The Phylogenetic Development of Immune Responses and the Germinal Center System

  • R. A. Good
  • J. Finstad

Abstract

During the past 10 years we have been reinvestigating the question of the phylogenetic development of immunity (Good and Papermaster, 1961, 1964; Papermaster, Condie and Good, 1962; Papermaster et al, 1963; Papermaster et al., 1964, 1964 a; Finstad, Papermaster and Good, 1964; Finstad, 1964, 1966; Finstad and Good, 1964, 1966; Good and Finstad, 1964, 1964 a; Finstad and Fichtelius, 1965; Good et al., 1966; Good, 1966; Fish, Pollara and Good, 1966; Pollara, Finstad and Good, 1966; Good et al., 1966; Gewürz et al., 1966). Invertebrates have been found to have protective mechanisms based on serological reactions (Glaser, 1918; Cantacuzéne, 1923; Bernheimer, 1952; Gushing and Campbell, 1957; Li, 1960; Gushing, 1962) and have been shown in some studies to have reactions thought to be of immunological nature (Phillips, 1960; Phillips and Yardley, 1960, 1960 a; Osawa and Yabuubhi, 1963; Michelson, 1963; Pan, 1963; Bang, 1966). No one has thus far defined in the invertebrates the presence of the adaptive immune responses (Good and Papermaster, 1964; Teague and Friou, 1963, 1964). We chose to investigate this question by first setting down the characteristics which we considered definitive of the mammalian immune responses dependent upon the lymphoid system of cells, and second, attempting to trace the phylogenetic development of these processes and the complex system of organs and cells which make up the lymphoid apparatus. In recent months our studies have come to focus on the germinal centers and the lympho-epithelial organs essential to the development of germinal centers (Good, 1966). Consequently, we consider a brief review of our analysis of the phylogenetic development of the lymphoid system and immunological functions to be germane to the considerations of this Conference.

Keywords

Albumin Germinal Explosive Lysin Diarrhea 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Good
    • 1
  • J. Finstad
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.American Legion Memorial Heart Research Professor of Pediatrics and MicrobiologyUniversity of MinnesotaUSA
  2. 2.Research Fellow in MicrobiologyUniversity of MinnesotaUSA
  3. 3.Pediatric Research Laboratories and Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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