General Features of Cerebral Vascular Disease

  • John F. Kurtzke

Abstract

To begin the epidemiology of CVD, we shall in this chapter look at its general distribution by country and age. We will consider “stroke” as one entity, and later note wherein the parts differ from the whole. The materials used are chiefly mortality statistics and population surveys. Our prime question here then is how common in general is CVD — and in whom.

Keywords

Cali EISEN 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 2.
    Acheson, R. M.: Mortality from cerebrovascular accidents and hypertension in the Republic of Ireland. Brit. J. prey. soc. Med. 14, 139–147 (1960).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Acheson, R. M. Personal communication, Yale University, June 8, (1966).Google Scholar
  3. 338.
    Acheson, R. M. Statistisk Sentralbyrâ: Folkemengdens Bevegelse 1946. Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co. 1949.Google Scholar
  4. 339.
    Acheson, R. M. Statistisk Arbok for Norge 65. 67. Argang 1946–1948. Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co. 1948.Google Scholar
  5. 340.
    Acheson, R. M. Sunnhetstilstanden og Medisinalforholdene 1946, 1947, 1948, 94., 95., 96. Argang. Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co. 1949/1950.Google Scholar
  6. Naik, B. K., P. S. Rao, and R. Saboo: Incidence of ischaemic heart disease and cerebro-vascular disease in Hyderabad. Indian Heart J. 18, 37–44 (1966).Google Scholar
  7. Zielbe, H.-G., and K.-D. Kraft: Statistische Untersuchungen an Patienten mit zerebralen Durchblutungsstörungen. Z. ges. inn. Med. 19, 361–368 (1964).Google Scholar
  8. 30.
    Berkson, D. M., and J. Stamler: Epidemiological findings on cerebrovascular diseases And Their Implications. J. Atheroscler. Res. 5, 189–202 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 31.
    Biancone, S.: L’età dei morti per malattie cardiovascolari in Italia (medie dei trienni 1953–1955 e 1959–1961). Ann. Sanità pubbl. 25, 808–827 (1964).Google Scholar
  10. 36.
    Borhani, N. O.: (1) Changes and geographic distribution of mortality from cerebro-vascular disease. Amer. J. Publ. Hlth 55, 673–681 (1965).Google Scholar
  11. 37.
    Borhani, N. O. Magnitude of the problem of cardiovascular-renal diseases, in the President’s Commision: Report to the President. A National Program to Conquer Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke, Volume II, pp. 14–47. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Govt. Printing Office 1965.Google Scholar
  12. 49.
    Burgess, A. M., Jr., T. Colton, and O. L. Peterson: Categorical programs for heart disease, cancer, and stroke. Lessons from international death-rate comparisons. New Engl. J. Med. 273, 533–537 (1965).Google Scholar
  13. 341.
    Statistiska Centralbyrân: Dödsorsaker Ar 1933, 1960. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt & Söner 1936/1960.Google Scholar
  14. 342.
    Statistiska Centralbyrân Dödsorsaksmönstret i Sverige under 1950-Talet, Stockholm (1966).Google Scholar
  15. 343.
    Statistiska Centralbyrân Dödligheten i Länen 1959–1962. Stockholm: Svenska Reproduktions AB, 1964.Google Scholar
  16. 344.
    Statistiska Centralbyrân Statistisk Arsbok for Sverige. Tjugoförsta Argangen 1934. Stockholm: P. A. Norsted & Söner, 1934.Google Scholar
  17. 345.
    Statistiska Centralbyrân Statistisk Arsbok for Sverige. Tjugoandra Argangen 1935. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt & Söner, 1935.Google Scholar
  18. 346.
    Statistiska Centralbyrân Statistisk Arsbok for Sverige. Argangen 47, 1960. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt & Söner, 1960.Google Scholar
  19. 347.
    Det Statistiske Departement: Danmarks Statistik: Statistik Arbog 1921, 1938, 1948 (53 Aargang), 1962 (vol. 67). Copenhagen ( 1921, 1938, 1948, 1963 ).Google Scholar
  20. 38.
    H. H. Hechter, and L. Breslow: Report of a ten-year follow-up study of the San Francisco longshoremen: Mortality from coronary heart disease and from all causes. J. chron. Dis. 16, 1251–1266 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 41.
    Brewis, M., D. C. Poskanzer, C. Rolland, and H. Miller: Neurological disease in an English city. Acta neurol. scand. 42, suppl. 24, 1–89 (1966).Google Scholar
  22. 55.
    Central Statistics Office: Tuarasc5il an Ard-Chlaraitheora 1951, Stationery Office, Dublin 1955.Google Scholar
  23. 349.
    Sundhedsstyrelsen: Dadsksagerne i Kongeriget Danmark 1950 (H. Hagerup), 1956 (Kgl. Hofbogtrykkeri), 1957–1960 (Statens Trykningskontor), Kobenhavn (1951, 1958 to 1961 ).Google Scholar
  24. 64.
    Crawford, M. D., and M. Sarner: Ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Community study. Lancet 1965 II 1254–1257.Google Scholar
  25. 87.
    Du Boulay, G. H.: Some observations on the natural history of intracranial aneurysms. Brit. J. Radio’. 38, 721–757 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 370.
    Uihlein,A.,U.S. Bureau of the Census: Statistical abstract of the United States, 1961, 1964 Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1961, 1964.Google Scholar
  27. 371.
    Uihlein,A. Historical statistics of the United States, 1957. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1957.Google Scholar
  28. 372.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census: 1960 census of population. Alphabetical index of occupations and Industries (Revised Edition). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1960.Google Scholar
  29. 373.
    Uihlein,A. The statistical history of the United States from Colonial Times to the Present. Stamford, Conn.: Fairfield Publishers Inc., 1965.Google Scholar
  30. 56.
    Chapman, J. M., L. G. Reeder, and E. R. Borun: Epidemiology of vascular lesions affecting the central nervous system: the occurrence of strokes in a sample population under observation for cardiovascular disease. Amer. J. publ. Hlth. 56, 191–201 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Berkson, D. M., and J. Stamler: Epidemiological findings on cerebrovascular diseases and their implications. J. Atheroscler. Res. 5, 189–202 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 73.
    Dawber, T. R., W. B. Kannel, P. M. Mcnamara, and M. E. Cohen: An epidemiologic study of apoplexy (“strokes”). Observations in 5,209 adults in the Framingham Study On Association Of Various Factors In The Development Of apoplexy. Trans. Amer. neurol. Ass. 90, 237–240 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 93.
    Eisenberg, H., J. T. Morrison, P. Sullivan, and F. M. Foote: Cerebrovascular accidents. Incidence and survival rates in a defined population, Middlesex County, Connecticut. J. Amer. med. Ass. 189, 883–888 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 97.
    Ericson, H. L.: The epidemiology and treatment of strokes in Lake County, Illinois. Illinois med. J. 128, 338–343 (1965).Google Scholar
  35. 116.
    Fumagalli, C., F. Papint, E V. Zucconi: Indagine statistica sulla mortalità per vasculopatie cerebrali. G. Geront. 12, 1057–1069 (1964).Google Scholar
  36. 378.
    Walker, A. R. P.: Mortality from coronary heart disease and from cerebral vascular disease in the different racial populations in South Africa. S. Afr. med. J. 37, 1155 to 1159 (1963).Google Scholar
  37. 396.
    Wylie, C. M.: Recent trends in mortality from cerebrovascular accidents in the United States. J. chron. Dis. 14, 213–220 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 397.
    Wylie, C. M. Cerebrovascular accident deaths in the United States and in England and Wales. J. chron. Dis. 15, 85–90 (1962).Google Scholar
  39. 125.
    Goldberg, I. D., and L. T. Kurland • Mortality in 33 countries from diseases of the nervous system. Wld. Neurol. 3, 444 165 (1962).Google Scholar
  40. 128.
    Gordon, P. C.: The epidemiology of cerebral vascular disease in Canada: an analysis of Mortality Data. Canad. Med. Ass. J. 95, 1004–1011 (1966).Google Scholar
  41. 169.
    Kannel, W. B.: An epidemiologic study of cerebrovascular disease. In: Siekert, R. G., and J. P. Whisnant: Transactions of the fifth Princeton Conference, pp. 53–66. New York: Grune and Stratton 1966.Google Scholar
  42. 170.
    Kannel, W. B. T. R. Dawber, M. E. Cohen,and P. M. Vascular disease of the brain–epidemiologic aspects: the Framingham study. Amer. J. pubi. Hlth55, 1355–1366 (1965).Google Scholar
  43. 188.
    Kurland, L.T. N. W. Choi, and G. P. Sayre: Current status of the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases. In: Fields, W. S., and W. A. Spencer (Ed.): Stroke rehabilitation: Basic concepts and research trends, pp. 3–22 (1967).Google Scholar
  44. 7.
    Adams, G. F.: Prospects for patients with strokes, with special reference to the hypertensive hemiplegic. Brit. med. J. 1965 II 253–259.Google Scholar
  45. 186.
    Kungl. Medicinalstyrelsen: Allman Hälso-och Sjukvârd âr 1928–1933. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt and Söner 1930–1935.Google Scholar
  46. 51.
    Carroll, D.: The disability in hemiplegia caused by cerebrovascular disease: serial studies of 98 cases. J. chron. Dis. 15, 179–188 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 195.
    Ladd, A. C.: Cerebrovascular disease in an employed population. J. chron. Dis. 15, 985–990 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 207.
    Logan, W. P. D., and A. A. Cusaiov: Studies on medical and population subjects no. 14. Morbidity statistics from general practice, Vol. I (General). London: H. M. Stationery Office 1958.Google Scholar
  49. 118.
    General Register Office: The Registrar General's Statistical Review of England and Wales for the Year 1960, Part I, Tables, Medical. London: H. M. Stationery Office 1962.Google Scholar
  50. 189.
    Kurztke, J. F.: Medical facilities and the prevalence of multiple sclerosis. Acta neurol. scand. 41, 561–579 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 190.
    Kurztke, J. F. (1) An evaluation of the geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis. Acta neurol. scand. 42, suppl. 19, 91–117 (1966).Google Scholar
  52. 191.
    Kurztke, J. F. (2) An epidemiologic approach to multiple sclerosis. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.) 14, 213–222 (1966).Google Scholar
  53. 192.
    Kurztke, J. F. (3)The distribution of multiple sclerosis and other diseases. Acta neurol. scand. 42, 221–243 (1966).Google Scholar
  54. 193.
    Kurztke, J. F. (4) On statistical testing of prevalence studies. J. chron. Dis. 19, 909–922 (1966).Google Scholar
  55. 194.
    Kurztke, J. F. Further considerations on the geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis. Acta neurol. scand. 43, 283–298 (1967).Google Scholar
  56. 69.
    Dalal, P. M.: Incidence of cerebral vascular lesions at the Nair Hospital, Bombay. Neurology of India (Bombay) 13, 37–39 (1965).Google Scholar
  57. 283.
    Parrish, H. M., G. H. Payne, W. C. Allen, J. C. Goldner, and H. I. Sauer: Mid Missouri stroke survey; a preliminary report. Missouri Med. 1966, 816–821.Google Scholar
  58. 334.
    Sox, E. D., and M. Holata: Underlying causes of death, cardiovascular disease. San Francisco experience in the Pan American Health Organization international mortality study, presented at the Epidemiology and Statistics Sections, 94th annual meeting A.P.H.A., October 31. 1966.Google Scholar
  59. 335.
    Stamler, J.: Epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases. In: DEFOREST, R. E., Proceedings of the National Stroke Congress, pp. 24–37. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas 1966.Google Scholar
  60. 336.
    Stallones, R. A.: Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease. A review. J. chron. Dis. 18, 859–872 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 70.
    Dalsgaard-Nielsen, T.: Survey of 1000 cases of apoplexia cerebri. Acta psychiat. neurol. scand. 30169–185 (1955).Google Scholar
  62. 101.
    Felger, G. P., H. Reisnerund E. Scherzer: Das weitere Schicksal von 1000 zerebralen Insulten. Wien. klin. Wschr. 73, 397–402 (1961).Google Scholar
  63. 222.
    D. A. Shaw: The natural history of cerebrovascular disease. Brit. med. J. 1959 I 1614–1617.Google Scholar
  64. 303.
    Research Committee of the Council of the College of General Practitioners: Studies on Medical and Population Subjects. No. 14. Morbidity Statistics from General Practice III ( Disease in General Practice). London: H. M. Stationery Office 1962.Google Scholar
  65. 379.
    Wallace,D. C. et. al.: Study of the natural history of cerebral vascular disease. Med. J. Austr. 1, 90–95 (1967).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin - Heidelberg 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Kurtzke
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Georgetown University School of MedicineUSA
  2. 2.Neurology ServiceVeterans Administration HospitalUSA
  3. 3.National Naval Medical CenterU.S. Naval HospitalBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations