Assessment of Tissue Oxygenation

  • Paul Ellis Marik


Tissue hypoxia is common in critically ill patients and is likely a major factor leading to organ failure (multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, MODS) and death (see Chapter 51). Tissue hypoxia may result from (1) low arterial oxygen tension (hypoxic hypoxia), (2) microvascular hypoperfusion (stagnant hypoxia) due to shock and microvascular redistribution, (3) severe anemia (anemic hypoxia), and (4) inability to utilize oxygen (cytopathic hypoxia) due to derangements in cellular respiration. The expedient detection and correction of tissue hypoxia may limit organ dysfunction, reduce complications, and improve the outcome of patients treated in the ICU. It is probable that the earlier tissue hypoxia is detected and corrected, the greater the chance that outcome will be improved. Once cellular dysfunction has developed and organ failure has manifested clinically, it is likely that a cycle of irreversible and progressive organ dysfunction has been entered.


Lactic Acidosis Tissue Hypoxia Blood Lactate Concentration Stagnant Hypoxia Mixed Venous Oxygen Saturation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Ellis Marik
    • 1
  1. 1.Critical Care MedicineMercy Hospital of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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