Advertisement

Tokopherole

  • H. Schmid
  • R. G. Haber
Part of the Handbuch der Physiologisch- und Pathologisch-Chemischen Analyse book series (HOPPE-SEYLER, volume 4)

Zusammenfassung

Im Jahre 1920 machten Mattill und Conklin 1 die Beobachtung, daß bei Ratten, die eine spezielle Milchdiät erhielten, Störungen in der Fortpflanzung auftreten. Zwei Jahre später haben Evans und Bisnop 2 diese ersten Hinweise für die Existenz eines für die normale Fortpflanzung notwendigen Vitamins bestätigen können, indem sie zeigten, daß bei Ratten die erste Generation teilweise, die zweite vollständig unfruchtbar wird, wenn die Tiere ein gereinigtes, die Vitamine A, B und D sowie alle nötigen Nährstoffe enthaltendes Futter erhalten. Dieselben Autoren erkannten, daß die Sterilität durch einen im unverseifbaren Anteil von Weizenkeimlingsöl, von frischem Salat oder Alfalfaheu-Extrakten enthaltenen Wirkungsstoff geheilt wird3, 4. Der neue, fettlösliche Faktor, der sich als verschieden von den fettlöslichen Vitaminen A und D erwies, erhielt von Sure 5 den Namen Vitamin E. Weitere, in der älteren Literatur gebräuchliche Namen sind Faktor X, Antisterilitätsfaktor, Sterilamin, Fruchtbarkeitsvitamin, reproduzierendes Vitamin und Anti-Encephalomalacie-Vitamin. E-Vitaminose führt aber nicht nur zur Sterilität, sondern bei Ratten, Kaninchen und Meerschweinchen zu spezifischen Muskeldystrophien, wie Evans und Burr 6 sowie Goettsch und Pappenheimer 7 als erste fanden.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Rosenberg, H. R.: Chemistry and Physiology of the Vitamins. New York 1945.Google Scholar
  2. Vogel, H., and H. Knobloch: Chemie und Technik der Vitamine, 3. Aufl. Bd. I. Stuttgart 1950.Google Scholar
  3. Sebrell, W. H., and R. S. Harris: The Vitamins. Vol. Iii. New York 1954.Google Scholar
  4. Stepp, W., J. Kühnau, and H. Schröder: Die Vitamine und ihre klinische Anwendung. 7. Aufl. Bd. 2. Stuttgart 1952.Google Scholar
  5. Beckmann, R.: Vitamin E. Z. Vit.-, Horm.-Ferm.-Forsch. 7, 153–222; 281–376 (1955).Google Scholar
  6. Harris, P. L., and W. Kujawski: Annotated Bibliography of Vitamin E 1940–1950 und 1950, 1951. New York 1950 und 1952.Google Scholar
  7. Mason, K. E.: Vitamin E Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, Art. 3, 63–428 (1949).Google Scholar
  8. Abderhalden, R.: Vitamine, Hormone, Fermente. 9. Aufl. Basel 1953.Google Scholar
  9. 1.
    Mattill, H. A., and R. E. Conklin: J. biol. Ch. 44, 137 (1920).Google Scholar
  10. 2.
    Evans, H. M., and S. Bishop: Science, N. Y. 56, 650 (1922).Google Scholar
  11. 3.
    Evans, H. M., and S. Bishop: Amer. J. Physiol. 63, 396 (1922).Google Scholar
  12. 4.
    Evans, H. M., and G. O. Burr: Mem. Univ. Calif. No. 8 (1927).Google Scholar
  13. 5.
    Sure, B.: J. biol. Ch. 58, 681, 693 (1924).Google Scholar
  14. 6.
    Evans, H. M., and G. O. Burr: J. biol. Ch. 76, 273 (1928).Google Scholar
  15. 7.
    Goettsch, M., and A. M. Pappenheimer: J. exp. Med. 54, 145 (1931).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 8.
    Evans, H. M., O. H. Emerson and G. A. Emerson: J. biol. Ch. 113, 319 (1936).Google Scholar
  17. 9.
    Fernholz, E.: Am. Soc. 59, 1154 (1937);Google Scholar
  18. Fernholz, E.: Am. Soc. 60, 700 (1938).Google Scholar
  19. 10.
    Karrer, P., H. Fritzsche, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Heiv. 21, 520, 820 (1938).Google Scholar
  20. 11.
    Bergel, F., A. M. Copping, A. Jacob, A. R. Todd and T. S. Work: Soc. 1938, 1382. Nature 142, 36 (1938).Google Scholar
  21. 12.
    Smith, L. I., H. E. Ungnade and W. W. Prichard: Science N. Y., 88, 37 (1938).Google Scholar
  22. Smith, L. L. and H. E. Ungnade: J. org. Chem. 4, 298 (1939).Google Scholar
  23. 1.
    John, W.: H. 250, 11 (1937);Google Scholar
  24. John, W.: H. 252, 222 (1938).Google Scholar
  25. 2.
    Karrer, P., H. Salomon, and H. Fritzsche: Helv. 21, 309 (1938).Google Scholar
  26. 3.
    Jacob, A., M. Steiger, A. R. Todd, and T. S. Work: Soc. 1939, 542.Google Scholar
  27. 4.
    Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Helv. 21, 1234 (1938);Google Scholar
  28. Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Helv. 22, 260 (1939).Google Scholar
  29. 5.
    Emerson, O. H., G. A. Emerson, A. Mohammad, and H. M. Evans: J. biol. Ch. 122, 99 (1937).Google Scholar
  30. Emerson, O. H., G. A. Emerson, A. Mohammad and H. M. Evans: Science, N. Y. 83, 421 (1936).Google Scholar
  31. 6.
    Jacob, A., M. Steiger, A. R. Todd, and T. S. Work: Soc. 1939, 542Google Scholar
  32. 7.
    Stern, M. H., C. D. Robeson, L. Weisler, and J. G. Baxter: Am. Soc. 69, 869 (1947).Google Scholar
  33. 8.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 569 (1953).Google Scholar
  34. 9.
    Green, J., S. Marcinkiewicz, and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  35. 10.
    Green, J., and S. Marcinkiewicz: Nature 177, 86 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 11.
    Quaife, M. L., and M. Y. Dau: J. biol. Ch. 180, 263 (1949).Google Scholar
  37. Abderhalden, R.: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 16, 309, 319 (1945)Google Scholar
  38. 1.
    Green, J., S. Marcinjiewicz, and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  39. 2.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 569 (1953).Google Scholar
  40. 3.
    Brown, F.: Biochem. J. 52, 523 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 4.
    Quaife, M. L.: J. biol. Ch. 175, 605 (1948).Google Scholar
  42. 5.
    Hove, E. L., and Z. Hove: J. biol. Ch. 156, 601 (1944).Google Scholar
  43. 6.
    Knobloch, E., F. Mâcha, and K. Mnouòex: Chem. Listy 46, 718 (1952) [Chem. Abstr. 47, 5039g].Google Scholar
  44. 7.
    Dam, H., J. Glavind, I. Prange, and J. Ottesen: Kg1. Danske Vid. Selsk. biol. Medd. 16, No. 7 (1941).Google Scholar
  45. 8.
    Fisher, G. S.: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 17, 224 (1945).Google Scholar
  46. Rawlings, H. W., N. H. Kuhrt, and J. G. Baxter: J. amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 25, 24 (1948).Google Scholar
  47. 10.
    Mahon, J. H., and R. A. Chapman: J industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 26, 1195 (1954).Google Scholar
  48. 11.
    Harris, P. L., M. L. Quaife, and W. J. Swanson: J. Nutrit. 40, 367 (1950).Google Scholar
  49. 12.
    Swick, R. W., and C. A. Baumann: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 24, 758 (1952).Google Scholar
  50. 1.
    Green, J., S. Marcrnkiewicz, and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  51. 2.
    Kofler, M.: Rely. 26, 2166 (1943).Google Scholar
  52. 3.
    Knobloch, E., F. Mâcha, and K. Mrouòek: Chem. Listy 46, 718 (1952) [Chem. Abstr. 47, 5039g].Google Scholar
  53. 4.
    Brown, F.: Biochem. J. 52, 523 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 5.
    Mahon, J. H., and R. A. Chapman: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 26, 1195 (1954).Google Scholar
  55. 6.
    Harris, P. L., M. L. Quaife, and W. J. Swanson: J. Nutrit. 40, 367 (1950).Google Scholar
  56. 7.
    Emmerie, A., and C. Engel: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 13, 259 (1943).Google Scholar
  57. 8.
    Quackenbush, F.W., H.L. Gottlieb, and H. Steenbock: J. industr. engng. CheIn. 33. 1276 (1941).Google Scholar
  58. 1.
    Beckmann, R.: Z. Vit.-Horm.-Ferm.-Forsch. 7, 178 (1955);Google Scholar
  59. 2.
    Delmas, L.: Cr. 242, 2595 (1956).Google Scholar
  60. 3.
    Nair, P. P., and N. G. Magar: J. biol. Ch. 220, 157 (1956).Google Scholar
  61. 4.
    Darby, W. J., M. E. Ferguson, R. H. Furman, J. M. Lemley, C. T. Ball, and G. R. Meneely: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 328 (1949).Google Scholar
  62. 5.
    Scrimshaw, N. S., R. B. Greer, and R. L. Goodland: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 312 (1949).Google Scholar
  63. 6.
    Kofler, M.: Helv. 26, 2166 (1943).Google Scholar
  64. 7.
    Kaay, F. C. Van Der, G. H. B. Teunissen, A. Emmerie, and M. Van Eekelen: Ann N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 276 (1949).Google Scholar
  65. 8.
    Harris, P. L., M. L. Quaife, and W. J. Swanson: J. Nutrit. 40, 367 (1950).Google Scholar
  66. 9.
    Emmerie, A., and C. Engel: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 13, 259 (1943).Google Scholar
  67. 10.
    Mahon, J. H., and R. A. Chapman: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 26, 1195 (1954).Google Scholar
  68. 11.
    Chipault, J. R., W. O. Lundberg, and G. O. Burr: Arch. Biochem. 8, 321 (1945).Google Scholar
  69. 12.
    Robeson, C. D., and J. G. Baxter: Am. Soc. 65, 940 (1943).Google Scholar
  70. 1.
    Engel, C. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 292 (1949).Google Scholar
  71. 2.
    Harris, P. L., M. L. Quaife, and W. J. Swanson: J. Nutrit. 40, 367 (1950).Google Scholar
  72. 3.
    Kofler, M.: Heiv. 26, 2166 (1943).Google Scholar
  73. 4.
    Lieck, H., and H. Willstaedt: Svensk kern. T. 57, 134 (1945).Google Scholar
  74. 5.
    Neuweiler, W.: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 20, 108 (1948).Google Scholar
  75. 6.
    Beckmann, R.: Z. Vit.-, Horm.-Ferm.-Forsch. 7, 153 (1955).Google Scholar
  76. 7.
    Quaife, M. L., W. J. Swanson, M. Y. Dau, and P. L. Harris: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 300 (1949).Google Scholar
  77. 8.
    Swick, R. W., and C. A. Baumann: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 24, 758 (1952).Google Scholar
  78. 1.
    Kofler, M.: Rely. 28, 26 (1945).Google Scholar
  79. 2.
    Hines, L. R., and H. A. Mattill: J. biol. Ch. 149, 549 (1943).Google Scholar
  80. 3.
    Meunier, P., A. Vinet: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 24, 365 (1942).Google Scholar
  81. 4.
    Swicu, R. W., and C. A. Baumann: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 24, 758 (1952).Google Scholar
  82. 5.
    Harris, P. L., M. L. Quaife, and W. J. Swanson: J. Nutrit. 40, 367 (1950).Google Scholar
  83. 6.
    Barrer, P., W. Jaeger, and H. Keller: Heiv. 23, 464 (1940).Google Scholar
  84. 7.
    Brown, F.: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 161 (1953).Google Scholar
  85. 8.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 569 (1953).Google Scholar
  86. 9.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 329 (1955).Google Scholar
  87. 10.
    Menger, A.: Angew. Chem. 62, 431 (1950).Google Scholar
  88. 11.
    Engel, C.: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 292 (1949).Google Scholar
  89. 12.
    Cabell, C. A., and N. R. Ellis: J. Nutrit. 23, 633 (1942).Google Scholar
  90. 13.
    Green, J., and S. Marcinkiewicz: Nature 177, 86 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 14.
    Engel, C., and A. M. DE Vries: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 18, 89, (1946).Google Scholar
  92. 1.
    Brown, F.: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 161 (1953).Google Scholar
  93. 2.
    Engel, C.: Ann N Y Acad. Sci. 52, 292 (1949).Google Scholar
  94. 3.
    Pesch, W. A.: Conserve e Deriv. agrum. 2, 101 (1953).Google Scholar
  95. 4.
    Harris, P. L., M. L. Quaife, and W. J. Swanson: J. Nutrit. 40, 367 (1950).Google Scholar
  96. 5.
    Cabell, C. A., and N. R. Ellis: J. Nutrit. 23, 633 (1942).Google Scholar
  97. 6.
    Dam, H., J. Glavind, I. Prange, and J. Ottesen: Kgl. Danske Vid. Selsk. biol. Medd. 16, No. 7 (1941).Google Scholar
  98. 7.
    Kofler, M.: Holy. 28, 26 (1945).Google Scholar
  99. 1.
    Harris, P. L., M. L. Quaife, and W. J. Swanson: J. Nutrit. 40, 367 (1950).Google Scholar
  100. 2.
    Engel, C.: Ann N Y Acad. Sci. 52, 292 (1949).Google Scholar
  101. 3.
    Quaife, M. L., and P. L. Harris: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 20, 1221 (1948).Google Scholar
  102. 4.
    Lieck, H., and H. Willstaedt: Svensk kem. T. 57, 134 (1945).Google Scholar
  103. 5.
    Herraiz, M. L., and H. G. DE Alvarez Herrero: Ann N Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 306 (1949).Google Scholar
  104. 6.
    Kofler, M.: Heiv. 28, 26 (1945).Google Scholar
  105. 7.
    Dam, H., J. Glavind, I. Prange, and J. Ottesen: Kgl. Danske Vid. Selsk. biol. Medd. 16, No. 7 (1941).Google Scholar
  106. 8.
    Brown, F.: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 161 (1953).Google Scholar
  107. 9.
    Engel, C., and A. M. DE Vries: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 18, 89 (1946).Google Scholar
  108. 10.
    Pesch, W. A.: Conserve e Deriv. agrum. 2, 101 (1953).Google Scholar
  109. 1.
    Karrer, P., H. Fritzsche, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Hely. 21, 520, 820 (1938).Google Scholar
  110. 2.
    Jacob, A., F. K. Sutcliffe, and A. R. Todd: Soc. 1940, 327.Google Scholar
  111. 4.
    Fernholz, E.: Am. Soc. 59, 1154 (1937);Google Scholar
  112. Fernholz, E.: Am. Soc. 60, 700 (1938).Google Scholar
  113. John, W., E. Dietzel, and P. Günther: H. 252, 208 (1938).Google Scholar
  114. John, W.: H. 252, 222 (1938).Google Scholar
  115. John, W., E. Dietzel, P. Günther, and W. Emte: Naturwiss. 26, 366 (1938).Google Scholar
  116. Bergel, F., A. R. Todd and T. S. Work: Soc. 1938, 253.Google Scholar
  117. Karrer, P., R. Escher, H. Fritzsche, H. Keller, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Heiv. 21, 939 (1938).Google Scholar
  118. John, W.: H. 252, 222 (1938).Google Scholar
  119. John, W., E. Dietzel, P. Günther, and W. Emte: Naturwiss. 26, 366 (1938).Google Scholar
  120. John, W., E. Dietzel, and P. Günther: H. 252, 208 (1938).Google Scholar
  121. Bergel, F., A. R. Todd, and T. S. Work: Soc. 1938, 253.Google Scholar
  122. Emerson, O. H.: Am. Soc. 60, 1741 (1938).Google Scholar
  123. Karrer, P., R. Escher, H Fritzsche, H. Keller, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Heiv. 21, 939 (1938).Google Scholar
  124. Emerson, O. H.: Am. Soc. 60, 1741 (1938).Google Scholar
  125. Emerson, O. H., and L. I. Smith: Am. Soc. 62, 1869 (1940).Google Scholar
  126. Stern, M. H., C. D. Robeson, L. Weisler, and J. G. Baxter: Am. Soc. 69, 869 (1947).Google Scholar
  127. Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 569 (1953).Google Scholar
  128. Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J Sci. Food Agric. 6, 689 (1955).Google Scholar
  129. Green, J., S. Marcinkiewicz, and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  130. Green, J., and S. Marcinkiewicz: Nature 177, 86 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 1.
    Rosenberg, H. R.: Chemistry and Physiology of the Vitamins. New York 1945.Google Scholar
  132. Vogel, H., and H. Knobloch: Chemie und Technik der Vitamine. 3. Aufl. Bd. I. Stuttgart 1950.Google Scholar
  133. Sebrell, W. H., and R. S. Harris: The Vitamins. Vol. Iii. New York 1954.Google Scholar
  134. 2.
    Kofler, M.: Helv. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  135. 3.
    Emmerie, A.: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 309 (1949).Google Scholar
  136. 4.
    Stern, M. H., C. D. Robeson, L. Weisler, and J. G. Baxter: Am. Soc. 69, 869 (1947).Google Scholar
  137. 5.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 689 (1955).Google Scholar
  138. 6.
    Rosenkrantz, H., A. T. Milhorat, and M. Farber: J. biol. Ch. 192, 9 (1951).Google Scholar
  139. 7.
    Literatur zur Synthese: x-Tokopherol: Karrer, P., H. Fritzsche, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Heiv. 21, 520, 820 (1938).Google Scholar
  140. Bergel, F., A. M. Copping, A. Jacob, A. R. Todd, and T. S. Work: Soc. 1938, 1382.Google Scholar
  141. Smith, L. I., and H. E. Ungnade: J. org. Chem. 4, 298 (1939).Google Scholar
  142. Werder, F. v.: Uspat. 2, 230, 659 [Chem. Abstr. 35, 3 2704 ].Google Scholar
  143. John, W., and H. Pint: H. 273, 225 (1942).Google Scholar
  144. Smith, L. I., and J. A. Sprung: Am. Soc. 65, 1276 (1943).Google Scholar
  145. Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Helv. 21, 1234 (1938);Google Scholar
  146. Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Helv. 22, 260 (1939).Google Scholar
  147. Jacob, A., M. Steiger, A. R. Todd and T. S. Work: Soc. 1939, 542.Google Scholar
  148. Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Holy. 21, 1234 (1938);Google Scholar
  149. Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Holy. 22, 260 (1939).Google Scholar
  150. Jacob, A., M. Steiger, A. R. Todd, and T. S. Work: Soc. 1939, 542.Google Scholar
  151. Jacob, A., F. K. Sutcliffe, and A. R. Todd: Soc. 1940, 327.Google Scholar
  152. Stern, M. H., C. D. Robeson, L. Weisler, and J. G. Baxter: Am. Soc. 69, 869 (1947).Google Scholar
  153. Karrer, P., and P. C. Dutta: Hell. 31, 2080 (1948).Google Scholar
  154. Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Heiv. 21, 1234 (1938);Google Scholar
  155. Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Heiv. 22, 260 (1939).Google Scholar
  156. Bergel, F., A. M. Copping, A. Jacob, A. R. Todd, and T. S. Work: Soc. 1938, 1382.Google Scholar
  157. Weitere Tokolsynthesen s. auch John, W., and Mitarb.: H. 273, 191 (1942).Google Scholar
  158. John, W., and Mitarb.: H. B. 71, 2637 (1938);Google Scholar
  159. John, W., and Mitarb.: H. 72, 1649, 1653 (1939).Google Scholar
  160. 1.
    Robeson, C. D.: Am. Soc. 65, 1660 (1943).Google Scholar
  161. 2.
    Baxter, J. G., C. D. Robeson, J. D. Taylor, and R. W. Lehman: Am. Soc. 65, 918 (1943).Google Scholar
  162. 3.
    Wachs, W.: B.Z. 319, 561 (1949).Google Scholar
  163. 4.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J Sci. Food Agric. 6, 689 (1955).Google Scholar
  164. 5.
    Robeson, C. D.: Am. Soc. 64, 1487 (1942).Google Scholar
  165. 6.
    Karrer, P., and H. Rentschler: Helv. 26, 1750 (1943).Google Scholar
  166. 7.
    Karrer, P., H. Koenig, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Helv. 22, 1139 (1939).Google Scholar
  167. 8.
    John, W., and H. Pini: H. 273, 225 (1942).Google Scholar
  168. Karrer, P., H. Fritzsche, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Helv. 21, 520 (1938).Google Scholar
  169. 1.
    Karrer, P., H. Fritzsche, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Heiv. 21, 820 (1938).Google Scholar
  170. 2.
    Baxter, J. G., C. D. Robeson, J. D. Taylor, and R. W. Lehman: Am. Soc. 65, 918 (1943).Google Scholar
  171. 3.
    Smith, L. I., W. B. Renfrow, and J. W. Opte: Am. Soc. 64, 1084 (1942).Google Scholar
  172. 4.
    Emerson, O. H., G. A. Emerson, A. Mohammad, and H. M. Evans: J. biol. Ch. 122, 99 (1937).Google Scholar
  173. 5.
    Karrer, P., H. Koenig, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Heiv. 22, 1139 (1939).Google Scholar
  174. 6.
    Smith, L. I., and J. A. Sprung: Am. Soc. 64, 433 (1942).Google Scholar
  175. 7.
    Robeson, C. D.: Am. Soc. 64, 1487 (1942).Google Scholar
  176. 8.
    Hume, E. M.: Nature 148, 472 (1941).Google Scholar
  177. Hume, E. M.: Nature Analyst 66, 497 (1941).Google Scholar
  178. 9.
    Karrer, P., and G. Bussmann: Rely. 23, 1137 (1940).Google Scholar
  179. 10.
    Demole, V., O. Isler, B. H. Ringier, H. Salomon, and P. Karrer: Hely. 22, 65 (1939).Google Scholar
  180. 11.
    Stern, M. H., C. D. Robeson, L. Weisler, and J. G. Baxter: Am. Soc. 69, 869 (1947).Google Scholar
  181. 12.
    Wachs, W.: B. Z. 319, 561 (1949).Google Scholar
  182. 13.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 689 (1955).Google Scholar
  183. 14.
    Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Heiv. 22, 260 (1939).Google Scholar
  184. 1.
    Robeson, C. D.: Am. Soc. 65, 1660 (1943).Google Scholar
  185. 2.
    Baxter, J. G., C. D. Robeson, J. D. Taylor, and R. W. Lehman: Am. Soc. 65, 918 (1943).Google Scholar
  186. 3.
    Wachs, W.: B. Z. 319, 561 (1949).Google Scholar
  187. 4.
    Karrer, P., II. Fritzsche, and R. Escher: Helv. 22, 661 (1939).Google Scholar
  188. 5.
    Smith, L. I., and J. A. Sprung: Am. Soc. 64, 433 (1942).Google Scholar
  189. 6.
    Stern, M. H., C. D. Robeson, L. Weisler, and J. G. Baxter: Am. Soc. 69, 869 (1947).Google Scholar
  190. 7.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 689 (1955).Google Scholar
  191. 8.
    Jacob, A., F. K. Sutcliffe and A. R. Todd: Soc. 1940, 327.Google Scholar
  192. 1.
    Bergel, F., A. M. Copping, A. Jacob, A. R. Todd, and T. S. Work: Soc. 1938, 1382.Google Scholar
  193. 2.
    Green, J., S. Marcinxiewicz and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  194. 3.
    Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Hely. 22, 260 (1939).Google Scholar
  195. 4.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 689 (1955);Google Scholar
  196. Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 7, 493 (1956).Google Scholar
  197. 5.
    Green, J., and S. Marcinxiewicz: Nature 177, 86 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 1.
    Baxter, J. G., C. D. Robeson, J. D. Taylor and R. W. Lehman: Am. Soc. 65, 918 (1943).Google Scholar
  199. 2.
    Green, J., and S. Marcinkiewicz: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  200. 3.
    Rosenkrantz, H., and A. T. Milhorat: J. biol. Ch. 187, 83 (1950).Google Scholar
  201. 1.
    Rosenkrantz, H., and A. T. Milhorat: J. biol. Ch. 187, 83 (1950).Google Scholar
  202. 2.
    Karrer, P., H. Fritzsche, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Hely. 21, 820 (1938).Google Scholar
  203. 3.
    Weisler, L., and A. J. Chechak: US Pat. 2, 486, 542 [Chem. Abstr. 44, 2037f ].Google Scholar
  204. 4.
    Green, J., and S. Marcinkiewicz: Nature 177, 86 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 1.
    Boyer, P. D., M. Rabinovitz and E. Liebe: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 188 (1949).Google Scholar
  206. 2.
    Boyer, P. D.: Am. Soc. 73, 733 (1951).Google Scholar
  207. 3.
    Mit Goldchlorid scheint an Stelle des Epoxyds ein anderes labiles Zwischenprodukt, das im UV-Spektrum noch dem a-Tokopherol gleicht, zu entstehen: Ullcx, S.: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 338 (1949).Google Scholar
  208. 4.
    Rosenkrantz, H., and A. T. Milxorat: J. biol. Ch. 187, 83 (1950).Google Scholar
  209. 5.
    Michaelis, L., and S. H. Wollman: Science, N. Y. 109, 313 (1949).Google Scholar
  210. 1.
    Boyer, P. D., M. Rabinovitz, and E. Liebe: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 188 (1949).Google Scholar
  211. 2.
    Boyer, P. D.: Am. Soc. 73, 733 (1951).Google Scholar
  212. 3.
    Karrer, P., and A. Geiger: Heiv. 23, 455 (1940).Google Scholar
  213. 4.
    John, W., E. Dietzel, and W. Emte: H. 257, 173 (1939).Google Scholar
  214. 5.
    John, W.: H. 252, 222 (1938).Google Scholar
  215. 6.
    Emerson, O. H., G. A. Emerson, and H. M. Evans: J. biol. Ch. 131, 409 (1939).Google Scholar
  216. 7.
    Kofler, M.: Heiv. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  217. 8.
    Issidorides, A.: Am. Soc. 73, 5146 (1951).Google Scholar
  218. 9.
    Frampton, V. L., W. A. Skinner, and P. S. Bailey: Science, N. Y. 116, 34 (1952).Google Scholar
  219. 10.
    Frampton, V. L., W. A. Skinner, and P. S. Bailey: Am. Soc. 76, 282 (1954).Google Scholar
  220. 11.
    Smith, L. I., W. B. Irwin, and H. E. Ungnade: Am. Soc. 61, 2424 (1939).Google Scholar
  221. 12.
    Toim, A. R., F. Bergel, and T. S. Work: Biochem. J. 31, 2257 (1937).Google Scholar
  222. 1.
    Solche Kernmethylierungen lassen sich in vitro mit Formaldehyd gefolgt von Reduktion verwirklichen: Weisler, L., and A. J. Checiak: US Pat. 2, 486, 542 [Chem. Abstr. 44, 2037 f].Google Scholar
  223. Green, J., and S. Marcinkiewicz: Nature 177, 86 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 2.
    Evans, H. M., O. H. Emerson, G. A. Emerson, L. I. Smith, H. E. Ungnade, W. W. Prichard, F. L. Austin, H. H. Hoehn, J. W. Opie, and S. Wawzonek: J. org. Chem. 4, 376 (1939).Google Scholar
  225. 1.
    Sebrell, W. H., and R. S. Harris: The Vitamins. Bd. Iii. New York 1954.Google Scholar
  226. Mason, K. E.: Vitamin E. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, Art 3, 63–428 (1949).Google Scholar
  227. Beckmann, R.: Vitamin E. Z. Vit.-, Horm.-Ferm.-Forsch. 7, 153–222; 281–376 (1955).Google Scholar
  228. Abderhalden, E., and G. MouRiquAnd: Vitamine und Vitamintherapie. Bern 1948.Google Scholar
  229. Moore, T.: Vitamin E. Brit. med. Bull. 12, 44 (1956).Google Scholar
  230. Wissenschaftlicher Dienst Roche: Die Vitamine: Vitamin E und Menopause 1946, Nr. 2;Google Scholar
  231. Vitamin E und Fibrositis 1949, Nr. 5;Google Scholar
  232. Arteriosklerose, Heparin und Vitamine A, B6, C und E 1954, Nr. 4/5;Google Scholar
  233. Vitamin E, Arteriosklerose und Altersforschung 1955. Roche-Vitamin Vademecum Deutsche Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Grenzach, Baden 1952.Google Scholar
  234. Dam, H.: Progr. Chem. Fats & Lipids 3, 155 (1955).Google Scholar
  235. 1.
    Harris, P. L., and M. I. Ludwig: J. biol. Ch. 180, 611 (1949).Google Scholar
  236. 1.
    Harris, P. L., and M. I. Ludwig: J. biol. Ch. 179, 1111; 180, 611 (1949).Google Scholar
  237. 2.
    Joffe, M., and P. L. Harris: Am. Soc. 65, 925 (1943).Google Scholar
  238. 3.
    Weisler, L., J. G. Baxter, and M. L. Ludwig: Am. Soc. 67, 1230 (1945).Google Scholar
  239. 4.
    Stern, M. H., C. D. Robeson, L. Weisler, and J. G. Baxter: Am. Soc. 69, 869 (1947).Google Scholar
  240. 5.
    Embree, N. D.: Ann. Rev. 16, 323 (1947).Google Scholar
  241. 6.
    Gottlieb, H., F. W. Quackenbush, and H. Steenbock: J. Nutrit. 25, 433 (1943).Google Scholar
  242. 7.
    Jacob, A., F. K. Sutcliffe and A. R. Todd: Soc. 1940, 327.Google Scholar
  243. 8.
    Karrer, P., and H. Fritzsche: Heiv. 22, 260 (1939).Google Scholar
  244. 9.
    Harris, P. L., and M. I. Ludwig: J. biol. Ch. 180, 611 (1949).Google Scholar
  245. 10.
    Rofler, M.: Hely. 30, 1067 (1947).Google Scholar
  246. 11.
    Emmerle, A., and C. Engel: Rec. Tray. chim. Pays-Bas 57, 1351 (1938).Google Scholar
  247. 12.
    Krumholz, P.: Am. Soc. 71, 3654 (1949).Google Scholar
  248. 1.
    Frampton, V. L., W. A. Skinner, and P. S. Bailey: Science, N. Y. 116, 34 (1952).Google Scholar
  249. Frampton, V. L., W. A. Skinner, and P. S. Bailey: Am. Soc. 76, 282 (1954).Google Scholar
  250. 2.
    Stern, M. H., and J. G. Baxter: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 19, 902 (1947).Google Scholar
  251. 3.
    Hove, E. L., and Z. Hove: J. biol. Ch. 156, 601 (1944).Google Scholar
  252. 4.
    Green, J., S. Marcinkiewicz, and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (19.55).Google Scholar
  253. 5.
    Ein gründliches Studium der Grundlagen der Emmerie-Engel-Reaktion, namentlich auch in Abhängigkeit vom pH, wäre sehr wünschenswert; vgl. d).Google Scholar
  254. 6.
    Reinstes Cholesterin scheint nicht zu stören: Emmerie, A.: R. 65, 489 (1946).Google Scholar
  255. Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 156, 653 (1944).Google Scholar
  256. 7.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 569 (1953);Google Scholar
  257. Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 329 (1955).Google Scholar
  258. 1.
    Green, J., S. Marcinkiewicz, and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  259. 2.
    Rawlings, H. W.: Oil & Soap 21, 257 (1944).Google Scholar
  260. 3.
    Stern, M. H., and J. G. Baxter: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 19, 902 (1947).Google Scholar
  261. 1.
    Kofler, M.: Rely. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  262. 2.
    Quaife, M. L.: J. biol. Ch. 175, 605 (1948).Google Scholar
  263. 3.
    Quaife, M. L., and P. L. Harris: J. biol. Ch. 156, 499 (1944).Google Scholar
  264. 4.
    Quaife, M. L.: J. biol. Ch. 175, 605 (1948).Google Scholar
  265. 5.
    Domart, C.: Ann pharmaceut. franç. 10, 199 (1952).Google Scholar
  266. 2.
    Devlin, H. B., and H. A. Mattill: J. biol. Ch. 146, 123 (1942).Google Scholar
  267. 3.
    Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 156, 653 (1944);Google Scholar
  268. Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 166, 205 (1946).Google Scholar
  269. 4.
    Stern, M. H., and J. G. Baxter: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 19, 902 (1947).Google Scholar
  270. 5.
    Edisbury, J. R., J. Gillow, and R. J. Taylor: Analyst 79, 617 (1954).Google Scholar
  271. 6.
    Canbäckj, T., B. Wallenberg: Svensk farmaceut. T. 50, 477 (1946) [Chem. Abstr. 40, 6 2138 ].Google Scholar
  272. 7.
    Kibardin, S. A.: Fiziol. 2. S S SR 35, 472 (1949) [Chem. Abstr. 44, 686f].Google Scholar
  273. 8.
    Vinet, A., et M. P. Meunier: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 23, 217 (1941);Google Scholar
  274. Vinet, A., et M. P. Meunier: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 24, 365 (1942).Google Scholar
  275. 9.
    Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 156, 653 (1944).Google Scholar
  276. 10.
    Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 156, 661 (1944).Google Scholar
  277. 1.
    Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 156, 653 (1944);Google Scholar
  278. Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 166, 205 (1946).Google Scholar
  279. 2.
    Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 156, 653 (1944).Google Scholar
  280. 3.
    Bierig, H. J.: H.-Tx., 10. Aufl. Bd. Iii/2, S. 954.Google Scholar
  281. 1.
    Stern, M. H., and J. G. Baxter: Industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 19, 902 (1947).Google Scholar
  282. 2.
    Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 166, 205 (1946).Google Scholar
  283. 3.
    Quaife, M. L., N. S. Scrimshaw, and O. H. Lowry: J. biol. Ch. 180, 1229 (1949).Google Scholar
  284. 4.
    Farber, M., A. T. Milhorat, and H. Rosenkrantz: Fed. Proc. 10, 294 (1951).Google Scholar
  285. 6.
    Kachmar, J. F., P. D. Boyer, T. W. Gulllcxson, E. Liebe, and R. M. Porter: J. Nutrit. 42, 391 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 7.
    Isopropanol ist gegenüber Eisen(Iii)-chlorid stabiler: Schulek, E., and P. Rózsa: Z. analyt. Chem. 126, 253 (1943).Google Scholar
  287. 8.
    Furter, M., and R. E. Meyer: Hely. 22, 240 (1939).Google Scholar
  288. 9.
    Chipault, J. R., W. O. Lundberg, and G. O. Burr: Arch. Biochem. 8, 321 (1945).Google Scholar
  289. 10.
    Kofler, M.: Hele. 25, 1469 (1942);Google Scholar
  290. Kofler, M.: Hele. 26, 2166 (1943);Google Scholar
  291. Kofler, M.: Hele. 28, 26 (1945);Google Scholar
  292. Kofler, M.: Hele. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  293. 11.
    Fisher, G. S.: Industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 17, 224 (1945).Google Scholar
  294. 12.
    Smith, L. I., W. B. Irwin, and H. E. Ungnade: Am. Soc. 61, 2424 (1939).Google Scholar
  295. 13.
    John, W., and W. Emte: H. 268, 85 (1941).Google Scholar
  296. 14.
    John, W., and W. Emte: H. 261, 24 (1939).Google Scholar
  297. 1.
    Bencze, B.: H. 282, 152 (1947).Google Scholar
  298. 2.
    Furter, M., and R. E. Meyer: Rely. 22, 240 (1939).Google Scholar
  299. 3.
    Bencze, B.: H. 282, 152 (1947).Google Scholar
  300. Vgl. auch Hurka, W.: Mikrochim. Acta 32, 210 (1944).Google Scholar
  301. 4.
    QuacxEnbush, F. W., H. L. Gottlieb, and H. Steenbock: J. industr. engng. Chem. 33, 1276 (1941).Google Scholar
  302. 5.
    Die alkoholische Reaktionslösung kann auch mit wäBrigem Ammoniak neutralisiert und der Farbstoff daraus mit Äther extrahiert werden; die Colorimetrie der Farbstoffe geschieht in der Ätherlösung. Antoniani, C., L. Federico e M. Missiroli: Chim. e Industr. 30, 72 (1948) [Chem. Abstr. 43, 1075 d].Google Scholar
  303. 6.
    Chipault, J. R., W. O. Lundberg, and G. O. Burr: Arch. Biochem. 8, 321 (1945).Google Scholar
  304. 7.
    Nach einem Vorschlag von Binnington, D. S., and J. S. Andrews: Cereal Chem. 18, 678 (1941).Google Scholar
  305. 1.
    Kofler, M.: Hely. 25, 1469 (1942);Google Scholar
  306. Kofler, M.: Hely. 26, 2166 (1943);Google Scholar
  307. Kofler, M.: Hely. 28, 26 (1945);Google Scholar
  308. Kofler, M.: Hely. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  309. 2.
    Lieck, H., o. H. Willstaedt: Svensk kem. T. 57, 134 (1945).Google Scholar
  310. 3.
    Fisher, G. S.: Industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 17, 224 (1945).Google Scholar
  311. 1.
    Nair, P. P., and N. G. Magar: Ind. J. med. Res. 42, 577 (1954).Google Scholar
  312. 2.
    Nair, P. P., and N. G. Magar: J. biol. Ch. 220, 157 (1956).Google Scholar
  313. 3.
    Platkovskaya, V. M., and S. G. Vatkina: J. appl. Chem. (russ.) 10, 207 (1937) [Chem. Abstr. 31, 4 2323 ].Google Scholar
  314. 4.
    Karrer, P., R. Escher, H. Fritzsche, H. Keller, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon: Heiv. 21, 939 (1938).Google Scholar
  315. 5.
    Karrer, P., and H. Keller: Hely. 21, 1161 (1938);Google Scholar
  316. Karrer, P., and H. Keller: Hely. 22, 253, 617 (1939).Google Scholar
  317. 6.
    Karrer, P., W. Jaeger, and H. Keller: Heiv. 23, 464 (1940).Google Scholar
  318. 1.
    Smith, L. I., I. M. Kolthoff, and L. J. Spillane: Am. Soc. 64, 646 (1942).Google Scholar
  319. 2.
    Jimbor, B.: Magyar Chem. Ft. 49, 153 (1943) [C. 1944 II, 970].Google Scholar
  320. 3.
    Karrer, P., and H. Keller: Rely. 21, 1161 (1938);Google Scholar
  321. Karrer, P., and H. Keller: Rely. 22, 253, 617 (1939).Google Scholar
  322. 4.
    Kofler, M.: Verh. schweiz. naturforsch. Ges. 1941, 239. Hely. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  323. 5.
    Schulek, E., and P. Rózsa: Z. analyt. Chem. 126, 253 (1943).Google Scholar
  324. 6.
    Chapman, D. G., P. Lichon, and J. A. Campbell: J. amer. pharmaceut. Ass. 40, 379 (1951).Google Scholar
  325. 7.
    Scum, J. V., and R. P. Buns: J. biol. Ch. 146, 1 (1942).Google Scholar
  326. 8.
    Scudi, J. V., and R. P. Buhs: J. biol. Ch. 141, 451 (1941);Google Scholar
  327. Scudi, J. V., and R. P. Buhs: J. biol. Ch. 143, 665 (1942).Google Scholar
  328. 1.
    Smith, L. I., L. J. Spillane, and I. M. Kolthoff: Am. Soc. 64, 447 (1942).Google Scholar
  329. 2.
    Beaver, J. J., and H. Kaunitz: J. biol. Ch. 152, 363 (1944).Google Scholar
  330. 3.
    Knobloch, E., F. Macha, and K. MNou6EK: Chem. Listy 46, 718 (1952) [Chem. Abstr. 47, 5039g].Google Scholar
  331. 4.
    Quaife, M. L.: J. biol. Ch. 175, 605 (1948).Google Scholar
  332. Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 7, 493 (1956).Google Scholar
  333. 1.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 689 (1955).Google Scholar
  334. 2.
    Hinderer-Polister, B.: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 26, 407 (1954).Google Scholar
  335. 3.
    Quaife, M. L.: J. biol. Ch. 175, 605 (1948).Google Scholar
  336. 4.
    Quaife, M. L.: Am. Soc. 66, 308 (1944).Google Scholar
  337. 5.
    Weisler, L., C. D. Robeson, and J. G. Baxter: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 19, 906 (1947).Google Scholar
  338. 6.
    Quaife, M. L., and P. L. Harris: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 20, 1221 (1948).Google Scholar
  339. Quaife, M. L., and P. L. Harris: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 20, 1221 (1948).Google Scholar
  340. Weisler, L., C. D. Robeson, and J. G. Baxter: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 19, 906 (1947).Google Scholar
  341. 1.
    Tierische Fette sind nach 1. aufzuarbeiten, da sie auch Tokopherolester enthalten können.Google Scholar
  342. 2.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 569 (1953);Google Scholar
  343. Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 329 (1955).Google Scholar
  344. 3.
    Toke, J., and T. Moore: Biochem. J. 39, 498 (1945).Google Scholar
  345. 4.
    Fieser, L. F.: Am. Soc. 46, 2639 (1924).Google Scholar
  346. 5.
    Klatskin, G., and D. W. Molander: J. Lab. clin. Med. 39, 802 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 6.
    Swick, R. W., and C. A. Baumann: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 24, 758 (1952).Google Scholar
  348. 7.
    Edisbury, J. R., J. Gillow, and R. J. Taylor: Analyst 79, 617 (1954).Google Scholar
  349. 8.
    Nobile, S., and H. Moor: Mitt. Lebensm.-Unters. Hyg. 44, 396 (1953).Google Scholar
  350. 9.
    Chipault, J. R., W. O. Lundberg, and G. O. Burr: Arch. Biochem. 8, 321 (1945).Google Scholar
  351. 10.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 569 (1953).Google Scholar
  352. 1.
    Emmerie, A., and C. Engel: Rec. Tray. chim. Pays-Bas 58, 283 (1939).Google Scholar
  353. 2.
    Kjbli Ede, K. T.: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 12, 138 (1942).Google Scholar
  354. 3.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 569 (1953).Google Scholar
  355. 4.
    Swick, R. W., and C. A. Baumann: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 24, 758 (1952).Google Scholar
  356. 5.
    Wanntorp, H., o. G. Nordlund: Ark. Kemi, Mineral. Geol. 25A, No. 6, S. 1 (1947).Google Scholar
  357. 6.
    Kofler, M.: Helv. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  358. 1.
    Kofler, M.: Hely. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  359. 2.
    Nobile, S., and H. Moor: Mitt. Lebensm.-Unters. Hyg. 44, 396 (1953).Google Scholar
  360. 3.
    Edisbiry, J. R., J. Gillow, and R. J. Taylor: Analyst 79, 617 (1954).Google Scholar
  361. 4.
    Dam, H., J. Glavind, I. Prangeo, J. Ottesen: Kgl. danske Vid. Selsk. biol. Medd. 16, No. 7 (1941).Google Scholar
  362. 5.
    Glavind, J., H. Heslet, I. Prange: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 13, 266 (1943).Google Scholar
  363. 6.
    Quaife, M. L., and P.L. Harris: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 20, 1221 (1948);Google Scholar
  364. Quaife, M. L., and P.L. Harris: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 18, 707 (1946).Google Scholar
  365. 7.
    Deacon, B. D., and A. C. Wamble: J. amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 31, 284 (1954).Google Scholar
  366. 8.
    Klatskin, G., and D. W. Molander: J. Lab. clin. Med. 39, 802 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 9.
    Deacon, B. D., and A. C. Wamble: J. amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 31, 284 (1954).Google Scholar
  368. Vgl. auch Quaife, M. L., and P. L. Harris: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 18, 707 (1946).Google Scholar
  369. 1.
    Quaife, M. L., and P. L. Harris: J. biol. Ch. 156, 499 (1944).Google Scholar
  370. 2.
    Quaife, M. L., and R. Biehler: J. biol. Ch. 159, 663 (1945).Google Scholar
  371. 3.
    Quaife, M. L., and P. L. Harris: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 20, 1221 (1948).Google Scholar
  372. 4.
    Karrer, P., and H. Keller: Helv. 22, 253, 617 (1939).Google Scholar
  373. 5.
    Karrer, P., W. Jaeger, and H. Keller: Helv. 23, 464 (1940).Google Scholar
  374. 6.
    Emmerie, A.: Rec. Tray. chim. Pays-Bas 61, 305 (1942).Google Scholar
  375. 7.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sei. Food Agric. 4, 569 (1953).Google Scholar
  376. 8.
    Wall, M. E., and E. G. Kelley: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 18, 198 (1946).Google Scholar
  377. 9.
    Deacon, B. D., and A. C. Wamble: J. amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 31, 284 (1954).Google Scholar
  378. 10.
    Shankman, S.: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 20, 492 (1948).Google Scholar
  379. 1.
    Quaife, M. L., and P. L. Harris: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 20, 1221 (1948).Google Scholar
  380. 3.
    Emmerie, A., and C. Engel: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 13, 259 (1943).Google Scholar
  381. 4.
    Savinov, B. G., and G. M. Lusxchevskaya: Ukrain. khim. 2. 16, 370 (1950) [Chem. Abstr. 48, 3434 9.Google Scholar
  382. 5.
    Kofler, M.: Hell. 26, 2166 (1943);Google Scholar
  383. Kofler, M.: Hell. 28, 26 (1945).Google Scholar
  384. Quaife, M. L., and M. Y. Dju: J. biol. Ch. 180, 263 (1949).Google Scholar
  385. 1.
    Bouman, J., and E. C. Slater: Nature 177, 1181 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 2.
    Hines, L. R., and H. A. Mattill: J. biol. Ch. 149, 549 (1943).Google Scholar
  387. 3.
    Devlin, H. B., and H. A. Mattill: J. biol. Ch. 146, 123 (1942).Google Scholar
  388. 4.
    Kaunitz, H., and J. J. Beaver: J. biol. Ch. 166, 205 (1946).Google Scholar
  389. 5.
    Swick, R. W., and C. A. Baumann: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 24, 758 (1952).Google Scholar
  390. 6.
    Klatskin, G., and D. W. Molander: J. Lab. clin. Med. 39, 802 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 7.
    Emmerie, A., and C. Engel: Rev. Tray. chim. Pays-Bas 58, 895 (1939).Google Scholar
  392. 8.
    Vinet, A., et P. Meunier: Cr. 213, 709 (1941).Google Scholar
  393. Jelinek, V., and K. Jiri: Biol. Listy 28, 26 (1948);Google Scholar
  394. Jelinek, V., and K. Jiri: Excerpta med., Sect. II, 1, 320 (1948) [Chem. Abstr. 47, 12 2111 ].Google Scholar
  395. 9.
    Kofler, M.: Hely. 26, 2166 (1943).Google Scholar
  396. Schulz, H.-G.: H. 288, 31. (1951).Google Scholar
  397. 10.
    Mayer, G. G., and H. Sosotka: J. biol. Ch. 143, 695 (1942).Google Scholar
  398. 11.
    Quaife, M. L., and P. L. Harris: J. biol. Ch. 156, 499 (1944).Google Scholar
  399. 12.
    Minot, A. S.: J. Lab. clin. Med. 29, 772 (1944).Google Scholar
  400. 13.
    Bisaz, S.: Schweiz. med. Wschr. 82, 1025 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 14.
    Beckmann, R.: Z. Vit.-Forsch. 24, 393 (1953).Google Scholar
  402. 1.
    Quaife, M. L., N. S. Scrimshaw, and O. H. Lowxr: J. biol. Ch. 180, 1229 (1949).Google Scholar
  403. 2.
    Farber, M., A. T. Milhorat, and H. Rosexxraxtz: Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 79, 225 (1952).Google Scholar
  404. 3.
    Nair, P. P., and N. G. Magar: J. biol. Ch. 220, 157 (1956).Google Scholar
  405. 4.
    Delmas, L.: Cr. 242, 2595 (1956).Google Scholar
  406. 5.
    Nobile, S., and H. Moor: Mitt. Lebensm.-Unters. Hyg. 44, 396 (1953).Google Scholar
  407. 6.
    Kofler, M.: Hely. 26, 2167 (1943).Google Scholar
  408. 7.
    Quaife, M. L.: J. biol. Ch. 169, 513 (1947).Google Scholar
  409. 8.
    Abderhalden, R.: B. Z. 318, 47 (1947).Google Scholar
  410. 9.
    Neuweiler, W.: Int. Z. Vit.-Forsch. 20, 108 (1948).Google Scholar
  411. 10.
    Bird, E. W., D. J. Patel, and R. L. Handwerk: J. Dairy Sci. 34, 484 (1951).Google Scholar
  412. 11.
    Mahon, J. H., and R. A. Cxapman: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 26, 1195 (1954).Google Scholar
  413. 1.
    Kofler, M.: Hely. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  414. 2.
    Dunford, R. A.: Canad. Chem. Process Industr. 35, 47 (1951).Google Scholar
  415. 3.
    Kachmar, J. F., P. D. Boyer, T.W. Gullickson, E. Liebe, and R. M. Porter: J. Nutrit. 42, 391 (1950).Google Scholar
  416. 4.
    Parker, W. E., and W. D. Mcfarlane: Canad. J. Res. (B) 18, 405 (1940).Google Scholar
  417. 5.
    Nach Devlin, H. B., and H. A. Mattill: J. biol. Ch. 146, 123 (1942) wird Cholesterin nicht entfernt, sondern bildet einen Stoff, der im Emmerie-Engel-Test reduzierend wirkt.Google Scholar
  418. 6.
    Hove, E. L., and Z. Hove: J. biol. Ch. 156, 601 (1944).Google Scholar
  419. 7.
    Chapman, D. G., P. Lichon, and J. A. Campbell: J. amer. pharmaceut. Ass. 40, 379 (1951).Google Scholar
  420. 8.
    Vgl. aber Stern, M. H., and J. G. Baxter: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 19, 902 (1947).Google Scholar
  421. 9.
    Wall, M. E., and E. G. Kelley: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 18, 198 (1946).Google Scholar
  422. 10.
    Devlin, H. B., and H. A. Mattill: J. biol. Ch. 146, 123 (1942).Google Scholar
  423. 11.
    Minot, A. S.: J. Lab. clin. Med. 29, 772 (1944).Google Scholar
  424. 12.
    Mahon, J. H., and R. A. Chapman: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 26, 1195 (1954).Google Scholar
  425. 1.
    Brown, F.: Biochem. J. 51, 237 (1952);PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Brown, F.: Biochem. J. 52, 523 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. 2.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 176, 569 (1953);Google Scholar
  428. Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 329, 689 (1955).Google Scholar
  429. 3.
    Brown, J. A.: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 25, 774 (1953).Google Scholar
  430. 4.
    Green, J., S. Marcinkiewicz, and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  431. 5.
    Green, J., and S. Marcinkiewicz: Nature 177, 86 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. 6.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 4, 176, 569 (1953);Google Scholar
  433. Eggitt, P. W. R., and L. D. Ward: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 329 (1955).Google Scholar
  434. 1.
    Vinet, A., M. P. Meunier: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 23, 217 (1941);Google Scholar
  435. Vinet, A., M. P. Meunier: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 24, 365 (1942).Google Scholar
  436. 1.
    Green, J., S Marcinkiewicz, and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  437. 2.
    Quaife, M. L.: J. biol. Ch. 175, 605 (1948).Google Scholar
  438. 3.
    Stern, M. H., C. D. Robeson, L. Weisler and J. G. Baxter: Am. Soc. 69, 869 (1947).Google Scholar
  439. 1.
    Green, J., S. Marcinkiewicz, and P. R. Watt: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 274 (1955).Google Scholar
  440. 2.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 7, 493 (1956).Google Scholar
  441. 1.
    Eggitt, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 689 (1955).Google Scholar
  442. 2.
    Silg, M. H., and H. H. Hahn: Biochem. J. 56, 406 (1954).Google Scholar
  443. 1.
    Eggit, P. W. R., and F. W. Norris: J. Sci. Food Agric. 6, 689 (1955).Google Scholar
  444. 2.
    Cuthbertson, W. F. J., R. R. Ridgeway, and J. C. Drummond: Biochem. J. 34, 34 (1940).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. 3.
    Vgl. auch Moore, T., and K. R. Rajagopal: Biochem. J. 34, 335 (1940).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. 4.
    Kofler, M.: Hely. 30, 1053 (1947).Google Scholar
  447. 5.
    Mattill, H.A.; in: Sebrell, W.H., and R. S. Harris: The Vitamines. Vol. III, S. 509. New York 6 1945.Google Scholar
  448. 6.
    Lehmann, R. W.; in: Glick, D.: Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Vol. II, S. 153. New York 1955.Google Scholar
  449. 1.
    Lehmann, R. W.; in: Glick, D.: Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Vol. II, S. 153. New York 1955.Google Scholar
  450. 2.
    Mason, K. E., and P. L. Harris: Biol. Symp. 12, 459 (1947).Google Scholar
  451. 3.
    Mason, K. E., and W. L. Bryan: Biochem. J. 32, 1785 (1938).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. 4.
    Mason, K. E.: J. Nutrit. 23, 59 (1942).Google Scholar
  453. 5.
    Lehmann, R. W.; in: Glick, D.: Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Vol. II. S. 184. New York 1955.Google Scholar
  454. 6.
    Bacharach, A. L.: Biochem. J. 32, 2017 (1938).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. 1.
    Lehman, R. W.; in: Glick, D.: Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Vol. II, S. 161. New York 1955.Google Scholar
  456. 2.
    Gottlieb, H., F. W. Quackenbush, and H. Steenbock: J. Nutrit. 25, 433 (1943).Google Scholar
  457. 3.
    Bacharach, A. L., and E. Allchorne: Biochem. J. 32, 1298 (1938).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. 4.
    Palmer, L. S.: J. industr. engng. Chem., analyt. Ed. 9, 427 (1937).Google Scholar
  459. 5.
    György, P., and C. S. Rose: Ann N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 231 (1949).Google Scholar
  460. 6.
    Rose, C. S., and P. György: Amer. J. Physiol. 168, 414 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. 7.
    Christensen, F., H. Dam, R. A. Gortner, and E. Sondergaard: Acta physiol. stand. 35, 215 (1956).Google Scholar
  462. 8.
    Cowlishaw, B., and I. Prange: Biochim biophysica Acta, N. Y. 23, 663 (1957).Google Scholar
  463. 9.
    Dam, H., J. Glavind, I. Prange, and J. Ottesen: Kgl. danske Vid. Selsk. biol. Med. 16, No. 7 (1941).Google Scholar
  464. 1.
    Herraiz, M. L., and J. C. Radice: Ann N Y Acad. Sci. 52, 88 (1949).Google Scholar
  465. 2.
    Bro-Rasmussen, F., and W. Hjarde: Acta chem. stand. 11, 44 (1957).Google Scholar
  466. 3.
    Feldheim, W.: Z. Lebensm.-Unters. Forsch. 106, 116 (1957).Google Scholar
  467. 4.
    Pendse, H. K., and P. Karrer: Heiv. 41, 396 (1958).Google Scholar
  468. 5.
    Mchale, D., P. Mamalis, J. Green, and S. Marcikkiewicz: Soc. 1958, 1600.Google Scholar
  469. 6.
    Tokol: Pendse, H. K., and P. Karrer: Rely. 40, 1837 (1957).Google Scholar
  470. 7.
    Tokol: Mamalis, P., D. Mchale, J. Green, and S. Marcinkiewicz: Soc. 1958, 1850.Google Scholar
  471. 8.
    Martius, C., H. H. Eilingsfeld: B. Z. 328, 507 (1957).Google Scholar
  472. 9.
    Martius, C., and H. Eilingsfeld: A. 607, 159 (1957).Google Scholar
  473. 10.
    Harrison, W. H., J. E. Gander, E. R. Blakley, and P. D. Boyer: Biochim. biophysica Acta, N. Y. 21, 150 (1956).Google Scholar
  474. 1.
    Martius, C., und H. Eilingsfeld: B. Z. 328, 507 (1957).Google Scholar
  475. 2.
    Bro-Rasmussen, F., and W. Hjarde: Acta chem. scand. 11, 34 (1957).Google Scholar
  476. 3.
    Gupta, M. L. S., and, and P. Basu: J. Ind. chem. Soc., industr. & News Ed. 17, 171 (1954).Google Scholar
  477. 4.
    Frankel, E. N., C. D. Evans, and J. C. Cowan: J. amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 34, 544 (1957).Google Scholar
  478. 5.
    Rosenkrantz, H.: J. biol. Ch. 224, 165 (1957).Google Scholar
  479. 6.
    Bro-Rasmussen, F., and W. Hjarde: Acta chem. scand. 11, 44 (1957).Google Scholar
  480. 1.
    Worker, N. A.: J. Sci. Food Agric. 9, 122 (1958);Google Scholar
  481. Worker, N. A.: J. Sci. Food Agric. 8, 442 (1957).Google Scholar
  482. 2.
    Worker, N. A.: J. Sci. Food Agric. 8, 442 (1957);Google Scholar
  483. Worker, N. A.: J. Sci. Food Agric. 9, 122 (1958).Google Scholar
  484. 3.
    Feldheim, W.: Int. Z. Vit.-Forsch. 27, 8 (1956).Google Scholar
  485. 4.
    Bro-Rasmussen, F., and W. Hjarde: Acta them. stand. 11, 34, 44 (1957).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Schmid
    • 1
  • R. G. Haber
    • 2
  1. 1.ZürichSchweiz
  2. 2.HaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations