Renal and Fluid-Electrolyte Disorders
An acidosis is any process that tends (in the absence of buffering or compensation) to cause the accumulation of hydrogen ions (H+). If the pH of the blood is lower than normal (<7.35), acidemia is present. Similarly, any process that tends to cause the accumulation of bicarbonate (HC03) is an alkalosis. An elevated blood pH (>7.45) is referred to as alkalemia. When the acid-base disturbance arises as a result of changes in the carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) of the blood, a respiratory process is present. Conversely, when the acid-base disturbance occurs as a result of accumulation of nonvolatile acids or loss of HCO3 (or substances metabolized to HCO3), a metabolic process is present. Acidosis and alkalosis can be either primary or compensatory for a different acid-base problem.
KeywordsInfluenza Bicarbonate Vasculitis Digoxin Hyperglycemia
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