The Manometric Examination of the Esophagus

  • W. Pelemans
  • E. C. TexterJr.
Part of the Handbuch der inneren Medizin book series (INNEREN, volume 3)


Hippocrates [quoted by Sanchez et al. (1953)] was probably the first to perform experimental studies of the esophagus, but it was 1747 before Fredericus Bernardus Albinus [quoted by Eykman (1903)] showed that all swallowed substances are transported into the stomach via the esophagus. The actual study of esophageal motility begins with the experiments of Arloing (1877) and especially of Kronecker and Meltzer (1883). The latter used a balloon kymographic system which was taken over, with minor modifications, by many investigators (Cannon and Washburn, 1912; Carlson, 1916; Payne and Poulton, 1927; Abbott and Pendergrass, 1936; Zeller and Burget, 1937; Ingelfinger and Abbott, 1940; Kramer and Ingelfinger, 1949; Duwez, 1950; Foulk et al., 1954).


Lower Esophageal Sphincter Esophageal Motility Intraluminal Pressure Yield Pressure Esophageal Peristalsis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, W. O., Pendergrass, E. P.: Intubation studies of the human small intestine. V. The motor effects of single clinical doses of morphine sulphate in normal subjects. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 35, 289–299 (1936).Google Scholar
  2. Arloing, F.: Application de la méthode graphique à l’étude du méchanisme de la deglutition. Thèse de Paris, 1877.Google Scholar
  3. Benz, L. J., Hootkin, L. A., Margtjlies, S., Donner, M. W., Caxjthorne, R. T., Hendricks, T. R.: A comparison of clinical measurements of gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroenterology 62, 1–5 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brody, D. A., Quigley, J. P.: Registration of digestive tract intralumen pressures. In: Methods in medical research, vol. 4, ed. Visscher, M. Chicago: Year Book Publishers 1951.Google Scholar
  5. Cannon, W. B., Washburn, A. L.: An explanation of hunger. Amer. J. Physiol. 29, 441 (1912).Google Scholar
  6. Carlson, A. J.: The control of hunger in health and disease. Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press 1916.Google Scholar
  7. Clark, C. G., Vane, J. R.: The cardiac sphincter in the cat. Gut 2, 252–262 (1916).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Code, C. F., Hightower, N. C., Morlock, C. G.: Motility of the alimentary canal in man. Amer. J. Med. 13, 328–351 (1952).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Code, C. F., Schlegel, J. F.: The pressure profile of the gastroesophageal sphincter in man: An improved method of detection. Proc. Mayo Clin. 33, 406–414 (1958).Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, B. R.: Cardiospasm in achalasia; demonstration of an abnormally elevated esophagogastric sphincter pressure with partial relaxation on swallowing. Gastroenterology 48, 864 (1965).Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, B. R., Lazar, H. P., Wolf, B. S., Kanowitz, H. D.: The clinical value of esophageal motility study. J. Amer. med. Ass. 187, 819–825 (1964).Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, B. R., Wolf, B. S.: Roentgen localization of the physiologically determined esophageal hiatus. Gastroenterology 43, 43–50 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, S., Harris, L. D.: Lower esophageal sphincter pressure as an index of lower esophageal sphincter strength. Gastroenterology 58, 157–162 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dodds, W. J., Hogan, W. J., Reid, D. P., Stewart, E. T., Lineham, J. H., Stef, J. J., Arndorfer, R. C.: Variables affecting manometric recording of pressure amplitude during esophageal peristalsis. Gastroenterology 62, 742 (1972 b).Google Scholar
  15. Dodds, W. J., Hogan, W. J., Reid, D. P., Stewart, E. T., Stef, J. J., Arndorfer, R. C.: Evaluation of pharyngeal peristalsis using a strain sensitive recording system. Gastroenterology 62, 743 (1972 a).Google Scholar
  16. Duwez, Y.: La motricité de 1’œsophage. Etude éxperimentale. Acta gastro-ent. belg. 13, 961–968 (1950).Google Scholar
  17. Eykman, P. H.: Der Schluckact. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 99, 513 (1903).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fotjlk, W. T., Code, C. F., Morlock, C. G., Bargen, J. A.: A study of the motility patterns and the basic rhythm in the duodenum and upper part of the jejunum of human beings. Gastroenterology 26, 601–611 (1954).Google Scholar
  19. Gauer, O. H., Gienapp, E.: A miniature pressure-recording device. Science 112, 404–405 (1950).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goyal, R. K., Sangree, M. H., Hersch, T., Spiro, H. M.: Pressure inversion point at the upper high pressure zone and its genesis. Gastroenterology 59, 754–759 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Haddad, J. K.: Relation of gastroesophageal reflux to yield sphincter pressures. Gastroenterology 58, 175–184 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Harris, L. D., Pope, C. E., II: Squeeze vs. resistance; an evaluation of the mechanism of sphincter competence. J. clin. Invest. 43, 2272–2278 (1964).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris, L. D., Pope, C. E., II: The pressure inversion point: its genesis and reliability. Gastroenterology 51, 641–648 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Harris, L. D., Winans, C. S., Pope, C. E., II: Determination of yield pressures: a method for measuring anal sphincter competence. Gastroenterology 50, 754–760 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Heitmann, P., Wolf, B. S., Sokol, E. M., Cohen, B. R.: Simultaneous cineradiographicmanometric study of the distal esophagus: small hiatal hiernias and rings. Gastroenterology 50, 737–753 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hollis, J. B., Castell, D. O.: Amplitude of esophageal peristalsis as termined by rapid infusion. Gastroenterology 63, 417–422 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ingelfinger, F. J., Abbott, W. O.: Intubation studies of the human small intestine. XX. The diagnostic significance of motor disturbances. Amer. J. dig. Dis. 7, 1–7 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kaye, M. D., Showalter, J. P.: Manometric configuration of the lower esophageal sphincter in normal human subjects. Gastroenterology 61, 213–223 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kramer, P., Ingelfinger, F. J.: Motility of the human esophagus in control subjects and in patients with esophageal disorders. Amer. J. Med. 7, 168–173 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kronecker, H., Meltzer, S. J.: Der Schluckmechanismus, seine Erregung und seine Hemmung. Arch. Physiol. Suppl., 7, 328–332 (1883).Google Scholar
  31. Lorber, S. H., Shay, H.: Technical and physiological considerations in measuring gastrointestinal pressures in man. Gastroenterology 27, 478–87 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Millhon, W. A., Hoffman, D. E., Jarvis, P., Cross, C. J., Millhon, J. S., Crites, N. A.: Preliminary report on Millhon-Crites intraesophageal motility probe. Amer. J. dig. Dis. 13, 929–934 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Millhon, W. A., Texter, E. C., Hightowee, N. C.: Comparison of the Millhon-Crites esophageal motility probe with conventional open-tip manometry. Scientific exhibit 4th World Congress of Gastroenterology, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 12–18, 1970.Google Scholar
  34. Payne, W. W., Poulton, E. P.: Experiments on visceral sensation. I. The relation of pain to activity in the human esophagus. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 63, 217–241 (1927).Google Scholar
  35. Pert, J. H., Davidson, M., Almy, T. T., Sleisenger, M. H.: Esophageal catheterization studies. I. The mechanism of swallowing in normal subjects with particular reference to the vestibule (esophagogastric sphincter). J. clin. Invest. 38, 397–406 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pope, C. E., II: A dynamic test of sphincter strength: its application to the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 52, 779–786 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Pope, C.E., II: Effect of infusion on force of closure measurements in the human esophagus. Gastroenterology 58, 616–624 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Pope, C. E., II, Horton, P. F.: Intraluminal force transducer measurements of human esophageal peristalsis. Gut 13, 464–470 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Quigley, J. P., Brody, D. A.: Intralumen pressures: gastrointestinal propulsion, gastric evacuation, pressure-wall-tension relationship. In: Glaser, R., Medical physics. Chicago: The Year Book Publishers 1950.Google Scholar
  40. Quigley, J. P., Brody, D. A.: A physiologic and clinical consideration of the pressure developed in the digestive tract. Amer. J. Med. 13, 73–81 (1952).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Quigley, J. P., Brody, D. A., Kay, B., Landolina, W. C., McAlister, J. H.: Accurate registration of intralumen pressures of the digestive tract by two new methods. Fed. Proc. 9, 102 (1950).Google Scholar
  42. Rinaldo, J. A., Levey, J. F.: Correlation of several methods for recording esophageal sphincteral pressures. Amer. J. dig. Dis. 3, 882–890 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sanchez, G. C., Kramer, P., Ingelfinger, F. J.: Motor mechanisms of the esophagus, particularly of the distal portion. Gastroenterology 25, 321–332 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Shepherd, J. K., Diamant, N. E.: Mecholyl test: Comparison of balloon kymography and intraluminal pressure measurement. Gastroenterology 63, 557–563 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Skinner, D. B., Booth, D. J.: Assessment of distal esophageal function in patients with hiatal hernia and/or gastroesophageal reflux. Ann. Surg. 172, 627–637 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sokol, E. M., Heitmann, P., Wolf, B. S., Cohen, B. R.: Simultaneous cineradiographic and manometric study of the pharynx, hypopharynx, and cervical esophagus. Gastro enterology 51, 960–974 (1966).Google Scholar
  47. Texter, E. C., Jr.: Motility comes of age. Amer. J. dig. Dis. 16, 682–688 (1971c).Google Scholar
  48. Texter, E. C., Jr., Martin, G. A., Ray, R. S., Millhon, W. A.: Comparison of the EMP-3 esophageal motility probe with conventional open-tip manometry. Fed. Proc. 30, 699 (1971a).Google Scholar
  49. Texter, E. C., Jr., Martin, G. A., Ray, R. S., Jr., Millhon, W. A.: Comparison of the EMP-3 esophageal motility probe with perfused and non-perfused open-tip manometry. Rendic. R. Gastroenterol. 3, 144 (1971b).Google Scholar
  50. Texter, E. C., Smith, H. W., Moeller, H. C., Barborka, C. J.: Intraluminal pressures from the upper gastrointestinal tract. I. Correlations with motor activity in normal subjects and patients with esophageal disorders. Gastroenterology 32, 1013–1024 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Waldeck, F., Jennewein, H. M., Siewert, R., Nieder, B.: Manometric methods for functioned analysis of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the act of swallowing. In: The function of the esophagus, ed. Sørensen, H. R., Jepsen, O., Pedersen, S. A. Odense: Odense University Press 1973.Google Scholar
  52. Wankling, W. J., Warrian, W. G., Lind, J. F.: The gastroesophageal sphincter in hiatus hernia. Canad. J. Surg. 8, 61 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Winans, C. S.: Manometric asymmetry of the lower esophageal high pressure zone. Gastroenterology 62, 830 (1972a).Google Scholar
  54. Winans, C. S.: The pharyngo-esophageal closure mechanism: a manometric study. Gastroenterology 63, 768–777 (1972b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Winans, C. S., Harris, L. D.: Quantitation of lower esophageal sphincter competence. Gastroenterology 52, 773–778 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Zeller, W., Burget, G. E.: A study of the cardia. Amer. J. dig. Dis. 4, 113–120 (1937).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin · Heidelberg 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Pelemans
  • E. C. TexterJr.

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations