Surface Jet at Small Richardson Numbers

  • Frank Engelund
  • Flemming Bo Pedersen
Part of the Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies book series (COASTAL, volume 18)


Spreading of a jet discharged horizontally at the surface of an initially quiescent water of larger density has been investigated by several authors (2,3,4). The density difference may be due to a higher temperature of the jet, or a larger salinity of the ambient fluid, or both. In the present paper it has been attempted to develop a theoretical solution based on some assumptions of similarity in velocity and density distributions in the case of small Richardson numbers.


Richardson Number Ambient Fluid Stratify Flow Entrainment Velocity Bulk Richardson Number 
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Appendix I.—References

  1. 1.
    Ellison, T. H., and Turner, J. S., “Turbulent Entrainment in Stratified Flows”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 6, 1959, pp. 423–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hayashi, T., and Shuto, N., “Diffusion of Warm Water Jets Discharged Horizontally at the Water Surface”, Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the International Association for Hydraulics Research, Vol. 4, Part 1, Sept., 1967, pp. 47–59.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jen, Y., and Wiegel, R. L., “Surface Discharge of Horizontal Warm-Water Jet”, Journal of the Power Division, ASCE, Vol. 92, PO 2, Proc. Paper 4801, Apr., 1966, pp. 1–29.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Larsen, J., and Sorensen, T., “Buoyancy Spread of Waste Water in Coastal Regions”, Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Coastal Engineering, London, England, Vol. 2. Part 4, Sept., 1968, pp. 1397–1402.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pedersen, F. B., “Gradually Varying Two-Layer Stratified Flow”, Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 98, HY 1, Proc. Paper 8679, Jan., 1972, pp. 257–268.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wilkinson, D. L., “Studies in Density Stratified Flows”, Report No. 118, Water Research Lab., Univ. of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia, Apr., 1970.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Engelund
    • 1
  • Flemming Bo Pedersen
    • 1
  1. 1.Inst. of Hydrodynamics and Hydr. Engrg.Tech. Univ. of DenmarkCopenhagenDenmark

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