Maintenance of Arctic Populations of Mammals

  • Laurence Irving
Part of the Zoophysiology and Ecology book series (ZOOPHYSIOLOGY, volume 2)

Abstract

Seals roaming freely over the oceans are difficult to observe and are obscure in their ways. At the season of breeding, however, they resort to firm ice or shores and for periods explicit for each population they become attached to specific breeding localities until the pups acquire sufficient capability for independent aquatic life. In these temporarily fixed situations the populations are visible. Exposure at time of breeding, particularly by populations that congregate in numbers, has favored human exploitation leading to near-extinction of some populations. The tenacity of traditional attachments to breeding localities is shown in their persistent exploitation. On the Pribilof Islands the hauling out of fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in their established rookeries has worn the hard rock smooth. On some southern coasts the smoothly worn rocks attest that ancient breeding places were long utilized by populations that are now extinct. Erosion of the rocky breeding places demonstrates the persistence of their seasonal use. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and a northern outpost of southern fur seals (Arctoce-phalus phillippii townsendi) have reconstituted populations from at most only a few survivors of slaughter to occupy again rocks or beaches used by their predecessors off western coasts of Mexico and California.

Keywords

Migration Europe Coherence Beach Expense 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amoroso, E.C., Matthews, L.H.: Reproduction and lactation in the seal. Report to 2nd Int. Congr. Physiol. Pathol. Animal Reprod. Artificial Insemination, Copenhagen (1952).Google Scholar
  2. Burns, J.J.: The Pacific Bearded Seal. Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game Report., Juneau, Alaska.Google Scholar
  3. Chitty, D.: Population processes in the vole and their relevance to general theory. Canad. J. Zool. 38, 99–113 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chitty, D.: The natural selection of self-regulatory behavior in animal populations. Proc. Ecol Soc. Aust. 2, 51–78 (1967).Google Scholar
  5. Cook, H. W., Baker, B.E.: Seal milk. I. Harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) milk: Composition and pesticide content. Canad. J. Zool. 47, 1129–1132 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elton, C.: Voles, Mice and Lemmings. Oxford: The Clarendon Press 1942.Google Scholar
  7. Fay, F. H., Ray, C.: Influence of climate on the distribution of walruses, Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus). I. Evidence from thermoregulatory behavior. Zoologica 53, 1–18 (1968).Google Scholar
  8. Gross, A.O.: Cyclic invasions of the snowy owl and the migration of 1945–46. The Auk 64, 584–601 (1947).Google Scholar
  9. Harington, R.C.: Denning habits of the polar bear. Canad. Wildlife Soc. Report Series 5 (1968).Google Scholar
  10. Irving, L.: Temperature regulation in marine mammals. In: The Biology of Marine Mammals. Ed. by H.T. Andersen. New York and London: Academic Press 1969.Google Scholar
  11. Kelsall, G.P.: The migratory barren-ground caribou of Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs & Northern Development. Canad. Wildlife Service Bulletin (1968).Google Scholar
  12. Krebs, C.J.: The lemming cycle at Baker Lake, Northwest Territories, during 1959–62. Arctic Inst, of North America Tech. Paper 15 (1964).Google Scholar
  13. Macpherson, A.H.: The origin of diversity in mammals of the Canadian arctic tundra. System. Zool. 14, 153–173 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Macpherson, A.H.: The dynamics of Canadian arctic fox populations. Canad. Wildlife Service Report Series 8 (1969).Google Scholar
  15. Marsden, W.: The Lemming Year. London: Chatto & Windus 1964.Google Scholar
  16. Pitelka, F.A., Tomich, P.Q., Treichel, G.W.: Ecological relations of jaegers and owls as lemming predators near Barrow, Alaska. Ecol. Monographs 25, 85–117 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rausch, R. L.: Observations on a cyclic decline of lemmings (Lemmus) on the arctic coast of Alaska during spring of 1949. Arctic 3, 166–177 (1950).Google Scholar
  18. Scheffer, V.B.: Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses: A Review of the Pinnipedia. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press 1958.Google Scholar
  19. Seton, E.T.: The Arctic Prairies. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons 1911.Google Scholar
  20. Tener, J.S.: Muskoxen in Canada. Ottawa: Queens Printer 1965.Google Scholar
  21. Thompson, D.Q.: The 1953 lemming emigration at Point Barrow, Alaska. Arctic 8, 37–45 (1955).Google Scholar
  22. U.S. Department of the Interior: Polar Bear. Proc. of 1st Int. Sci. Meet, on the polar bear. Fairbanks, Alaska, Sept. 6–10, 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurence Irving
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Arctic BiologyUniversity of AlaskaFairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations