Coronary-Prone Behavior as an Independent Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease

  • Richard J. Brand

Abstract

To date, there has been little formal research to demonstrate that Type A’s can be changed to Type B’s. There is even less evidence to show that altering Type A behavior, if it can be effectively accomplished, will in turn reduce the incidence of recurrence of coronary disease. In the absence of these crucial experimental studies, we must be content to attempt causal inferences based on results obtained from a relatively few observational studies. In this, we encounter one of the most challenging phases of epidemiological research. The caveat “association does not imply causation” is familiar to all and serves as a warning to proceed cautiously. Nevertheless, causal interpretation plays an important role in decisions to replicate or refine observational research and in decisions to extend activity to intervention studies or programs. We are, therefore, called upon to exercise our judgment.

Keywords

Cholesterol Covariance Cardiol 

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References

  1. 1.
    Brand, R.J., Rosenman, R.H., Jenkins, C.D., Sholtz, R.I., Zyzanski, S.J.: Comparison of coronary heart disease prediction in the Western Collaborative Group Study using the structured interview and the Jenkins Activity Survey assessments of the coronary prone Type A behavior pattern. J Chronic Dis, (in press).Google Scholar
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    Rosenman, R.H., Brand, R.J., Sholtz, R.I., Friedman, M.: Multivariate prediction of coronary heart disease during 8.5 year follow-up in the Western Collaborative Group Study. Am. J. Cardiol. 37:902–910, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Walker, S.H., Duncan, D.B.: Estimation of the probability of an event as a function of several independent variables. Biometrika 54:167–179, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard J. Brand

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