Possible Immunological Factors in Amphibian Lymphosarcoma Development

  • Laurens N. Ruben
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 1969)


Spontaneous lymphoid cancers in Xenopus laevis (the South African clawed toad) were first described by Balls in 1962 (1). These growths are lethal, and appear primarily in the hematopoietic organs: the liver, spleen and kidneys. Xenopus is a primitive anuran and shares with the more primitive urodeles the use of the liver subcapsular epithelium as a granulocytic organ and with the more advanced anurans the kidney as an emergency source of lymphocytes (2, 3). The disease is not limited to these organs, however, and on occasions the cancer will develop in all other viscera and, less frequently, in the head, trunk and limb musculature.


Xenopus Laevis Small Lymphocyte Immunological Factor Leopard Frog Temperature Depression 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurens N. Ruben
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyReed CollegePortlandUSA

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