Advertisement

The Water Flux in Temperate Forests: Precipitation and Evapotranspiration

  • Gerald Stanhill
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 1)

Abstract

Until recent times man’s exploitation and manipulation of the temperate forest ecosystem was limited to harvesting its biological productivity by hunting and forestry. As the density and requirements of the human populations living in these areas increased, the nature of man’s exploitation changed to include the physical attributes, and the temperate forest is increasingly looked to as an important source of water and recreational space.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Birkebak, R., and R. Birkebak: Solar radiation characteristics of tree leaves. Ecology 45, 646–649 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Budyko, M. I.: The heat balance of the Earth’s surface. Translated by Nina A. Stepannova Washington: U. S. Dept. of Commerce 1958.Google Scholar
  3. Businger, J. A.: Some remarks on Penman’s equation for evapotranspiration. Neth. J. Agr. Sci. 4, 77–80 (1956).Google Scholar
  4. Corbett, E. S.: Measurement and estimation of precipitation on experimental watersheds, pp. 107–126. In: International Symposium on Forest Hydrology (Sopper, W. E. and H. W. Lull, Eds.). London: Pergamon Press 1967.Google Scholar
  5. Denmead, O. T.: Evaporation sources and apparent diffusivities in a forest canopy. J. Appl. Meteorol. 3, 383–389 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Douglass, J. E.: Effects of species and arrangements of forests on evapotranspiration, pp. 451–461. In: Internatioal Somposium on Forest Hydrology (Sopper, W. E. and H. W. Lull, Eds.). London: Pergamon Press 1967.Google Scholar
  7. Drozdov, O. A., and A. S. Grigor’eva: The hydrological cycle in the atmosphere. Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem: 1965.Google Scholar
  8. Eschner, A. R.: Interception and soil moisture distribution, pp. 191–200. In: International Symposium on Forest Hydrology. (Sopper, W. E. and H. W. Lull, Eds.). London: Pergamon Press 1967.Google Scholar
  9. Federer, C. A.: Spatial variation and net radiation, albedo and surface temperatures of forests. J. Appl. Meterorol. 7, 789–795 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goodell, B. C.: Watershed treatment effects on evapotranspiration, pp. 477–482. In: International Symposium on Forest Hydrology. (Sopper, W. E. and H. W. Lull, Eds.). London: Pergamon Press 1967.Google Scholar
  11. Grulois, J.: La variation annuelle du coefficient d’albédo des surfaces supérieures du peuplement. Bull. Soc. Roy. Botan. Belg. 101, 141–153 (1968).Google Scholar
  12. Harbeck, G. E., and Ethel W. Coffay: A comparison of rainfall data obtained from raingage measurements and changes in lake levels. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 40, 348–351 (1959).Google Scholar
  13. Harold, L. L., and F. R. Driebelbis: Evaluation of agricultural hydrology by monolith lysimeters 1944–1955. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1179, 1958.Google Scholar
  14. Hori, T. (Ed.): Studies on fogs in relation to fog preventing forest, pp. 399. Hokkaido: Tanne Trading Co., Soppora 1953.Google Scholar
  15. Kalma, J. D., G. Stanhill, and E. Urieli: Rainfall interception and stemflow in an orange plantation. Israel J. Agr. Res. 18, 3–14 (1968).Google Scholar
  16. Koschmieder, H.: Methods and results of definite rain measurements. III. Danzig Report. Mon. Wea. Rev. 65, 5–7 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee, R. D., and D. M. Gates: Diffusion resistance in leaves as related to their stomatal anatomy and microstructure. Amer. J. Botany 51, 963–975 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McGuiness, J. L.: A comparison of lysimeter catch and rain gage catch. October 1966 ARS 41–124 U.S.Dept. Agriculture, 1966.Google Scholar
  19. Molchanov, A. A.: The hydrological role of forests. Translated by A. Gourevitch. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations 1963.Google Scholar
  20. Monteith, J. L.: Gas exchange in plant communities, pp. 95–112. In Environmental control of plant growth (Evans, L. T. Ed.): New York: Academic Press 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Monteith, J. L.: Evaporation and environment, pp. 205–236. In: The state and movement of water in living/organism (Fogg, G. E. Ed.). XIX Symp. Soc. Expt. Biol. 1964. Cambridge Univ. Press 1965.Google Scholar
  22. Penman, H. L.: Estimating evaporation. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un. 37, 43–50 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Penman, H. L.: Vegetation and hydrology. Tech. Gomm. 53. Farnham Royal: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux 1963.Google Scholar
  24. Penman, H. L.: Evaporation from forests: a comparison of theory and observation, pp. 373–380. In: International Symposium on Forest Hydrology (Sopper, W. E. and H. W. Lull, Eds.) London: Pergamon Press 1967.Google Scholar
  25. Pereira, H. C.: Effects of land-use on the water and energy budgets of tropical watersheds, pp. 435–450. In: International Symposium on Forest Hydrology (Sopper, W. E. and H. W. Lull, Eds.). London: Pergamon Press 1967.Google Scholar
  26. Raschke, K.: Über den Einfluß der Diffusions wide stande auf die Transpiration auf die Temperatur eines Blattes. Flora (Jena) 146, 546–578 (1958).Google Scholar
  27. Reifsnyder, W. E., and H. W. Lull: Radiant energy in relation to forests. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1344, 1965.Google Scholar
  28. Rutter, A. J.: An analysis of evaporation from a stand of Scots Pine, pp. 403–417. In: International Symposium on Forest Hydrology (Sopper, W. E. and H. W. Lull, Eds.). London: Pergamon Press 1967.Google Scholar
  29. Senderova, G. M., et al. (Eds.): Physical-geographic atlas of the world. Moscow: Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R. 1964.Google Scholar
  30. Shachori, A. Y., and A. Michaeli: Water yields of forest, maqui and grass covers in semiarid regions. A literature review. UNESCO and Zone Research 25. Methodology of Plant Ecophysiology. Proc. Montpellier Symposium. Paris: UNESCO 1965.Google Scholar
  31. Stanhill, G.: Rainfall measurements at ground level. Weather 13, 33 (1959).Google Scholar
  32. Struzer, L. R., I. N. Nechayev, and E. G. Bogdanova: Systematic errors of measurements of atmospheric precipitation. Soviet Hydrology 5, 500–504 (1965).Google Scholar
  33. Tanner, C. B., and W. L. Pelton: Potential evapotranspiration estimates by the approximate energy balance method of Penman. J. Geophys. Res. 65, 3391–3413 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Uryvaev, V. A.: Eksperimental’nye gidrologicheskie issledovaniya na Voldae (Experimental hydrological investigations at Valdai), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizoat 1953.Google Scholar
  35. Waggoner, P. E.: Calibration of a porometer in terms of diffusive resistance. Agr. Meteorol. 2, 317–329 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Waggoner, P. E., and J. D. Hewlett: Test of a transpiration inhibitor on a forested watershed. Water Res. 1, 391–396 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zinke, P. J.: Forest interception studies in the United States, pp. 137–161. In: International Symposium on Forest Hydrology (Sopper, W. E. and H. W. Lull, Eds.). London: Pergamon Press 1967.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald Stanhill

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations