriffe für zu riskant und wenig erfolgversprechend galten. Selbst die Entwicklung der cerebralen Angiographie, welche die genaue Diagnose dieser Erkrankung erst möglich machte, konnte die operative Behandlung zunächst nur wenig beeinflussen bzw. vorantreiben. So galt zu der Zeit, als bereits die Chirurgie der raumfordernden Prozesse des Gehirns durch Cushing, Bailey, Dandy, Olivecrona u. Tönnis erfolgreich betrieben wurde, die Operation eines sackförmigen Aneurysmas als selten durchgeführtes Wagnis mit meist ungünstigem Ausgang für den Patienten. Manche Stimmen (Küttner 1936) hielten eine derartige operative Behandlung des sackförmigen Aneurysmas kaum jemals für möglich. Wenigen Beobachtungen über erfolgreich operierte Fälle stand die Skepsis der meisten Neurochirurgen gegenüber, auch die sackförmigen Aneurysmen zum Gegenstand der neurochirurgischen Behandlung werden zu lassen (Dandy). Aus der Tatsache, daß man den wiederholt blutenden sackförmigen Aneurysmen — häufig mit tödlichem Ausgang — bei konservativem Abwarten praktisch hilflos gegenüberstand, entwickelte sich zunächst die Behandlung durch die Ligatur der A. carotis am Halse, in der Vorstellung, hierdurch einen Einfluß auf die Blutung zu gewinnen und eventuell das Aneurysma zur Thrombo-sierung zu bringen.

Literatur

  1. Abbott, K. H., J. R. Gay, and R. J. Goodall: Clinical complications of cerebral angiography. J. Neurosurg 9, 258 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adachi, B.: Das Arteriensystem der Japaner, Bd. I. Kyoto 1928.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, J. E., and E. J. Wylie: Value of hypothermia and arterial occlusion in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 4, 631 (1959).Google Scholar
  4. Adams, R. D., and H. Vänder Eecken: Vascular diseases of the brain. Ann. Rev. Med. 4, 213 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Adle, W. J.: Permanent hemianopia in migraine and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Lancet 1930 II, 237.Google Scholar
  6. Alajouanine, Th. J. le Beau R. Houdart: La Symptomatologie tumorale des volumineux an-eurysms des artéres cérébrales et basilaires. Rev. neurol. 80, 321 (1948).Google Scholar
  7. Albl, H.: Aneurysma der Carotis interna, einen Hypophysentumor vortäuschend ein Beitrag zur Diagnose intrakranieller Aneurysma. Fortschr. Röntgenstr. 39, 890 (1929).Google Scholar
  8. Albright, F.: The syndrome produced by aneurysms at or near junction of internal artery and circle of Willis. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 44, 215 (1929).Google Scholar
  9. Allègre, C., et R. Vigouroux: Traitement chirurgical des anéurysmes intracraniens du système carotidien. Anéurysmes supraclinoidieus. Paris: Masson & Cie. 1957.Google Scholar
  10. —: Le traitement chirurgical des aneurysms supraclinoideus. Neurochirurgia 1, 215 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Almeida, F. de: Note sur les collatérales de l’artère communicante cérébrale antérieure. Arch. Anat. Antrop. (Lisboa) 13, 551 (1931).Google Scholar
  12. Alpers, B. J.: The diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms. Amer. Practit. 1, 146 (1946).Google Scholar
  13. —, and J. Ryan: Verified cerebral aneurysm with negativ arteriogram. J. nerv. ment. Dis. 109, 220 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. —, and N. S. Schlezinger: Aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery. Arch. Ophthal. 42, 353 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. — I. M. Jassmann, and N. S. Schlezinger: Bilateral internal carotid aneurysm involving cavernous sinus right carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistula and left saccular aneurysm. Arch. Ophthal. 46, 403 (1951).Google Scholar
  16. Altshuler, S. S., and S. E. Gould: Diabetes refractory to insulin, with report of a case. Ann. intern. Med. 9, 1595 (1936).Google Scholar
  17. Angrist: Discussion of anatomical defects and psychological changes in congenital cerebral aneurysms. Zit. by F. M. Forster, and B. J. Alpers, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 4, 146 (1945).Google Scholar
  18. Ask-Upmark, E., and D. Ingvar: A follow — up examination of 138 cases of subarachnoidal hemorrhage. Acta med. scand. 15, 138 (1950).Google Scholar
  19. Ayer, W. D.: So-called spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Amer. J. Surg. 26, 143 (1934).Google Scholar
  20. Bailey, P.: Lehrbuch: Die Hirngeschwülste. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke 1935.Google Scholar
  21. Bakay, L., and W. H. Sweet: Cervical and intracranial intra-arterial pressures with and without vascular occlusion. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 95, 67 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. —: Intra-arterial pressures in the neck and brain. J. Neurosurg. 10, 353 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bancroft, F. W., and C. Pilcher: Surgical treatment of the nervous system. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott 1946.Google Scholar
  24. Barraud: Sur un cas d’aneurisme de l’artere vertebrale gauche dans son parcours intrarachidien. Zbl. Hals-, Nas.-u. Ohrenheilk. 27, 10 (1936).Google Scholar
  25. Barrows, L. J., C. S. Kubik, and E. P. Richardson: Aneurysms of the basilar and vertebral arteries, a clinico-pathologic study. Trans. Amer. neur. Ass., 81st Meeting 1956.Google Scholar
  26. Bassett, R. C.: Intracranial aneurysms I. Some clinical observations concerning their development. J. Neurosurg. 6, 216 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. —: Intracranial aneurysm. J. Neurosurg. 8, 132 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. — and H. H. Gass: Ligation of internal carotid artery for aneurysmal lesions of circle of Willis. J. Amer. med. Ass. 177, 842 (1951).Google Scholar
  29. — and L. J. Lemmen: Subdural hematoma associated with bleeding intracranial aneurysm. J. Neurosurg. 9, 443 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. — C. F. List, and L. J. Lemmen: Surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysm. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 95, 701 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bassoe, P.: Aneurysm of the vertebral artery. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatr. (Chic.) 42, 127 (1939).Google Scholar
  32. Baumann, C. H., and P. C. Bucy: Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery, evaluation of surgical and “conservative” treatments. J. Amer. med. Ass. 163, 1448 (1957).Google Scholar
  33. Baumoel, S.: Discussion following paper by sands (1941) on diagnosis and management of subarachnoidal haemorrhage. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 46, 1004 (1941).Google Scholar
  34. Beadles, C. F.: Aneurysms of the larger cerebral arteries. Brain 30, 285 (1907).Google Scholar
  35. Benson, F.D.: Conservative VS. surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Neurology (Minneap.) 8, 852 (1958).Google Scholar
  36. Berger, W.: Über Aneurysmen der Hirngefäße unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Ätiologie. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 245, 138 (1923).Google Scholar
  37. Bergstrand, H., H. Olivecrona u. W. Tönnis: Gefäßmißbildungen u. Gefäßgeschwülste des Gehirns. Leipzig 1936.Google Scholar
  38. Biemond, A.: Therapy of acute arachnoidal hemorrhages. Ned. T. Geneesk. 94, 1948 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bigelow, N. H.: Multiple intracranial arterial aneurysms: an analysis of their significance. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 73, 76 (1955).Google Scholar
  40. Birse, S. H., and M.I. Tom: Incidence of cerebral infarction associated with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Neurology (Minneap.) 10, 101 (1960).Google Scholar
  41. Biumi, F.: Observationes anatomicae in sandifort Thesaurus Wiss. 3, 373 (1778).Google Scholar
  42. Björkesten, G. A. F.: Arterial aneurysms of the internal carotid artery and its bifurcation. J. Neurosurg. 15, 400 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. —, and H. Troupp: Aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery. A report of 52 cases. Acta chir. scand. 115, 153 (1958).Google Scholar
  44. —: Multiple intracranial arterial aneurysms. Acta chir. scand. 118, 387 (1960).Google Scholar
  45. —: Changes in the size of intracranial arterial aneurysms. J. Neurosurg. 19, 583 (1962).Google Scholar
  46. —: Prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage; a comparison between patients with verified aneurysms and patients and patients with normal angiograms. J. Neurosurg. 14, 434 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Black, S. P. W., and W. J. German: The treatment of internal carotid artery aneurysms by proximal arterial ligation. J. Neurosurg. 10, 590 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Blackburn, J. W.: Anomalies of the encephalic arteries among the insane. J. comp. Neurol. Psychol. 14, 473 (1907).Google Scholar
  49. Bonnal, J., R. Navarrane, et J. Aymard: Peu-ton lier l’artère cérébrale antèrieure au cours de la cure chirurgicale des aneurymes situés àla jonction de l’artère cérébrale antérieure et de la communicante antèrieure? Neuro-chirurgie 1, 162 (1955).Google Scholar
  50. Bonnet, I.: Les anéurysmes artériels intra-crâniens et leur signes ophthalmologiques. Iormes anatomo cliniques. Ann. Oculist. (Paris) 187, 420 (1954).Google Scholar
  51. Borchardt, M.: Die chirurgische Bedeutung der Gehirnaneurysmen. Bruns’ Beitr. klin. Chir. 133, 429 (1925).Google Scholar
  52. Botterell, E. H., W. M. Lougheed, I. W. Scott, and S. L. Vaudewater: Hypothermia and interruption of carotid or carotid and vertebral circulation in the surgical management of intracranial aneurysms. J. Neurosurg. 13, 1 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. — T. P. Worley, and S. L. Vaudewater: Hypothermia in the surgical treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. J. Neurosurg. 15, 4 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Boyd, W.: Textbook of Pathology, 3. Aufl. Philadelphia 1940.Google Scholar
  55. Brackett, Ch.: The complications of carotid artery ligation in the neck. J. Neurosurg. 10, 91 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Brackett, C. E., and L. A. Mount: Some observations on intracarotid blood pressure made during carotid ligation for intracranial aneurysms. Surg. Forum 1951, 344-350.Google Scholar
  57. Bräden, S.: Carotid pressure studies in relation to the management of intracranial aneurysms. A preliminary report. Presented at meeting of the H. Cushing Society, Victoria B. C., June 5, 1952.Google Scholar
  58. Bramwell, B.: Clinical and pathological memoranda Kap. 4: Case of aneurism of the right internal carotid artery. Edinb. med. J. 32, 97 (1886).Google Scholar
  59. Bramwell, E.: The etiology of recurrent ocular paralysis. Med.-chir. Soc. Edinb. 40, 209 (1933).Google Scholar
  60. Bremer, J. L.: Congenital aneurysms of the cerebral arteries. An embryologic study. Arch. Path. 35, 819 (1943).Google Scholar
  61. Brobeil, A., u. H. A. Lowes: Die Hemiparese als Gefäßsyndrom und ihre arteriographische Diagnose. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 159, 448 (1948).Google Scholar
  62. Broman, T., B Forssmann, and O. Olsson: Further experimental investigations of injuries from contrast media in cerebral angiography. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 34, 135 (1950).Google Scholar
  63. —, and O. Olsson: The tolerance of cerebral blood-vessels to a contrast medium of the diodrast-group. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 30, 326 (1948).Google Scholar
  64. —: Experimental study of contrast media for cerebral angiography with reference to possible injurious effects on the cerebral blood vessels. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 31, 321 (1949).Google Scholar
  65. —: Technique for the pharmaco-dynamic investigation of contrast media for cerebral angiography. Effect on the blood-brain barrier in animal experiments. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 45, 96 (1956).Google Scholar
  66. —: Experimental comparison of diodonum with sodium acetrizoate with reference to possible injurious effects on the blood-brain barrier. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 46, 346 (1956).Google Scholar
  67. Brown, R. A. P.: Cerebral aneurysms. Glasg. med. J. 32, 333 (1951).Google Scholar
  68. Browne, K. M., and W. E. Stern: Experimental observations concerning cerebral angiography. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 71, 477 (1954).Google Scholar
  69. Brüning, E.: Zur Chirurgie der A. carotis. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 52, 145 (1926).Google Scholar
  70. Bull, J. W. D.: Cerebral angiography. Postgrad. med. J. 26, 157 (1950).Google Scholar
  71. Busscher, J. de: Aneurysme de l’artère vertébrale gauche chez un homme. Acta neurol. belg. 53, 1 (1952).Google Scholar
  72. Busse, O.: Aneurysmen und Bildungsfehler der A. communicans ant. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 229, 178 (1921).Google Scholar
  73. Cairns, H.: Peripheral ocular palsies from the neuro-surgical point of view. Trans. ophthal. Soc. U. K. 58, pt. 2, 464 (1938).Google Scholar
  74. Calvert, C. A.: Experiences in the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 20, 159 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Campbell, E., and C. W. Burklund: Ocular manifestations of aneurysms of the circle of Willis. N.Y. St. J. Med. 50, 2427 (1950).Google Scholar
  76. —: Aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery. Ann. Surg. 137, 18 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Campbell, E., D Perese, and N. H. Bigelow: Excision of multisaccular supratentorial aneurysm of infratentorial origin. J. Neurosurg. 11, 422 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Carmichael, R.: Gross defects in the muscular and elastic coats of the larger cerebral arteries. J. Path. Bact. 57, 345 (1945).Google Scholar
  79. Castorina, G., u. L. Catalano: Zit. bei Allegre et Vigoroux 1957.Google Scholar
  80. Cavatorti, P.: Di una para variazioni delle arterie della base dell’encefalo nell’uomo. Monit. zool. ital. 18, 294 (1907).Google Scholar
  81. —: Il tipo normale e le variazioni delle arterie della base dell’encefalo nell’uomo. Monit. zool. ital. 19, N. 10, 248 (1908).Google Scholar
  82. Chiasserini jr., A.: Clinical radiological anatomo pathological concerning some casses of intra-cranial aneurysms. Zbl. Neurochir. 14, 73 (1954).Google Scholar
  83. Christensen, E.: Pathologie der intrakraniellen Blutungen. In: Handbuch der Neurochirurgie, Bd. 3. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1956.Google Scholar
  84. Collier, J.: Cerebral haemorrhage due to other causes than arterio sclerosis. Brit. med. 1931 II, 519.Google Scholar
  85. Columella, F., G. C. Nicola et C. B. Delzanno: Considérations sur une série de 103 cas d’anéurysmes artériels intracräniens. Neuro-chirurgie 3, 259 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Conway, J. A.: Two cases of cerebral aneurysm causing ocular symptoms with notes of other cases. Brit. J. Ophthal. 10, 78 (1926).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Courville, C. B.: Pathology of the central nervous system, 2. Aufl. Mt. Kiew, Calif.: Pacific press Pub. Assn. 1945.Google Scholar
  88. —, and C. W. Olsen: Miliary aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. A clinical and pathologic report of nineteen cases, eighteen with fatal hemorrhage. Bull. Los Angeles neurol. Soc. 3, 1 (1938).Google Scholar
  89. Coxon, R. V.: A case of haemorrhage into a pituitary tumour simulating rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. Guy’s Hosp. Rep. 92, 89 (1943).Google Scholar
  90. Craig, W. M. K., and A. W. Adson: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Etiology and surgical treatment with a report of a cases. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 35, 701 (1936).Google Scholar
  91. Crawford, J. V., and D. S. Russel: Cryptic arterio venous and venous hamartomas of the brain. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 19, 1 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Crile, C. W.: Effect of temporary closure of the carotid arteries, p. 163. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 1901.Google Scholar
  93. Critchley, M.: The anterior cerebral artery and its syndrom. Brain 53, 120 (1930).Google Scholar
  94. Crompton, M. R.: Intracerebral hematoma complicating ruptured cerebral berry aneurysm. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 25, 378 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Cushing, H.: Contributions to the study of intracranial aneurysms. Guy’s Hosp. Rep. 73, 159 (1923).Google Scholar
  96. —, and P. Bailey: Tumors arising from the blood vessels of the brain. Baltimore: Ch. C. Thomas 1928.Google Scholar
  97. Dandy, W. E.: Carotid-cavernosus aneurysms (Pulsating Exophthalmus). Zbl. Neurochir. 2, 77 (1937).Google Scholar
  98. —: Intracranial aneurysm of internal carotid artery, cured by operation. Ann. Surg. 107, 654 (1938).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. —: Aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery. J. Amer. med. Ass. 119, 1253 (1942).Google Scholar
  100. — Intracranial arterial aneurysms. Ithaka N.Y.: Comstock Publishing Co. Inc. 1944.Google Scholar
  101. —: Results following bands and ligatures on the human internal carotid artery. Ann. Surg. 123, 384 (1946).Google Scholar
  102. — Intracranial arterial aneurysms. New York 1947.Google Scholar
  103. David, M., R. Angelerques et H. Hécaen: Un cas de migraine proso plégique par anéurysme artériel de la fosse cérébrale postérieure. Rev. neurol. 94, 716 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. — J. Morice et J. Adam: Sténose de l’aqueduc de sylvius par anéurysme des artères cérébelleuses supérieures. Rev. Neurol. 84, 313 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Davis, C. H., and E. Alexander: Intracranial aneurysms, an evaluation of methods of treatment. Sth. med. J. (Bgham, Ala.) 52, 357 (1959).Google Scholar
  106. Deborsu, F. L.: Ruand faut-il opérer un aneurysme supraclinoidien rompu? Neuro-chirurgie 4, 95 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Decker, K.: Zur Klinik und Röntgendiagnostik basaler Aneurysmen. Dtsch. 2. Nervenheilk. 165, 1 (1951).Google Scholar
  108. —, u. E. Hipp: Der basale Gefäßkranz. Morphologie und Angiographie. Anat. Anz. 105, 100 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Dekaban, A., and D. McEachern: Subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage and intracranial aneurysms. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 67, 641 (1952).Google Scholar
  110. Dempsey, A.: A case of orbital aneurysm. Brit. med. J. 1886 II, 541.Google Scholar
  111. Denny-Brown, D.: Symposium of specific methods of treatment: treatment of recurrent cerebro-vascular symptoms and the question of “vasospasm”. Med. Clin. N. Amer. 35, 1457 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Devic, M.: Etude clinique des aneurysmes sacciformes intracraniens. Diss. Lyon 1948/49.Google Scholar
  113. Dial, D. L., and G. B. Maurer: Intracranial aneurysms report of 13 cases. Amer. J. Surg. 35, 2 (1937).Google Scholar
  114. Dinning, T. A. R.: Sudden or unexpected natural death due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm, survey of 250 forensic cases. Lancet 1953 II, 799.Google Scholar
  115. —, and M. A. Falconer: Sudden or unexpected natural death due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Lancet 1953 II, 799.Google Scholar
  116. Dorrance, G. M.: Ligation of the great vessels of the neck. Ann. Surg. 99, 721 (1934).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Dott, N. M.: Intracranial aneurysms. Edinb. med. J. 40, 219 (1933).Google Scholar
  118. —: Cephalic aneurysmal formations. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 6, 158 (1943).Google Scholar
  119. — Therapeutics of the saccular intracranial aneurysms. Ve Congr. Neurologique Internat., Bd. 1, Lissabon 1953.Google Scholar
  120. Drake, C. C., and T. A. Jory: Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage: Subarachnoid haemorrhage a review of investigation an treatmen in 189 cases. Canad. J. Surg. 4, 4 (1960).Google Scholar
  121. Dressler, W.: Zur Operation des intrakraniellen Aneurysmas der Carotis interna. Zbl. Chir. 73, 347 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Dueker, H. W.: Surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Bull. Los Angeles neurol. Soc. 16, 150 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Duguid, J. B.: A ruptured ancurysm of the basilar artery at the age of 17. J. path. Bact. 28, 389 (1925).Google Scholar
  124. Dunsmore, R. H., and J. L. Polcyn: Subarachnoid hemorrhage; prognostic factors. J. Neurosurg. 13, 165 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. — W. Scoville, and B. B. Whitcomb: Symposium on intracranial vascular abnormalities, complications of angiography. J. Neurosurg. 13, 165 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Dtjplay, J., R. Coromine et P. Cossa: Anéurysmes multiples de la carotide interne dans son segment exocranien et dans son segment endocranien. Rev. Neurol. 95, 400 (1956).Google Scholar
  127. Duret, H.: Recherches antomiques sur la circulation de l’encephale. Arch. de Physiol. 1, 316 (1874).Google Scholar
  128. Dutton, J.: Intracranial aneurysm, a new method of surgical treatment. Brit. med. J. 1956, No 4992, 585.Google Scholar
  129. — Acrylic investment of intracranial aneurysms. Brit. med. J. 1959, No 5152, 597.Google Scholar
  130. Echols, D. H., and F. C. Rehfeldt: Diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Sth. Surg. 15, 782 (1949).Google Scholar
  131. Ecker, A., and P.A. Riemenschneider: Deliberate thrombosis of intracranial arterial aneurism by partial occlusion of carotid artery with artériographic control. J. Neurosurg. 8, 348 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. —— Arteriographie demonstration of spasm of the intracranial arteries with special reference to saccular arterial aneurysms. J. Neurosurg. 8, 660 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Ectors, L.: La ligature de la carotide commune. Neuro-chirurgie 3, 262 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Elkin, D. C., and M. H. Harris: Arteriovenous aneurysm of the vertebral vessels. Report of ten cases. Ann. Surg. 124, 934 (1946).Google Scholar
  135. Elsberg, C. A.: Zit. nach Krayenbühl 1941.Google Scholar
  136. Elvidge, A. R., and W. H. Feindel: Surgical treatment of aneurysm of the anterior cerebral and of the anterior communicating arteries diagnosed by angiography and electroencephalography. J. Neurosurg. 7, 13–32 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Engeset, A.: Cerebral angiography with perabrodil (carotid angiography). Acta radiol. (Stockh.), Suppl. 56 (1944).Google Scholar
  138. Enzer, N., and E. D. Schwade: Intracranial arterial aneurysms. Amer. J. clin. Path. 7, 418 (1937).Google Scholar
  139. Eppinger, H.: Pathogenesis (Histogenetis u. Aetiologie) der Aneurysmen einschließlich des Aneurysma Equi verminosum. Langenbecks Arch. klin. Chirur. 35, Suppl. 1 (1887).Google Scholar
  140. Ernstbrunner, E.: Blutung aus einem mykotischem Aneurysma der A. bas. bei einer Pneumokokken-Meningitis. Öst. Z. Kinderheilk. 2, 280 (1949).Google Scholar
  141. Esser, A.: Perforiertes Aneurysma der A. vertebralis sin. auf dem Boden gummöser Gefäßwand-erkrankung. Zbl. ges. Neurol. Psychiat. 66, 118 (1933).Google Scholar
  142. Ethelberg, S.: On changes in circulation through the anterior cerebral artery. Acta psychiat. (Kbh.) Suppl. 75 (1951).Google Scholar
  143. Falconer, M. A.: Zit. bei Norlen, Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 45, 291 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. — Surgical treatment of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage, preliminary report. Brit. med. J. 1950 I, 809.Google Scholar
  145. —: The surgical treatment of bleeding intracranial aneurysms. J. Neurochirurg. N. S. 14, 153 (1951).Google Scholar
  146. — The future of surgery in the treatment of spontaneous cerebral haemorrhage. Lancet 1932 II, 945.Google Scholar
  147. —: Surgical pathology of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage due to aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 47, 693 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Fawcett, E., and J. V. Blachford: The circle of Willis: an examination of 700 specimes. J. Anat. Physiol. 40, 63 (1906).Google Scholar
  149. Fearnsides, E. G.: Intracranial aneurysms. Brain 39, 224 (1916).Google Scholar
  150. Feldman, R. L., S. W. Gross, and S. Wimpfheimer: Ruptured intracranial aneurysm during pregnancy: diagnosis and treatment. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 70, 289 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Fernström, U.: Intrakraniella arteriella aneurysm. Nord. Med. 41, 799 (1949).Google Scholar
  152. Fetisova, E. v.: Über ein Aneurysma der Art. vert., das mit dem Syndrom eines Acusticustumors verlief. Zbl. ges. Neurol. 115, 225 (1951).Google Scholar
  153. Fetter, W. J.: Subarachnoid hemorrhage. Penn. med. J. 49, 949 (1943).Google Scholar
  154. Fetterman, G. H., and T. J. Moran: Anomalies of the circle of Willis in relation to cerebral softening. Arch. Path. Lab. Med. 32, 251 (1941).Google Scholar
  155. Fetterman, J. L., and W. H. Pritchard: Cerebral complications following ligation of the carotid artery. J. Amer. med. Ass. 112, 1317 (1939).Google Scholar
  156. Fierro, J., u. O. Marin: Hibernation en neurochirurgie. Arch. Soc. Civ. Ch. 5, 635 (1953).Google Scholar
  157. Fincher, W. J.: An aneurysm of internal carotid artery treated surgically. Yale J. Biol. Med. 11, 423 (1939).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Finkemeyer, H.: Ein säckchenförmiges Aneurysma der A. cer. media als postoperative Komplikation. Zbl. Neurochir. 15, 302 (1955).Google Scholar
  159. Fisher, M., u. R. D. Adams: 1951: Zit. bei Adams u. Van der Elcken 1953.Google Scholar
  160. Fletcher, T. M., J. M. Taveras, and J. L. Pool: Cerebral vasospasm in angiography for intra-cranial aneurysms. Amer. med. Ass. Arch. Neurol. 1, 38 (1959).Google Scholar
  161. Foerster, O.: Aneurysma der A. car. int. Berl. klin. Wschr. 58, 1057 (1921).Google Scholar
  162. Foix, Ch.: Syndrome de la parvi externe sinus caverneux. Bull. Soc. méd. Hôp. Paris 34, 1355 (1920).Google Scholar
  163. Forbus, W. D.: Über den Ursprung gewisser Aneurysmen der basalen Hirnarterien. Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat. 44, 243 (1928/29).Google Scholar
  164. —: On the origin of miliary aneurysms of the superficial cerebral arteries. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 47, 239 (1930).Google Scholar
  165. Forster, F. M., and B. J. Alpers: Aneurysms of the circle of Willis associated with congenital polycystic discase of kidneys. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 50, 669 (1943).Google Scholar
  166. Frankel, K.: Relation of migraine to cerebral aneurysm. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 63, 195 (1950).Google Scholar
  167. —, and B. J. Alpers: The clinical syndrome of aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 74, 46 (1955).Google Scholar
  168. Frantzens, E., and N. J. Krenckel: The prognosis of intra cranial sacculated aneurysms. A follow-up investigation. Nord. Med. 51, 130 (1954).Google Scholar
  169. French, L. A., and P. S. Blake: Subarachnoid hemorrhages and intracranial aneurysms. Staff. Meet. Bull. Hosp. Univ. Minn. 21, 279 (1950).Google Scholar
  170. Subarachnoid haemorrhages and intracranial aneurysms. Lancet 1950, 70, 459.Google Scholar
  171. —, and G. L. Haines: Unilateral vertebral-artery ligation. J. Neurosurg. 7, 156 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Frowein, R.: Zentrale Atemstörungen bei Schädel-Hirn-Verletzungen und Hirntumoren. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1963.Google Scholar
  173. Frugoni, P., et R. Ruberti: Considerations sur le traitement chirurgical des anéurysmes sacculaires intracrâniens de la carotide interne et de ses branches. Neuro-chirurgie 3, 241–252 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Furtado, D.: Anéurysme de la carotide interne. Rev. neurol. 69, 523 (1938).Google Scholar
  175. Galbraith, J. G.: Intracranial aneurysm considerations in surgical management. Sth. Surg. 13, 139 (1947).Google Scholar
  176. Gallagher, J. P.: Obliteration of intracranial aneurysms by pilojection. J. Amer. med. Ass. 183, 231 (1963).Google Scholar
  177. —, and Y. L. Yamamoto: Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm following arteriography: case report. Bull. Georgetown Univ. med. Cent. 9, 97 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. — et al.: Large intracranial aneurysm producing panhypopituitarism and frontal lobe syndrome. Neurology (Minneap.) 6, 829 (1956).Google Scholar
  179. Gardner, E., and S. W. Hardwick: Dissecting aneurysms of aorta associated with intracranial aneurysm and cerebral haemorrhage. J. Path. Bact. 58, 289 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Gardner, W. J.: Cerebral angiomas and aneurysms. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. 16, 1019 (1936).Google Scholar
  181. —: The control of bleeding during operation by induced hypotension. J. Amer. med. Ass. 132, 572 (1946).Google Scholar
  182. Gehuchten, P. van, J. Morelle et A. Dereymaeker: A propos du traitement des aneurysmes intracrâniens. Acta neurol. belg. 51, 357 (1951).Google Scholar
  183. German, W. J.: Intracranial aneurysm: a surgical problem. Zbl. Neurochir. 3, 352–354 (1338).Google Scholar
  184. Gibbs, J. R.: On the advantages of opening certain intracranial aneurysms. J. Nenrol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 20, 165 (1957).Google Scholar
  185. Gillingham, F. J.: The management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Ann. Coll. Surg. 23, 89 (1958).Google Scholar
  186. Globus, J. H., and J. M. Schwab: Intracranial aneurysms, their origin and clinical behavior in series of verified cases. J. Mt Sinai Hosp. 8, 547 (1942).Google Scholar
  187. Glynn, L. E.: Medial defects in the circle of Willis and their relation to aneurysm formation. J. Path. Bact. 51, 213 (1940).Google Scholar
  188. Goddé-Jolly, D.: A propos des aneurismes arteriels intracraniens de la carotide interne et de ses branches. Ann. ocul. 188, 27 (1955).Google Scholar
  189. Golden, J., G. L. Odom, and B. Woodhall: Subdural hematoma following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 69, 486 (1953).Google Scholar
  190. Gowers, W. R.: A manual of diseases of the nervous system, vol. 2. London: Churchill.Google Scholar
  191. Graf, C. J.: Results of direct attack on nonfistolous intracranial aneurysm with remarks on statistics. J. Neurosurg. 12, 146 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. —: The modern treatment of ruptured nonfistulous intracranial aneurysm. N. Y. St. J. Med. 56, 3132 (1956).Google Scholar
  193. —: Surgical treatment of angiographically localized intracranial aneurysms, a follow-up report. Neurology (Minneap.) 6, 686 (1956).Google Scholar
  194. Griesinger, F.: Das Aneurysma der Art. basilaris. Arch. Heilkd. 3, 554 (1862).Google Scholar
  195. Griffiths, C. A.: Haemorrhage from a large vessel in or about the base of the skull: Interval ligature of both carotids. Brit. J. Surg. 3, 134 (1948).Google Scholar
  196. Groch, S. N., G. P. Sayre, and F. J. Heck: Cerebral hemorrhage in leukemia. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 2, 439 (1960).Google Scholar
  197. Groff, R. A.: Experiences with direct surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 72, 782 (1954).Google Scholar
  198. Gros, C., B. Vlahovitch et B. Anteroche: Reflexions sur une série de 46 anéurysmes supra-clinoidieus rompus. Evacuation du traitment chirurgical. Neuro-chirurgie 3, 253 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. —: Anéurysmes de l’artère cérébrale antérieure, problèmes thérapeutiques. Rev. neurol. 87, 624 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. —, et B. Vlahovitch: Hypothermie et ischémie encéphalique dans la chirurgie des anéurysmes. Intern. Congr. of Neurosurg., Brüssel 1957.Google Scholar
  201. Gross, S. W., and A. Holzman: Aneurysm of common carotid artery in the neck following partial ligation for an intracranial aneurysm. J. Neurosurg. 11, 209 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Grote, W., u. W. Bettag: Multiple Hirnaneurysmen. Zbl. Neurochir. 17, 151 (1957).Google Scholar
  203. Guldetti, B.: 16 trattamento chirurgico degli aneurisimi delia communicante anteriore. Minerva neurochir. 2, 4 (1958).Google Scholar
  204. Guillain, G., P. Schmite et I. Bertrand: Aneurysme du trône basillaire ayant determine la Symptomatologie d’une tumeur de l’angle ponto-cérébelleux. Rev. neurol. 1, 795 (1930).Google Scholar
  205. Gull, W.: Cases of aneurysms of the cerebral vessels. Guy’s Hosp. Rep. III, 55, 281 (1859).Google Scholar
  206. Gurdjian, E. S., and J. E. Webster: Blood chemistry studies in bilateral ligation of anterior cerebral arteries. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 73, 309 (1955).Google Scholar
  207. Guthkelch, A. N.: Large saccular aneurysm of the intracranial parth of the vertebral artery. Brit. J. Surg. 37, 107 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Haike, H., u. F. H. Lewy: Aneurysma der Art. cerebelli inf. post. Mschr. Psychiat. Neurol. 35, 26 (1914).Google Scholar
  209. Hamby, W. B.: Intracranial aneurysms of the internal carotid artery and its branches. J. int. Coll. Surg. 5, 216 (1942).Google Scholar
  210. —: Gross intracerebral hematomas report of 16 surgically treated cases. N. Y. St. J. Med. 45, 866 (1945).Google Scholar
  211. —: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage of aneurysmal origin factors influencing prognosis. J. Amer. med. Ass. Bull. 136, 522 (1948).Google Scholar
  212. —: Intracranial aneurysms — a general survey. Practitioner 162, 313 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. —: The modern treatment of intracranial aneurysms. N. Y. St. J. Med. 52, 2497 (1952).Google Scholar
  214. —: Intracranial aneurysms, Thomas. Springfield, Illinois 1952.Google Scholar
  215. —: The aneurysmal origin of non fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Neurosurg. 10, 35 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. —: The treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. 34, 1063 (1954).Google Scholar
  217. —: The surgical management of intracranial aneurysms. Acta neurol. (Napoli) 2, 341 (1956).Google Scholar
  218. Hamilton, J. G., and M. A. Falconer: Immediate and late results of surgery in cases of saccular intracranial aneurysms. J. Neurosurg. 16, 514 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Hardy, W. G., L. M. Thomas, J. E. Webster, and E. S. Gurdjian: Carotid ligation for intracranial aneurysm. J. Neurosurg. 15, 281 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Harris, P., and G. Udvarhelyi: Aneurysms arising at the internal carotid-posterior communicating artery junction. J. Neurosurg. 14, 180 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Hassler, O.: Morphologicall studies on the large cerebral arteries with reference to the aetiology of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta psychiat. scand. 36, Suppl. 154 (1961).Google Scholar
  222. Heer, S. T. P.: Aneurysms of cerebral arteries. Ned. T. Geneesk. 92, 3699 (1948).Google Scholar
  223. Heiskanen, O., and P. Nikki: Large intracranial aneurysms. Acta neurol. scand. 38, 195 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Helpern, M., and S. M. Rabson: Sudden and unexpected natural death in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Amer. J. med. Sci. 220, 262 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Henderson, J. W.: Aneurysm and ocular findings. Trans. Amer. ophthal. Soc. 53, 349 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Henschen, F.: Tumoren des Zentralnervensystems und seiner Hüllen. In: O. Lubarsch, et al. (Hrsg.), Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, Bd. 13, Teil 3, S. 524. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1955.Google Scholar
  227. Heppner, F.: Über Gefahren und Komplikationen der cerebralen Angiographie. Zbl. Neurochir. 11, 89 (1951).Google Scholar
  228. Hermann, K., and A. R. MacGregor: Cerebral hemorrhage from rupture of a congenital intracerebral aneurysm in a child. Brit. med. J. 1940 I, 523.Google Scholar
  229. Herman, K., S Obrador, and N. M. Dott: Intracranial aneurysms and allied clinical syndromes. Lisboa méd. 14, 782 (1937).Google Scholar
  230. Heyman, A., G. T. Tindall, W. Finney, and B. Woodhall: Measurement of retinal artery and intracarotid pressures, following carotid artery occlusion with the Crutchfield clamp. J. Neurosurg. 17, 297 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Hill, F. R.: Two cases of leaking congenital intracranial aneurisms, ligatur of internal carotid artery. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 31, 215 (1938).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Hiller, F.: Das Aneurysma der Hirnarterien unter Berücksichtigung der arteriovenösen Aneurysmen und venösen Anomalien. In: Handbuch der Neurologie v. Bumke u. Foerster, Bd. 11, S. 431. Die Zirkulationsstörungen des Rückenmarks und Gehirns. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1936.Google Scholar
  233. Hirkô, G.: Zwei Fälle der Arterienvarietäten. [Japanisch.] Tokyo-Igakkwai-Zasski 23, 280 (1919).Google Scholar
  234. Hodes, P. J., C. R. Perryman, and R. H. Chamberlain: Cerebral angiography. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 58, 153 (1931).Google Scholar
  235. — F. Campoy, H. E. Riggs, and P. Bly: Cerebral angiography. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 70, 61 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Höök, O.: The prognosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial arteriovenous aneurysms compared with that in subarachnoidal hemorrhage of other origin. Intern. Congr. of Neurosurg, Brüssel 1957.Google Scholar
  237. —: Subarachnoid haemorrhage prognosis, when angiography reveals no aneurysm a report of 138 cases. Acta med. scand. 162, 493 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. —: Prognosis in subarachnoid haemorrhage. A report of 152 acute cases. Acta med. scand. 162, 493 (1958).Google Scholar
  239. —, and G. Norlen: Aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery, a report of 80 cases. Acta chir. scand. Suppl., 235 (1958).Google Scholar
  240. Hughes, B.: The treatment of intracranial arterial aneurysm. Med. Press 231, 181 (1954).Google Scholar
  241. Hunter, C. R., and F. H. Mayfield: The oblique view in cerebral angiography. J. Neurosurg. 12, 79 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Hyland, H. H.: Prognosis in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Arch. Neurol. (chic.) 63, 61 (1950).Google Scholar
  243. —, and H. J. M. Barnett: The pathogenesis of cranial nerves palsies associated with intracranial aneurysms. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 47, 141 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Ingraham, F. D., and C. A. Cobb jr.: Cerebral angiography: A technic using dilute diodrast. J. Neurosurg. 4, 422 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Irish, C. W.: Aneurysms of the cerebral vessels with a study of 32 cases found at 12503 consecutive necropsies. Ann. Arbor 1940.Google Scholar
  246. Jackson, J. R., G. T. Tindall, and B. S. Nashold jr.: Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm during carotid angiography. A case report. J. Neurosurg. 17, 333–337 (1960).Google Scholar
  247. Jacobson, S. A.: Analysis of some factors in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Neurosurg. 72, 712 (1954).Google Scholar
  248. Jacques, L.: Aneurysm and anomaly of the circle of Willis. Arch. Path. Lab. Med. 1, 213 (1926).Google Scholar
  249. Jaeger, R.: Aneurysms of the post. communicating artery: report of five cases with operation. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 62, 368 (1949).Google Scholar
  250. —: Aneurysm of the interval carotid artery. Syndrome of frontal headache with oculomotor nerve paralysis. J. Amer. med. Ass. 142, 304 (1950).Google Scholar
  251. Jakobi, J.: Zur Diagnose perforierter Gehirnaneurysmen. Med. Klin. 1930, 1130.Google Scholar
  252. Jamieson, K. G.: Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm during cerebral angiography. J. Neurosurg. 11, 625 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Jefferson: Cit. by Norlen. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 45, 300 (1952).Google Scholar
  254. Jefferson, G.: Compression of the chiasm, optic nerves and optic tracts by intracranial aneurysms. Brain 60, 444 (1937).Google Scholar
  255. —: On the saccular aneurysms of the internal carotid artery in the cavernosus sinus. Brit. J. Surg. 26, 267 (1938/39).Google Scholar
  256. —: Isolated oculomotor palsy caused by intracranial aneurysm. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 40, 419 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. —: Les hémorragies sous-arachnoidiennes par angiomes et aneurysmes chez le jeune. Rev. neurol. 80, 413 (1948).Google Scholar
  258. — Further concerning compression of the optic pathways by intracranial aneurysms in clinical neurosurgery. Proceedings of the Congr. of Neurol. Surgeons, Bd. 1. Baltimore 1955.Google Scholar
  259. Jenkinson, E. L., O Sugar, and H. Love: Rupture of an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery during cerebral angiography. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 71, 958 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Johnson, H. C.: Cervical intracarotid pressure studies; their significance in the management of intracranial aneurysms. Surgery 33, 537 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Johnson, R.: Zit. bei Norlen, Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 45, 291 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Johnson, R. T., J. M. Potter, and R. G. Reid: Arterial spasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage mechanical considerations. J. Neurol. London 21, 68 (1958).Google Scholar
  263. Kahlau, G.: Über die traumatische Entstehung von Aneurysmen der Hirnbasisarterien. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 51, 319 (1938).Google Scholar
  264. Kaplan, A. D., and A. E. Walker: Complications of cerebral angiography. Neurology (Minneap.) 4, 643 (1954).Google Scholar
  265. Kautzky, R., u. K. J. Zülch: Röntgendiagnostik intrakranieller Erkrankungen. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1955.Google Scholar
  266. Keen, W.: Intracranial lesions. Med. News (N. Y.) 57, 443 (1890).Google Scholar
  267. Ketelaer, C. J.: Sur la semiologie et l’evolution d’aneurysmes intracraniens chez des syphilitiques. Acta neurol. belg. 51, 362 (1951).Google Scholar
  268. Killian, H.: Das extracranielle Vertebralisaneurysma. Langenbecks Arch. klin. Chir. 263, 437 (1950).Google Scholar
  269. Kimbell, F. D., R. L. Llewellyn, and H. D. Kirgis: Surgical treatment of ruptured aneurysm with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 16 month old infance. J. Neurosurg. 17, 331 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. King, A. B.: Succesful surgical treatment of an intracranial mycotic aneurysm complicated by a subdural hematoma. J. Neurosurg. 17, 788 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. King, G., H. W. Släde, and F. Campoy: Bilateral intracranial aneurysms. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 71, 326 (1954).Google Scholar
  272. Kirby, D. B.: Aneurysm of the intracranial portion of the internal carotid artery. Amer. J. Ophthal. 7, 557 (1924).Google Scholar
  273. Kirgis, H. D., and D. H. Echols: Management of intracranial arterial aneurysms. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. 1003 (1953).Google Scholar
  274. Klemme, R. M., and D. D. Woolsey: Suprasellar aneurysm. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 47, 632 (1942).Google Scholar
  275. Klingler, M., E. Stricker u. W. Hunzinger: Kreislaufwirkungen angiographischer Kontrastmittel am Tier und Menschen. Zbl. Neurochir. 16, 57 (1956).Google Scholar
  276. Koch, V. W., and T. O. Nuzum: Mycotic aneurysm; report of one case. Ann. intern. Med. 14, 522 (1940).Google Scholar
  277. Köhler, W.: Die Ursache und Prognose der spontanen Subarachnoidalblutungen. Inaug.-Diss. Köln 1953.Google Scholar
  278. Krauland, W.: Verletzungen der A. car. int. im Sinus cavernosus und Verletzungen der großen Hirnschlagadern mit Berücksichtigung der Aneurysmenbildung. In: Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie, Bd. 13, Teil 3. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1955.Google Scholar
  279. Kraus, H.: Gefäßmißbildungen und Gefäßgeschwülste des Gehirnes und ihre operative Behandlung. Wien. Arch. Psychol. Psychiat. Neurol. 1, 175 (1951).Google Scholar
  280. —: Ein besonders großes intrakr. Aneurysma der A. car. int. Wien. Z. Nervenheilk. 5, 23 (1952).Google Scholar
  281. Krayenbühl, H.: Das Hirnaneurysma. Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 47, 155 (1941).Google Scholar
  282. —: Gefäßgeschwülste und Gefäßmißbildungen des Gehirns. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 71, 1567 (1941).Google Scholar
  283. —: Spätresultate der Carotisligatur bei intracraniellen Aneurysmen. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 76, 908 (1946).Google Scholar
  284. —: Neurochirurgische Diagnostik und Therapie der Hemiplegie, ein Beitrag zur Indikationsstellung der cerebralen Angiographie. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 75, 1177 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. — L’anéurysme de l’àrtere communicante antérieure. Paris: Masson & Cie. 1959.Google Scholar
  286. — u. F. Lüthy: Hydrocephalus als Spätfolge geplatzter basaler Hirnaneurysmen. Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 61, 7 (1948).Google Scholar
  287. —, u. H. Richter: Die zerebrale Angiographie. Stuttgart 1952.Google Scholar
  288. —, u. M. G. Yasargil: Die vasculären Erkrankungen im Gebiet der A. vertebralis und A. basialis. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme 1957.Google Scholar
  289. —— Das Hirnaneurysma. Documenta Geigy, Basel, Series chir. 4 (1958).Google Scholar
  290. Krieger, F. H.: Das Schicksal der spontanen subarachnoidalen Blutungen. Inaug.-Diss. Heidelberg 1939.Google Scholar
  291. Ladam, P., et C. Monakow: Anéurysme de l’artère vertébrale gauche. Nouv. iconogr. Salpetrière 13, 1 (1900).Google Scholar
  292. Laine, E., D. Soots et M. Delandtsheer: Chirurgie des anéurysmes intracraniens, à propos d’une série de dix-huit observations. Lille chir. 6, 101 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. — Traitement chirurgical des anéurysmes de l’artère communicante antériéure. In: Krayenbühl 1959.Google Scholar
  294. — P. Galibert, J. M. Delandtsheer et P. Pruvot: Neuro-chirurgie 3, 315 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Laitinen, L., and A. Snellman: Aneurysms of the pericallosal artery, a study of 14 cases verified angiographically and treated mainly by direct surgical attack. J. Neurosurg. 17, 447 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Lazorthes, G.: Les hemorragies intracraniennes, traumatiques spontaneés et du premier âge. Paris 1952.Google Scholar
  297. — L’hémorragie cérébrale vue par le neurochirurgien. Paris: Masson & Cie. 1956.Google Scholar
  298. — Étude anatomo-topographique de l’artère cerebrale antérieure et de l’artère communicante antérieure. In: Krayenbühl 1959.Google Scholar
  299. Lazorthes, G., J. Gaubert et J. Poulhes: La distribution centrale et corticale de l’artère cérébrale antérieure; étude anatomique et incidences neurochirurgicales. Neuro-chirurgie 2, 237 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Lefort, C.: Carotide. Dict. encyclop. des scien. med. Paris 12, 621 (1871).Google Scholar
  301. Lemmen, L. J., and R. G. Schneider: A neurysm in the third ventricle. Neurology 3, 474 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Lende, R. A.: Local spasm in cerebral arteries. J. Neurosurg. 17, 90 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Lepoire, J., et B. Coxam: Les aneurysmes de la communicante antérieure. Aspects anatomiques. Modalités opératoires Soc. Neuro-Chirurgie de Langue française. 1958.Google Scholar
  304. Levin, P. M.: Intracranial aneurysms. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 67, 771 (1952).Google Scholar
  305. Levy, L. F.: Subarachnoid haemorrhage without arteriographie vascular abnormality. J. Neurosurg. 17, 252 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Ley, E.: Successful treatment of an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. J. Neurosurg. 13, 294 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Lindgren, E.: Some aspects on the technique of tumors in the posterior fossa. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 34, 331 (1950).Google Scholar
  308. —: Percutaneous angiography of the vertebral artery. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 33, 389 (1950).Google Scholar
  309. List, C. F.: Diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Chicago Neurolog. Soc. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 68, 842 (1952).Google Scholar
  310. —, and F. J. Hodges: Intracranial angiography I. The diagnosis of vascular lesions. J. Neurosurg. 3, 25 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Locke jr., C. E.: Internal carotid arteriovenous aneurysms, or pulsating exophthalmus. Ann. Surg. 80, 1 (1924).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Lodge, S. D., G. F. Walker, and M. J. Stewart: Aneurysm of left internal carotid artery simulating pituitary tumor. Brit. med. J. 1927 II, 1179.Google Scholar
  313. LÖfstedt, S.: Intracranial arterial aneurysms; preliminary report. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 34, 339 (1950).Google Scholar
  314. —: Subarachnoidal blödningarnas etiologi. Nord. Med. 47, 327 (1952).Google Scholar
  315. Logue, V.: Saccular aneurysms of the internal carotid artery in the cavernosus sinus occuring bilaterally. Brit. J. Surg. 39, 181 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. — Surgery in spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage. Brit. med. J. 1956 1, 473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. —: The surgical treatment of aneurysms in the posterior fossa. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 21, 66 (1958).Google Scholar
  318. — Traitement chirurgical des anéurysmes des artères communicante et cérébrale antérireures pendant la phase aiguë. In: Krayenbühl 1959.Google Scholar
  319. —, and G. Monckton: Posterior fossa angiomas, a clinical presentation of nine cases. Brain 77, 252 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Lougheed, W. M., H. W. Sweet, J. C. White and W. R. Brewster: The use of hypothermia in surgical treatment of cerebral vascular lesions. J. Neurosurg. 12, 240 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Lundberg, N., K Nielsen, and E. Nilsson: Deep hypothermia intracranial surgery. J. Neurosurg. 12, 235 (1956).Google Scholar
  322. Lyall, A.: Large aneurysm of circle of Willis with spontaneous cure by thrombosis. Brit. med. J. 1936 II, 282.Google Scholar
  323. Lyons, I. P.: Adiposity and lipomatosis considered in reference to their constitutional relations and Symptomatologie. Arch. intern. Med. 6, 28 (1910).Google Scholar
  324. Maass, U.: Die Syphilis als häufigste Ursache der Aneurysmen an der Gehirnbasis. Beitr. path. Anat. 98, 307 (1937).Google Scholar
  325. MacCarthy, C. S., and T. S. Cooper: Neurologic and metabolic effects of bilateral ligation of the anterior cerebral arteries in man. Proc. Mayo Clin. 26, 185 (1951).Google Scholar
  326. Maccas, M.: Un procédé opératoire simple pour le traitement de l’anéurysme de l’artère vertébrale. Presse méd. 59, 314 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Madow, L., and B. J. Alpers: Aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 70, 722 (1953).Google Scholar
  328. Magee, C. G.: Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage. A review of 150 cases. Lancet 1943 2, 497.Google Scholar
  329. Magladery, J. W.: On subarachnoid bleeding in an appraisal of treatment. J. Neurosurg. 12, 437 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Magnus, V.: Aneurysm of the internal carotid artery. J. Amer. med. Ass. 88, 1712 (1927).Google Scholar
  331. Majersky-Santa, K., u. I. Kiss: Beiträge zur Klinik und pathologischen Anatomie der Aneurysmen der basalen Gehirnarterien. Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat. 176, 51 (1943).Google Scholar
  332. Manghi, E., M. Sanginario, R. Rosselli e F. Boeri: Yariazioni anatomiche ed emodynamiche nella porzione anteriore del poligono di Willis. Studio angiografica in diverse condizioni cliniche. Riv. Neuropsichiat. 3, 356 (1957).Google Scholar
  333. Margolis, G., G. L. Odom, B. Woodhall, and B. M. Bloor: The role of small angiomatous malformations in the production of intracerebral hematomas. J. Neurosurg. 8, 564 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Marguth, F., u. W. Schiefer: Spontanteilung eines intracraniellen Aneurysmas angiographisch nachgewiesen. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 5, 38 (1956).Google Scholar
  335. Markwalder, H.: Die sackförmigen Aneurysmen der basalen Hirnarterien. Ther. Umsch. 69 (1957).Google Scholar
  336. Martland, H. S.: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and congenital “Berry” aneurysms of the circle Willis. J. Surg. 43, 10 (1939).Google Scholar
  337. Maspes, P. E., e G. Kluzer: Cinque casi di aneurismi arteriovenosi cerebrali trattati con legatura delia carotide. Minerva chir. 6, 311 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. —, and G. Marini: Intracranial arterial spasm related to supraclinoid ruptured aneurysms. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 10, 630 (1962).Google Scholar
  339. Matas, R.: Aneurysms of the Circle Willisi. Ann. Surg. 107, 660 (1938).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Matson, D. D., and B. Woodhall: Intracranial and cervical trap ligation of the carotid artery complicated by blindness of the homolateral eye. J. Neurosurg. 5, 567 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Maus, H., u. S. J. Loennecken: Cerebrale Angiographie und Narkose. Fortschr. Neurol. Psychiat. 30, 155 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. McCaughey, W. T. E.: Ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Ulster med. J. 25, 111 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. McConnell, A. A.: Subchiasmal aneurysm treated by implantation of muscle. Zbl. Neurochir. 2, 298 (1937).Google Scholar
  344. McDonald, C. A., and M. Korb: Intracranial aneurysms. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Lond.) 42, 298 (1939).Google Scholar
  345. McKendree, C. A., and L. J. Doskay: Visual disturbances of obscure etiology produced by focal intracranial lesions. Implicating the optic nerve. Bull. neurol. Inst. N. Y. 5, 223 (1936).Google Scholar
  346. McKissock, W., K. W. E. Paine, and L. S. Walsh: The value of hypothermia in the surgical treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. J. Neurosurg. 17, 700 (1960).Google Scholar
  347. —, K. W. E. Paine, and L. S. Walsh: An analysis of the results of treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms, report of 772 consecutive cases. J. Neurosurg. 17, 762 (1960).Google Scholar
  348. —, A. Richardson, and L. S. Walsh: Posterior communicating aneurysms. A controlled trial of the conservative and surgical treatment of ruptured aneurysms of the internal carotid artery at or near the point of origin of the posterior communicating artery. Lancet 1960 I, 1203.Google Scholar
  349. —, and L. S. Walsh: Subarachnoid haemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysms. Brit. med. J. 1956 II, 559.Google Scholar
  350. Meadows, S. P.: Calcified aneurysm of left internal carotid artery with proptosis and optic atrophy. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 41, 95 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. —: Aneurysms of internal carotid artery. Trans. ophtal. Soc. U. K. 69, 137 (1950).Google Scholar
  352. Melot, G. J., R. Potvliege, J. Brihaye et P. Martin: Les anéurysmes intracraniens. J. belge Radiol. 42, 135 (1959).Google Scholar
  353. Merritt, H. H.: Diagnosis and treatment of vascular lesions in brain. Med. Clin. N. Amer. 22, 577 (1938).Google Scholar
  354. — Textbook of neurology. London: Kimpton 1955.Google Scholar
  355. Mifka, P., u. H. Reisner: Ein Fall mit drei intracraniellen Aneurysmen. Wien. med. Wschr. 103, 151 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Milletti, M.: Contributo alla conoscenza degli aneurismi multipli dei vasi cerebrali. Riv. oto-neuro-oftal. 21, 141 (1946).Google Scholar
  357. —: Gli aneurismi dei vasi cerebrali. Diagnostica clinica e therapia chirurgica. Arch. Neurochir. (Firenze) 1, 433 (1953).Google Scholar
  358. Mitchell, N., and A. Angrist: Intracranial aneurysms: a report of 36 cases. Ann. intern. Med. 19, 909 (1943).Google Scholar
  359. Mitterwallner, F. v.: Variationsstatistische Untersuchungen an den basalen Hirngefäßen. Acta anat. (Basel) 24, 51 (1955).Google Scholar
  360. Molina, G.: Aneurisme de la ant. cerebellosa antero inferior. Rev. Neurol. Psiquiat. 14, 528 (1951).Google Scholar
  361. Moniz, E.: Die cerebrale Arteriographie und Phlebographie. Ergänzungsserie II. In: Handbuch der Neurologie (Bumke-Foerster) 1940.Google Scholar
  362. Moore, M. T., and A. A. Bockman: Ruptured aneurysm of left anterior cerebral artery with production of ipsilateral cerebral signs. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 46, 1057 (1941).Google Scholar
  363. Morel, F., et E. Wildi: Examen anatomique du polygone de Willis et de ses anomalies. Etude statistique, Bd. 2. Ve Congr. Neurologique Internat. Lissabon 1953.Google Scholar
  364. Moritz, A. R., and N. Zamcheck: Sudden and unexpected deaths of young soldiers: diseases responsible for such death in World War II. Arch. Path. Lab. Med. 42, 459 (1946).Google Scholar
  365. Mount, L. A.: Treatment of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Amer. med. Ass. 146, 693 (1951).Google Scholar
  366. —, and J. M. Taveras: The results of surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms as demonstrated by progress arteriography. J. Neurosurg. 13, 618 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Mourgues, G.: Aneurysmen der A. basialis als extracerebrale Pseudotumoren. Ärztl. Wschr. 9, 417 (1954).Google Scholar
  368. Murphy, F.: The results of simple ligation of the carotid artery in the neck for intracranial aneurysms of the internal carotid circulation. Amer. Acad. Neurol. Surg. Rochester 1950.Google Scholar
  369. — The results of simple ligation of the carotid artery in the neck for intracranial aneurysms of the internal carotid circulation. Zit. bei Hamby 1952Google Scholar
  370. Murphy, J. P.: Cerebro-vascular disease. Chicago 1955.Google Scholar
  371. Namin, P.: L’angiographie vertébrale. Paris 1956.Google Scholar
  372. Nevin, S., and D. Williams: The pathogenesis of multiple aneurysms. Lancet 1937 II, 955.Google Scholar
  373. Niedermeyer, E.: Zur Klinik und Pathogenese der Subarachnoidalblutungen. Nervenarzt 21, 151 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Nonne, M.: Präparat eines walnußgroßen Aneurysma der A. basilaris. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 1927 I, 132.Google Scholar
  375. Norlen, G.: The pathology, diagnosis and treatment of intracranial saccular aneurysms. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 45, 291 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. —: Klinik und chirurgische Behandlung der sackförmigen Hirnaneurysmen. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 170, 495 (1953).Google Scholar
  377. —, u. A. Barnum: Surgical treatment of aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. J. Neurosurg. 10, 634 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. —, u. H. Olivecrona: The treatment of aneurysms of the circle of Willis. J. Neurosurg. 10, 404 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. —, and S. N. Palsy: Aneurysms of the vertebral artery. J. Neurosurg. (Springfield) 17, 830 (1960).Google Scholar
  380. Odessky, L., and D. E. Fader: Large aneurysm in the anterior cranial fossa: successful removal with recovery. Ann. intern. Med. 38, 1048 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Odom, G. L., B. M. Bloor, J. B. Golden, and B. Woodhall: Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (etiology and mortality). N. C. med. J. 13, 624 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. —— and B. Woodhall: Intracerebral hematomas: a survey of 106 verified cases. Sth. med. J. (Nashville) 45, 936 (1952).Google Scholar
  383. Offret, G., et M. Massin: Réflexions sur évolutions des anéurysmes intracrâniennes ayant des relations avec l’appareil visuel. Soc. trans. Ophthal. 67, 241 (1954).Google Scholar
  384. Ohler, W. R., and D. Hurwitz: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Amer. med. Ass. 98, 1856 (1932).Google Scholar
  385. Olivecrona, H.: Ligature of the carotid artery in intracranial aneurysms. Acta chir. scand. 91, 353 (1944).Google Scholar
  386. Ortmann, K. K.: Intrakranielles Aneurysma bei einem 6jährigen Mädchen. Dtsch. Z. ges. gerichtl. Med. 18, 604 (1931).Google Scholar
  387. Oscherwitz, D., and L. M. Davidoff: Midline calcified intracranial aneurysm between occipital lobes, report of case. J. Neurosurg. 4, 539 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Osler, W.: The principles and practice of medicine, 7th ed., p. 982. London: Appleton 1909.Google Scholar
  389. Ostow, M., and S. Bermann: Aneurysms of anterior portion of circle of Willis causing cerebral hemorrhage. J. Mt Sinai Hosp. 14, 918 (1948).Google Scholar
  390. Packer, H. L.: Aneurysms of cerebral vessels. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 16, 728 (1926).Google Scholar
  391. Packinson, D.: The problem of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage with proven aneurysms. J. Neurosurg. 12, 565–569 (1955).Google Scholar
  392. Padget, D. H.: The circle of Willis its embryology an anatomy. In: Daudy, Intracranial arterial aneurysms. Ithaca (N. Y.): Comstock Publ. Co. 1944.Google Scholar
  393. Paillas, J. E., et al.: Les anéurysmes intracraniens multiples. Neuro-chirurgie 2, 271 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Pampiglione, G.: Aneurismi intracranii multipli. Riv. Neurol. 19, 42 (1949).Google Scholar
  395. Peet, M., M Isberg, and R. C. Bassett: Hypertension complicated by spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Amer. J. Surg. 78, 912 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Penzholz, H.: Zur Frage der doppelseitigen Unterbindung der A. carotis bei doppelseitigen intra-craniellen Aneurysmen. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 3, 306 (1954).Google Scholar
  397. Perese, D. M., W. C. Kite, A. J. Bedell, and E. Campbell: Complications following cerebral angiography. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 71, 105 (1954).Google Scholar
  398. Perret, L. V., and J. W. Bull: Some aspects of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Brit. J. Radiol. 32, 85 (1959).Google Scholar
  399. Perthes, G.: Über die Ursache der Hirnstörungen nach Karotisunterbindung und über Arterienunterbindung ohne Schädigung der Intima. Langenbecks Arch. klin. Chir. 114, 403 (1920).Google Scholar
  400. Pertuiset, B.: Indications thérapeutiques dans les hémorragies cérébrales spontanées. Hôpital (Paris) 41, 161 (1953).Google Scholar
  401. Peter, S., and M. Sercl: Surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Rozhl. Chir. 32, 126 (1953).Google Scholar
  402. Peters, C.: Spezielle Pathologie der Krankheiten des zentralen und peripheren Nervensystems. Stuttgart 1951.Google Scholar
  403. Petit-Dutaillis, D.: L’hypotension contrôlée dans l’opération des angiomes sus-tentoriels. Ier Congrès Internat. de Neurochirurgie Brüssel 1957.Google Scholar
  404. — E. Boltanski et F. Thiébaut: Hémorragie méningée et troubles bulbo tubérantielliés à une malform de l’artère vertébrale G. attestée par une arteriogr. vertébrale. Rev. neurol. 81, 128 (1949).Google Scholar
  405. — L. Guillaumat et J. Rougerie: Syndrome de compression du nerf optique droit; dé couverte operatoire d’un aneurisme de l’artere ophthalmique, traitement par la methode du trapping. Neuro-chirurgie 3, 22 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. —, et G. Guiot: Indications et résultats du traitement chirurgical des anéurismes circoides et des anéurismes artério-veineux carotidiens intracraniens. Presse méd. 61, 1719 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. Petit-Dutaillis, D., and H. W. Pittmann: Aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery report of seven operated cases, review of literature, evaluation of surgical therapy. J. Neurosurg. 12, 1 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Pia, H. W.: Die Diagnose und Therapie der angeborenen und erworbenen Erkrankungen der Hirngefäße. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 1956, 1405.Google Scholar
  409. —: Neue Wege in der Behandlung der cerebralen Aneurysmen. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 184, 459 (1963).Google Scholar
  410. Pickering, G. W.: Vascular spasm. Lancet 1951 II, 845.Google Scholar
  411. Pilcher, C.: Vascular anomalies of brain. In surgical treatment of the nervous system. Bancroft and Pilcher. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 1946.Google Scholar
  412. —, and C. Thuss: Cerebral blood flow III. Cerebral reflects of occlusion of the common or internal carotid arteries. Arch. Surg. 29, 1024 (1934).Google Scholar
  413. Pilz, C.: Zur Ligatur der A. carotis com. nebst einer Statistik dieser Operation. Langenbecks Arch. klin. Chir. 9, 257 (1868).Google Scholar
  414. Pitt, G. N.: Some cerebral lesions. Brit. med. J. 1890 I, 827.Google Scholar
  415. Pluvinage, R.: Malformations et tumeurs vasculaires cérébrales. Thèse Paris 1945.Google Scholar
  416. —: Étude anatomique des anéurysmes cerebraux. Sem. Hôp. Paris 25, 2671 (1949).Google Scholar
  417. Pompeu, F.: Angiographie des Gehirns und spontane subarachnoidale Blutung. Rev. bras. Cirurg. 18, 1017 (1949).Google Scholar
  418. Pool, J. L.: Cerebral vasospasm. New. Engl. J. Med. 259, 1259 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. —: Early treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms of the circle of Willis with special clip technique. Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 35, 357 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. —: Tinning and technique in the intracranial surgery of ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. J. Neurosurg. 19, 378 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. — S. Jacobson, and T. M. Fletcher: Cerebral vasospasm clinical and experimental evidence. J. Amer. med. Ass. 167, 1599 (1958).Google Scholar
  422. Poppen, J. L.: Experiences with ligation of the left anterior cerebral artery. Zbl. Neurochir. 3, 355 (1938).Google Scholar
  423. —: Ligation of the left ant. cerebral-artery, its hazard an means of avoidance of its complications. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 41, 495 (1939).Google Scholar
  424. —: Über die Verhütung dauernden postoperativen Komas bei Ligatur der linken A. cerebri ant. Nervenarzt 12, 126 (1939).Google Scholar
  425. —: Intracranial aneurysm in fifty-one proved cases. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 55, 293 (1946).Google Scholar
  426. —: Diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. Amer. J. Surg. 75, 178 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. —: Aid of arteriogramm in diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Radiology 52, 347 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. —: Intracranial aneurysms. Bull. Chicago med. Soc. 52, 417 (1949).Google Scholar
  429. —: Ligation of the internal carotid artery in the neck, prevention of certain complications. J. Neurosurg. 7, 532 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. —: Specific treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Experiences with 143 surgically treated patients. J. Neurosurg. 8, 75 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. —, and Ch. A. Fager: Intracranial aneurysms results of surgical treatment. J. Neurosurg. 17, 283 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. — H. F. Hare, and D. Weller: Intracranial aneurysm; diagnosis and treatment of aneurysm of internal carotid artery. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. 24, 700 (1944).Google Scholar
  433. Potter, J. M.: Cerebral arterial spasm. Wld Neurol. 2, 576 (1961).Google Scholar
  434. Pratt, G. H.: Surgical treatment of aneurysms. Amer. Heart J. 38, 43 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. Radner, S.: Intracranial angiography via vertebral artery. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 28, 838 (1947).Google Scholar
  436. Ralston, B., Th. Rasmussen, and Th. Kennedy: Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery under normotension and anemically induced and chemically induced hypotension. J. Neurosurg. 12, 26 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Ray, B. S.: Cerebral arteriovenous aneurysms. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 73, 615 (1941).Google Scholar
  438. Raynor, R. B., and G. Ross: Arteriography and vasospasm. The effects of intracarotid contrast-media on vasospasm. J. Neurosurg. 17, 1055 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. Reid, R. G., and R. T. Johnson: Proc. of the sixt Internat. Congr. of Radiology in London 1950.Google Scholar
  440. Richards, R. L.: Cerebral aneurysms. Med. Press 235, 291 (1956).Google Scholar
  441. Richardson, J. C., and H. Hyland: Intracranial aneurysms. A clinical and pathological study of subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage caused by berry aneuryms. Medicine (Baltimore) 1, 20 (1941).Google Scholar
  442. Riechert, T.: Über Hirnaneurysmen. Zbl. Neurochir. 4, 111 (1939).Google Scholar
  443. Rigdon, R. H., and C. Allen: Aneurysms of vertebral arteries: consideration of their etiology. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29, 28 (1944).Google Scholar
  444. Riggs, H. E., and C. Rupp: Milary aneurysms: relation of anomalies of circle of Willis to the formation of aneurysms. Arch. Neurol. (Chir.) 49, 615 (1943).Google Scholar
  445. Rijssel, E. C. van: Het aneurysma der basalen Hersenarteriae. Ned. T. Geneesk 78, 3840 (1934).Google Scholar
  446. Ritchie, W. P., and G. Haines: Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in children, report of eight cases in children fifteen years of age or younger. Arch. Surg. 66, 452 (1953).Google Scholar
  447. Rizzoli, H., and G. Hayes: Congenital berry aneurysm of the posterior fossa. J. Neurosurg. 10, 550 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Robbins, S.: The association of berry aneurysms of the circle of Willis with congenital polycystic kidney disease. Boston med. Quart. 3, 7 (1952).Google Scholar
  449. Roberts, A.: Intracranial aneurysms with minimal signs. J. ment. Sci. 92, 570 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Roberts, J. G.: Surgery of intracranial aneurysms. Brit. med. J. 1956 I, 1107.Google Scholar
  451. Robertson, E. G.: Intracranial aneurysms. Med. J. Aust. 1936 II, 381.Google Scholar
  452. Rogers, L.: Carotid ligation for intracranial aneurysm, report of a case studied by electro-encephalography. Brit. J. Surg. 32, 309 (1944).Google Scholar
  453. —: Ligature of arteries, with particular reference to carotid occlusion and the circle of Willis. Brit. J. Surg. 35, 43 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. — Ligation of the common carotid artery: report of 19 personal cases. Lancet 1949 I, 949.Google Scholar
  455. Rosen, S. R., and W. Kaufmann: Aneurysm of the circle Willis, with symptom-free interval of twenty-seven years between initial and final rupture. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 50, 350 (1943).Google Scholar
  456. Rothmann, M.: Über das Verhalten der A. cer. ant. beim Affen, Anthropoiden und Menschen. Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr. 38, 278 (1904).Google Scholar
  457. Rousseaux, R., J. Lepoire et J. Midon: Anéurysme de la portion sous-arachnoídienne de la carotide interne traité par exclusion entre deux ligatures. Rev. Neurol. 95, 182 (1956).Google Scholar
  458. Rowbotham, G. F.: Small aneurysm completely obstructing lower end of aquaeduct of Sylvius. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 40, 1241 (1938).Google Scholar
  459. — Small aneurysm completely obstructing lower end of aquaedukt of Sylvius. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 50, 350 (1943).Google Scholar
  460. Rowe, S. N., J. F. Grunagle, A. F. Susen, and J. S. Davis: Results of direct attack on intracranial aneurysms. J. Neurosurg. 12, 475 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Rowley, J. F., J. F. Sullivan, and L. Turner: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage, clinical and therapeutic factors affecting prognosis. Neurology 7, 86 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Rubinstein, H. S.: The anterior communicating in man. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 3, 196 (1944).Google Scholar
  463. Russel, C. K.: Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage following rupture of a congenital aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery of the circle of Willis. Report of case in which the aneurysm was excised. Trans. Amer. neurol. Ass. 65, 130 (1939).Google Scholar
  464. Russell, D. S.: The pathology of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 47, 689 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. Saathoff, K.: Beitrag zur Pathologie der A. basilaris. Dtsch. Arch. klin. Med. 84, 384 (1905).Google Scholar
  466. Sahs, A. L., and P. G. Keil: Subarachnoid hemorrhage cansed by ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Amer. Heart J. 26, 645 (1943).Google Scholar
  467. Sands, S. J.: Aneurysms of cerebral vessels. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 21, 37 (1929).Google Scholar
  468. Saussure, R. L. de, S. E. Hunter, and J. T. Robertson: Sacculer aneurysms of the posterior fossa. J. Neurosurg. 15, 385 (1958).Google Scholar
  469. Scheid, W.: Die Zirkulationsstörungen des Gehirns und seiner Häute. In: Handbuch der inneren Medizin, IV. Aufl., Bd. III. 1953.Google Scholar
  470. — Zirkulationsstörungen des Gehirns und seiner Häute und senile Hirnerkrankungen. In: Klinik der Gegenwart, Bd. IV. München-Berlin: Urban & Schwarzenberg 1956.Google Scholar
  471. — Lehrbuch der Neurologie. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme 1963.Google Scholar
  472. Schiefer, W., u. F. Marguth: Intraselläre Aneurysmen. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 4, 344 (1956).Google Scholar
  473. —, u. G. Struck: Serienangiographische Untersuchungen bei diffusen cerebralen Gefäßerkrankungen. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 176, 595 (1957).Google Scholar
  474. —, u. W. Walter: Die Persistenz embryonaler Gefäße als Ursache von Blutungen des Hirns und seiner Häute. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 7, 53 (1958).Google Scholar
  475. Schieferstein, W.: Symptomatologie und Therapie der intracraniellen Aneurysmen. Inaug.-Diss. Köln 1952.Google Scholar
  476. Schmidt, C. F.: Der Kreislauf des Gehirnes. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 251, 571 (1949).Google Scholar
  477. Schmidt, M.: Intracranial aneurysms. Brain 53, 489 (1930).Google Scholar
  478. Schneider, M.: Die Physiologie der Gehirndurchblutung. Regensburg. Jb. ärztl. Fortbild. 5, 1 (1956).Google Scholar
  479. — Zur Pathophysiologie des Gehirnkreislaufes. In: Kreislaufstörungen des Zentralnervensystems. Acta neurochir. (Wien), Suppl. 7 (1961).Google Scholar
  480. Schnellbächer, F.: Zur Pharmakologie der Gehirndurchblutung. Dt. med. Wschr. 80, 1646 (1955).Google Scholar
  481. Schorstein, J.: Carotid ligation in saccular intracranial aneurysms. Brit. J. Surg. 28, 50 (1940).Google Scholar
  482. —: Carotid ligation in saccular intracranial aneurysms. Arch. Neurol. u. Psychiat. (Chic.) 45, 711 (1941).Google Scholar
  483. Schwartz, H. G.: Arterial aneurysm of the posterior fossa. J. Neurosurg. 5, 312 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. Sedzimir, C. B.: An angiographie test of collateral circulation through the anterior segment of the circle of Willis. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 22, 64 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  485. Selverstone, B., and J. C. White: Gradual carotid occlusion in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms and vascular malformations, Bd. 2. Ve Congr. Neurol. Internat. 1953.Google Scholar
  486. Senior, H. D.: The blood vascular system. In: Morris Human Anatomy. Philadelphia: Blakiston 1923.Google Scholar
  487. Seze, S. de, M. Feld et G. Guiot: Traitement d’un anéurysme congénital de la sylvienne droite par la fermeture du collet. Rev. neurol. 79, 131 (1947).Google Scholar
  488. Shelden, C. H., R. H. Pudenz, and L. E. Brannon: Intracranial aneurysms. Arch. Surg. 61, 294 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  489. Shenkin, H. A., F. Cabieses, G. van den Noordt, P. Sayers and R. Coppermann: Symposium on intracranial vascular abnormalities, hemodynamic effect of unilateral carotid ligation on cerebral circulation of man. J. Neurosurg. 8, 38 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. Shlossberg, F. R.: Aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery: perimetric findings. Arch. Ophthal. 62, 894 (1952).Google Scholar
  491. Shumacker, H. B.: Arteriovenous fistulae of the cervical portion of the vertebral vessels. Bull. N. S. Army med. Dep. 7, 108 (1947).Google Scholar
  492. —, and E. E. Wayson: Spontaneous cure of aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas, with some notes on intrasaccular thrombosis. Amer. J. Surg. 79, 532 (1950).Google Scholar
  493. Siegrist, A.: Die Gefahren der Ligatur der großen Halsschlagader für das Auge etc. Albrecht v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal. 50, 511 (1900).Google Scholar
  494. Silverstein, A.: Intracranial hemorrhage in patients with bleeding tendencies. Neurology (Minneap.) 11, 310 (1961).Google Scholar
  495. Sjöquist, O.: Über intracranielle Aneurysmen der A. carotis und deren Beziehung zur ophthalmo-plegischen Migräne. Nervenarzt 9, 233 (1936).Google Scholar
  496. Slany, A.: Anomalien d. Circulus arteriosus Willisii in ihrer Beziehung zur Aneurysmenbildung an der Hirnbasis. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 301, 62 (1938).Google Scholar
  497. Small, J., J. Holmes, and K. Conolly: The prognosis and role of surgery in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage. Brit. med. J. 1953 2, 1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. Snellman, A., T. Makela, et S. Nyström: Considérations sur les anéurysmes de la region située entre les artères cérébrales antérieurs. Neuro-chirurgie 5, 148 (1959).Google Scholar
  499. Solon, D.: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 44, 919 (1940).Google Scholar
  500. Sorgo, W.: Weitere Mitteilungen über Klinik und Histologie des kongenitalen arteriovenösen Aneurysmas des Gehirns. Zbl. Neurochir. 3, 64 (1938).Google Scholar
  501. — Die Erkennung und operative Indikationsstellung bei den intrakraniellen Blutungen. Wien. klin. Wschr. 1940, 105.Google Scholar
  502. Sosman, Mc, and E. C. Vogt: Aneurysms of the interval carotid artery and the circle of Willis from a roentgenological viewpoint. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 15, 122 (1926).Google Scholar
  503. Spatz, E. L., and J. W. Bull: Vertebral arteriographie in the study of subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Neurosurg. 14, 543 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  504. Steelman, H. F., G. J. Hayes, and H. V. Rizzoli: Surgical treatment of certain intracranial aneurysms. A report of 56 consecutively treated patients. J. Neurosurg. 10, 564 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. Steinbrecher, W.: Klinik, Ätiologie und Prognose „spontaner“ Subarachnoidalblutungen. Nervenarzt 27, 251 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. Stenuit, J.: Analyse de 195 cas d’hemorragie sous-arachnoídienne. Acta neurol. belg. 62, 900 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  507. Stern, E.: Studies of pressures in the carotid artery of patients undergoing cerebral angiography. J. Neurosurg. 10, 577 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  508. Stern, W. E.: Mechanism in the production of hemiparesis associated with intracranial aneurysms. Brain 78, 503 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. Sthebens, W. F.: Intracranial arterial aneurysms. Aust. Ann. Med. 31, 139 (1954).Google Scholar
  510. Stierlin, F., u. V. Meyenburg: Die fortschreitende Thrombose und Embolie im Gebiet der A. car. int. nach Contusion und Unterbindung. Dtsch. Z. Chir. 152, 1 (1920).Google Scholar
  511. Stopford, J. S. B.: The arteries of the pons and medulla oblongata. J. Anat. Physiol. 50, 131 (1916).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  512. Strauss, I., J. H. Globus, and S. W. Ginsburg: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage, its relation to aneurysm of cerebral blood vessels. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 27, 1080 (1932).Google Scholar
  513. —, and S. Tarachow: Prognostic factors in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 38, 239 (1937).Google Scholar
  514. Strobos, R. R. J., and L. A. Mount: Problems related to treatment of intracranial aneurysms by carotid ligation. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 69, 118 (1953).Google Scholar
  515. Strully, K. J.: Successful removal of intraventricular aneurysm of the choroidal artery. J. Neurosurg. 12, 317 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Sugar, O., and M. Tinsley: Aneurysm of terminal portion of anterior cerebral artery. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 60, 81 (1948).Google Scholar
  517. Suter, W.: Das kongenitale Aneurysma der basalen Gehirnarterien und Cystennieren. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 1949, 471.Google Scholar
  518. —: Das kongenitale Aneurysma der basalen Gehirnarterien und Cystennieren. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 471, 79 (1949).Google Scholar
  519. Swain, R. D.: The surgical treatment of certain intracranial arterial aneurysms. Surg. Clin. N. Amer. 28, 396 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  520. Sweet, W. H., and H. S. Bennett: Changes in internal carotid pressure during carotid and jugular occlusion and their clinical significance. J. Neurosurg. 5, 178 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  521. — S. J. Sarnoff, and L. Bakay: A clinical method for recording interval carotid pressure. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 90, 327 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. Tappura, M.: Prognosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Academ. Dissert. Helsinki 1962.Google Scholar
  523. Tardini, A.: Anomalie anatomiche, variazioni metriche e strutturali delle arterie del C. Willis anterior in rapporto alla pathogenesi degli aneurismi. Riv. Anat. pat. Oncol. Parma 8, 521 (1954).Google Scholar
  524. Taylor, A. B., and A. G. Whitfield: Subarachnoid haemorrhage: based on observations of eightyone cases. Quart. J. Med., N. S. 5, 461 (1936).Google Scholar
  525. Thevenard, A., et G. Guiot: Volumineux aneurysme sylvien. Rev. neurol. 82, 214–217 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. Thiel, H.L.: Folgen intrakranieller Aneurysmen für das Sehorgan. Albrecht v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal. 159, 569 (1958).Google Scholar
  527. Timberlake, W. H., and C. S. Kubik: Follow-up report with clinical and anatomical notes on 280 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Trans. Amer. neurol. Ass. 1952, 26.Google Scholar
  528. Tiwisina, Th.: Die Vertebralis-Angiographie und ihre diagnostische Bedeutung. Fortschr. Röntgenstr. 77, 662 (1952).Google Scholar
  529. —: Indikation, Fehler und Gefahren der Yertebralisangiographie. Langenbecks Arch. klin. Chir. 282, 459 (1955).Google Scholar
  530. —: Junctionale und organische Durchblutungsschäden der Vertebralis-Basilarisstrombahn. Hippo-krates (Stuttg.) 28, 202 (1957).Google Scholar
  531. Tönnis, W.: Die Erkennung und Behandlung der intracraniellen Gefäßgeschwülste und Gefäßmißbildungen. Arch. klin. Chir. 180, 424 (1934).Google Scholar
  532. —: Erfolgreiche Behandlung eines Aneurysmas der A. comm. ant. Zbl. Neurochir. 1, 39 (1936).Google Scholar
  533. —: Zur Behandlung intracranieller Aneurysmen. Langenbecks Arch. klin. Chir. 189, 474 (1937).Google Scholar
  534. —: Kreislaufstörungen bei Hirnoperationen. Langenbecks Arch. klin. Chir. 200, 174 (1940).Google Scholar
  535. —: Zur Unterbindung der A. carotis interna und zur Verhütung und Behandlung cerebraler Ausfallserscheinungen. Zbl. Chir. 72, 690 (1947).Google Scholar
  536. —: Die Chirurgie des Gehirns und seiner Häute. In: Die Chirurgie von Kirschner-Nordmann, Bd. III. Wien: Urban & Schwarzenberg 1948.Google Scholar
  537. —: Gefäßerkrankungen als neurochirurgisches Problem. Regensburg. Jb. ärztl. Fortbild. 2, 1 (1951).Google Scholar
  538. —: Die Behandlung der intracraniellen Aneurysmen. Dtsch. Z. Chir. 2, 1 (1951).Google Scholar
  539. —: Die Behandlung der intracraniellen Aneurysmen. Dtsch. med. J. 3, 1 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. —: Neurochirurgische Erfahrungen bei cerebralen Durchblutungsstörungen. Regensburg. Jb. ärztl. Fortbild. 5, 35 (1956).Google Scholar
  541. —, u. W. Schiefer: Die chirurgische Behandlung der Subarachnoidalblutung. Landarzt 32, 217 (1956).Google Scholar
  542. —: Konservative oder operative Behandlung der Subarachnoidalblutung. Medizinische 35, 1145 (1956).Google Scholar
  543. —: Die Komplikationen bei Angiographie der Hirngefäße. Fortschr. Neurol. Psychiat. 26, 265 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. — Zirkulationsstörungen im Serienangiogramm. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1959.Google Scholar
  545. — u. W. Walter: Zur Differentialdiagnose intracranieller Blutungen. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 176, 666 (1957).Google Scholar
  546. —, u. K. Schürmann: Die sog. spontane (nicht traumatische) Subarachnoidalblutung. In: Lehrbuch der Chirurgie (Gohrbrandt u. Redwitz), Bd. I. Jena: Gustav Fischer 1956.Google Scholar
  547. —, u. W. Walter: Ein neuer operativer Zugang zu den sackförmigen Aneurysmen der basalen Hirngefäße. Wien. med. Wschr. 110, 145 (1960).Google Scholar
  548. Tomlinson, B. E.: Brain changes in ruptured intracranial aneurysms. J. clin. Path. 12, 391 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. Trevani, E.: Ein als parasellärer Tumor operiertes Aneurysma der A. carotis interna. Dtsch. Z. Chir. 237, 534 (1932).Google Scholar
  550. Trupp, M., and E. Sachs: Vascular tumors of the brain and spinal cord and their treatment. J. Neurosurg. 5, 354 (1948).Google Scholar
  551. Turnbull, H. M.: Intracranial aneurysms. Brain 41, 50 (1918).Google Scholar
  552. Turner, W. J.: A note on a mechanism of arterial rupture in cerebral arteriosclerosis. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 5, 168 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. Uihlein, A., and R. A. Hughes: The surgical treatment of intracranial vestigial aneurysms. Surg. clin. N. Amer. Mayo Clinic, 1071-1083 (1955).Google Scholar
  554. — H. R. Terry, W. S. Payne, and J. W. Kirklin: Operations on intracranial aneurysms with induced hypothermia below 15°C and total circulating arrest. J. Neurosurg. 19, 237 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  555. Usbeck, W.: Über ein als Tumor imponierendes großes Aneurysma der A. basilaris. Zbl. Neurochir. 4, 205 (1955).Google Scholar
  556. Valladares, H., and C. Arriagada: The surgical treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. Internat. Congr. of Neurosurgery, Brüssel 1957.Google Scholar
  557. Yet, A. C. de, u. A. Zeckel: Aneurysma van de A. carotis interna. Ned. T. Geneesk. 81, 4145 (1937).Google Scholar
  558. Vincent, C., E. Thebaut, J. Lemoyne et L. Guillaumat: Deux cas d’anéurisme artériel intra-cranien traite par ligature de la carotide primitive. Rev. neurol. 67, 361 (1937).Google Scholar
  559. Voris, H. C.: Complications of ligation of the internal carotid artery. J. Neurosurg. 8, 119 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  560. Vriese, B. de: Sur la signification morphologique des artères cérébrales. Arch. Biol. (Paris) 21, 357 (1905).Google Scholar
  561. Walkenhorst, A.: Gefäß abhängige Prozesse hinsichtlich ihrer Seitenlokalisation im Hirnstrombild. Nervenarzt 27, 180 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Walker, A. E.: Clinical localization of intracranial aneurysms and vascular anomalies. Neurology (Minneap.) 2, 79 (1956).Google Scholar
  563. —, and G. Allègre: The pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 13, 248 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  564. Walsh, F. B., and A. B. King: Ocular signs of intracranial saccular aneurysms. Experimental work on collateral circulation through ophthalmic artery. Arch. Ophthal. 27, 1 (1942).Google Scholar
  565. Walsh, M. N., and J. G. Love: Diagnosis and surgical treatment of intracranial carotid aneurysms. Proc. Mayo Clin. 14, 122 (1939).Google Scholar
  566. Walter, W.: Über das Carotiscavernosus-Aneurysma. Zbl. Chir. 86, 1648 (1961).Google Scholar
  567. —, u. W. Schütte: Zur Ursache der sog. spontanen intracerebralen Hämatome. Z. Nervenheilk. (1964) (im Druck).Google Scholar
  568. —— Über die Gefäßspasmen bei frisch rupturierten sackförmigen Aneurysmen der Hirnarterien. Acta neurochir. (Wien) XI/5, 631 (1964).Google Scholar
  569. Walton, J. N.: The late prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brit. med. J. 1932 II, 802.Google Scholar
  570. —: The prognosis and management of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Canad. med. Ass. J. 72, 165 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  571. — Subarachnoid haemorrhage. Edinburgh and London: Livingstone 1956.Google Scholar
  572. Weaver, E. N.: Intracranial aneurysms, congenital and acquired. J. int. Coll. Surg. 27, 576 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  573. Weber, F. P.: Stenosis (coarctation) of aortic isthmus, with sudden death from rupture of cerebral aneurysm. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 20, 29 (1927).Google Scholar
  574. Weber, G.: Über intracranielle Aneurysmen. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 1948, 256.Google Scholar
  575. Wechsler, I. S., S. W. Gross, and I. Cohen: Arteriography and carotid artery ligation in intracranial aneurysm and vascular malformation. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 14, 25–34 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. Wechsler, J. S., and S. W. Gross: Cerebral arteriography in subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Amer. med. Ass. 136, 517 (1948).Google Scholar
  577. Weickmann, F.: In: Die zerebralen Durchblutungsstörungen des Erwachsenenalters. Berlin: VEB Verlag Volk u. Gesundheit 1959.Google Scholar
  578. Weinberg, M. H.: Intracranial aneurysms. J. nerv. ment. Dis. 97, 666 (1943).Google Scholar
  579. Wertheimer, P., et L. Mansuy: Anéurysmes artériels intracraniens. Lyon chir. 43, 606 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  580. Wetzel, N., and R. A. Davis: An analysis of the results of treatment of intracranial aneurysms by common carotid artery ligation. Surg. Forum 6, 510 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  581. Whalley, N.: Ruptured congenital aneurysm of anterior cerebral artery, report of case with successful removal. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 12, 322 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. White, J. C., and R. D. Adams: Combined supra-and infraclinoid aneurysms of internal carotid artery. J. Neurosurg. 12, 450 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  583. —, and H. Ballantine: Intrasellar aneurysms simulating hypophyseal tumors. J. Neurosurg. 18, 35 (1961).Google Scholar
  584. Wicks, S.: Sanguineous meningeal effusion (apoplexy), spontaneous and from injury. Guy’s Hosp. Rep., III. s. 5, 119 (1859).Google Scholar
  585. Williams, R. R., R. C. Bahn, and G. P. Sayre: Congenital cerebral aneurysms. Proc. Mayo Clin. 30, 161 (1955).Google Scholar
  586. Williamsson, W., and L. Brackett: Management of intracranial aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. Amer. Surg. 22, 100 (1956).Google Scholar
  587. Wilson, G., H. E. Riggs, and C. Rupp: The pathologic anatomy of ruptured cerebral aneurysms. J. Neurosurg. 11, 128 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  588. Wilson, S. A. K.: Neurology, ed. by Bruce. London: Edward Arnold 1940.Google Scholar
  589. Windle, B. C. A.: On the arteries forming the circle of Willis. J. Anat. Physiol. 22, 289 (1888).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  590. Wolf, G. A., H Goodell, and H. G. Wolff: Prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage and its relation to long term management. J. Amer. med. Ass. 129, 715–718 (1945).Google Scholar
  591. Wolfe, H. R.: Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage. Med. Ill. 9, 102 (1955).Google Scholar
  592. —: Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage a surgical challenge. Brit. J. Surg. 40, 319 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  593. Woodhall, B., G. L. Odom, B. M. Bloor, and J. Golden: Direct measurement of intravascular pressure in components of the circle of Willis. Ann. Surg. 135, 911 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  594. Wright, C. J. E.: Coarctation of the aorta with death from rupture of a cerebral aneurysm. Arch. Path. 48, 382 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  595. Wüstefeld, M.: 23jährige Beobachtung einer Kranken unter dem Erscheinungsbild der pluriglandulären Störung bei Aneurysma im Hypophysengebiet. Med. Mschr. 8, 322 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  596. Wyeth, J. A.: Essays in surgical anatomy and surgery of the great vessels of the neck. 1879. Zit. bei Hamby 1952.Google Scholar
  597. Yaskin, H. E., and B. Alpers: Aneurysm of the vertebral artery. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 51, 271 (1944).Google Scholar
  598. Zimmermann, W.: Über die Gehirnerweichung nach Unterbindung der A. car. com. Beitrg. klin. Chir. 8, 364 (1891).Google Scholar
  599. Zollinger, R., and E. C. Cutler: Aneurysm of the internal carotid artery, report of a case simulating a tumor of the pituitary. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 30, 607 (1933).Google Scholar
  600. Zülch, K. J.: Biologie und Pathologie der Hirngeschwülste. In: Handbuch der Neurochirurgie, Bd. 3. Berlin 1956.Google Scholar
  601. —: Gibt es Spasmen der Hirngefäße?. Medizinische 14, 622 (1959).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Tönnis
  • W. Walter

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations