The final path common to the most mechanisms contibuting to the regulation of the myocardial contractile force is the modulation of the intracellular calcium concentration. The electromechanical coupling of the myocardial cell are biophysical and biochemical processes occurring between the electrical excitation of the cell membrane and the contraction of the individual myocyte. Starting from a membrane potential of about -90 mV the myocyte depolarizes after activation by the action potential and voltage-dependent calcium channels open. Ion channels such as the calcium channel are specific proteins which span the membrane, form pores and in an open state selectively permit ions to enter into the cell.
KeywordsHeart Failure Chronic Heart Failure Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Plasma Renin Activity Contractile Force
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