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Antigene, Antikörper und Komplement

  • Felix Haurowitz
Part of the Handbuch der Physiologisch- und Pathologisch-Chemischen Analyse book series (HOPPE-SEYLER, volume 4)

Zusammenfassung

Immunität wurde zuerst als ein medizinisches Phänomen beschrieben, als Immunität gegen pathogene Erreger. Das immunisierende Agens, zumeist ein pathogenes Bacterium, wurde als Antigen bezeichnet, die im Organismus gebildete mit dem Antigen reagierende Substanz als Antikörper. Daß auch chemische Substanzen als Antigene wirken können, wurde zuerst von R Kraus durch die Entdeckung der Präcipitinreaktion nachgewiesen (1897). Bei der Präcipitinreaktion bildet das wasserlösliche Antigen, das Präcipitinogen mit einer im Immunserum vorhandenen wasserlöslichen Substanz, dem Präcipitin einen unlöslichen Niederschlag, das Präcipitat. Die ersten Präcipitinogene waren Substanzen, die durch Extraktion von Bakterien gewonnen worden waren. Ihre chemische Natur war unbekannt. Es lag jedoch nahe, zu prüfen, ob auch chemische Substanzen bekannter Zusammensetzung als Antigene wirken können. Das Ergebnis dieser Untersuchungen war, daß die meisten wasserlöslichen Eiweißkörper als Antigene wirksam sind. Die hohe Spezifität der durch Injektion von Eiweiß gewonnenen Immunseren gestattet Verwendung dieser Seren zur Unterscheidung von Eiweißkörpern verschiedener Tierarten; die Präcipitinreaktion findet daher vielfach Anwendung zur Feststellung der Herkunft eines Proteins (Uhlenhuth).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felix Haurowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.BloomingtonUSA

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